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VOL. XXXIV No. 8. TOBACCO INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA The report of State Chemist Rose, for 1906, recently submitted to the Governor, is published in the bulletin for January, and is a most valuable document. Commenting on the cigar tobacco industry, he says: The rapid development of the to-' bacco industry of the State in the counties of Gadsden, Leon and Pasco has become generally known very re cently. Few of our own people were aware of the large investments and extensive business of growing the fin er grades of cigar tobacco, both wrap pers and fillers, in Florida. For years the business has been the principal one of Gadsden county, where some four thousand acres of shedded Sumatra leaf are grown, and also a large acreage of Havana seed | leaf grown in the open air. There are three to five millions of dollars invested in tobacco growing 1 in the counties of Gadsden, Leon and Pasco. Probably no agricultural pur suit has paid larger dividends on the amont of capital and labor invested than has the cigar tobacco industry, of Florida. While at present confined to a few localities, there is no reason, climatic or otherwise, why the same success should not be had in every county in the State. There are equally as well adapted soils in all the counties of the State, 1 where the same careful and intelligent culture and fertilization will produce tobaco of equal value. The demand for competent trained men for all agricultural pursuits, and particular ly for the growing of fine grades of tobacco, is large, while the supply is limited. It is now recognized that ! more depends on the proper selection of seed, methods of fertilizing and culture, to grow a desirable cigar to baco, having the proper texture, size and shape of leaf, combined with the proper aroma, or flavor, with desir able burning qualities, than on cli- j mate or soil. There is every reason j to believe that continuing the study, | selection and experiments now being so carefully made by the United States Agricultural Department, in harmony with and assisted by the to-; bacco growers of the State, that the supply of choice cigar tobacco of the country will be produced in Florida. | That it will rival the famous Cuban ■ cigar tobacco in quality is now fully j established; the quantity will be limit ed to only the number of properly trained men to produce it. SOUS. Their Physical Nature and Chemical Composition and Possibilities* By A* T. Cuzner, M. D. Before entering upon a considera tion of the various operations, by means of which the skillful farmer ex pects to obtain from the soil the best results, it may be well for us to con sider somewhat in detail its organic constituents. The general name of humus is giv en to that organic material which imparts its richness to vegetable moulds and soils. It is formed from i* *3lorsl jjSgj® *v ( i ••?&~ - i#j(P|*|i ’ JEn* v f v I the gradual decomposition of vegeta ble matter, and exists in all soils, forms the main substance of muck, and consists of a mixture of several different compounds which are natur ally produced during the decay of the different parts of plants. It is class ed as mild, sour and coaly humus. The mild gives a brown color to water, but does not render it sour; gives a dark-brown solution when boiled with carbonate of soda; evolves ammonia when heated with caustic potash or soda or slaked lime, and leaves an ash when burned which con tains lime and magnesia. The sour gives, with water, a brown solution of 'a more or less sour taste, and reddens litmus paper. This va riety is less favorable to plant life than the former, but can be made Jacksonville, Fla., Wednesday, February 20, 1907. No. 3. equally productive by the addition of lime. The coaly humus gives little color to water or to a hot solution of car bonate of soda, leaves an ash which contains little lime, occurs generally on sandy soils, and is very unfruit ful. It is greatly benefited by the ad dition of lime or wood ashes. When fertile soil or a piece of dry muck is boiled with a solution of car- Harvesting Potatoes in St. John’s County. bonate of soda, a brown solution, more or less dark, is obtained, from which, when diluted with hydrochlor ic acid, (which is added till the liquid has a distinctly sour taste), brown flecks begin to fall. This brown flecky matter is humic acid. If, instead of a solution of carbon ate of -soda, one of caustic ammonia be digested upon the soil or muck by a gentle heat, a more or less dark brown solution is obtained, which, on the addition of hydrochloric acid, gives brown flecks as before, but which now consists of ulmic acid. These two acids combine with lime, magnesia and oxide of iron, forming compounds which are respectively called Dy the names of humates and ulmates. They probably both exist, Continued on page to.) EARLY RISING SAVES TIME We think that as a rule farmers are early risers, in fact that most of them get up too early, rather than lie in bed too late. We believe in and prac tice early rising, yet we feel sure that many a man on the farm gets up so early and works so late that he wakes in the morning tired and unrefreshed If so, he is working too hard, beyond his strength. He could accomplish more by resting until his body is refreshed. Still there may be those who do not get up early enough. If there are any such among our readers, we commend the following calcula tion, from the Farmer’s Home Jour nal, which shows how much time may be lost by lying in bed too long in the morning: You hear some people say, “Farm ing is an independent life; farmers can go when they please, and come when they please.” Well, I am here to say, a man that farms on that sys tem is either a millionaire or a poor farmer. To my notion, and I mean as far as management is concerned, of course a man can come and go when he pleases, but I say a man can’t do that unless he neglects his work. There is never a time when a farmer has nothing to do; I mean an up-to date farmer, a man that is trying to make farming a success; a man that is trying to make his home attrac tive, improving his land and always looking after everything in general. Did you ever stop and think that Established 1873.