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and the frequent change would be expensive. Mr. Mac Williams is half right when he says hire half of the convicts. I think it much better to hire all of the convicts and take all of the money received for their hire and build good roads. I think it would prove a good investment, if judiciously invested. Were I to have the making of a plan I would first lot the state select a good location for a convict farm — a good location can now be had at a small cost. I would want several thousand acres of good farming land. Then I would at once take the weak and disabled and let them make a beginning, build stockades and other wise get the farm in shape for oc cupancy by all of the convicts. Then the state would be ready to handle the convicts. But suppose today the turpentine and phosphate men should say, we don’t want your convicts, what would the state do with them? This day will come, and now is the time for the state to prepare to take care of them to advantage. Other states make convict farming profitable, and I think Florida can make just as great a success as Texas, raising cotton, corn, hay, tobacco, fattening beef and pork with her convicts. I would hire out all able-bodied convicts, getting the best price pos sible; and, as far as it be practi cable, I would send the money re ceived for their hire back to the counties that have borne the burden of their misdeeds. This money I would use in making good roads, but not on any of the present plans that I now know of, as it is really tire some to watch road-making or road repairing with the present road su pervision, pick and shovel and hoe, and no interest in having the job well and quickly done. I would have the county commis sioners locate roads, first determining between what points a road was most needed, then hire a good road engi neer, one that knows something about how a road should be made, let him make a survey, establish grades, depth of cuts, size of fills, locate drains, and bridges. I would then ask for bids and have the roads built by contract, and require them to be made according to the engi neer’s specifications. I am fully con vinced that we would get better roads, more of them, and in a shorter time, by this plan than by any other. One trouble is, there are not a great many men in Florida that know how a road should be built. This is a comparatively new business in this state. But I would not hesitate to go out of the state to get road builders, and our own people would soon learn how to build a good road. This communication is too long for other questions now, but I will ask that you keep hammering at the Tor rens land registry system. We need it badly. S. H. Gaitskill. Mclntosh, Fla., Feb. 23, JQO7. Nothing enhances a woman’s face so much as a pair of beautiful eyes. Nature has not endowed the majority of girls with beautiful eyes, but na ture’s work can be improved by care ful management. Character and dis position figure most, of course, in the expression of the eyes, but the eyes can be improved by keeping them in a healthy condition and taking par ticular care of the brows and lashes. HOME-GROWN STOCK FEED. Commenting upon the large quan tities of stock feed imported into Florida from other states, and the practicability of producing foodstuffs here and thus saving the immense sums unnecessarily spent each year for such articles, Mr. R. E. Rose, state chemist, says: There were consumed in the state during the year 53,000 tons of mixed feed, not including hay, corn, oats and other grain, all of which was im ported from other states. The aver age composition of this mixed feed was: Protein, 14.77 per cent.; car bohydrates (sugar and starch), 56.42 per cent.; fats, 3.72 per cent. While this condition of affairs is to a cer tain extent excusable on account of her undeveloped agricultural condi tion, Florida should not import any of her feedstuffs. No state in the Union can, under a proper system of agriculture, produce stock feeds for less cost than Florida, not only the carbohydrates and fats (heat and force producers), but the proteins (flesh formers) can be produced at far less cost than they can be im ported. The production of stpck feed in Florida on a commercial basis, “be fore the freeze of 1895,” was consid ered impossible, or at least unprofit able. Florida hay or other stock feed was practically unknown; at present a very considerable amount of hay is produced, several localities not only producing their local supply, but sell to their less enterprising neighbors considerable quantities. The cow pea, velvet bean and beg gar weed are beginning to attract the attention they deserve as high class protein feeds, while Para and Bermu da grass, together with various pars palums, are now being largely used for pasture, these Japanese sugar cane, cassava, rice and sweet pota toes, offer the Florida farmer a va riety of crops that will furnish all the stock feed required for success ful stock growing, an industry that is rapidly advancing in the state, and promises to be the leading agricul tural pursuit in the near future. No state offers greater inducements to the stock grower than does Florida with her mild climate, freedom from droughts and cold, where pastures can be maintained throughout the year, where grasses of all kinds suitable to a sub-tropical climate can be grown with little labor or care, where crops of legumes can be cheaply and regu larly produced. It is unnecessary to say that stock growing is a factor in fertilizing; that live stock property cared for not only are profitable in themselves, but that they constantly enrich the farm, reduce the fertilizer bill and make the farm more produc tive each year. Our cotton seed meal, now largely used as a fertilizer, di rectly applied to the soil, if fed to live stock, would return a profit equal to its value as a fertilizer, in the shape of beef or milk products; at the same time would be of equal value as a fertilizer, yielding two profits, where but one is now obtained. Velvet beans —first introduced in the state as an ornamental vine—are now largely produced for stock feed, and for enriching the soil. No cheap er source of ammonia for the soil or protiens for flesh-formers are known. The analysis of velvet bean hay shows it as equal to bran as a feed, while THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. the bean has no superior for making flesh. Beggar weed and cow peas re turn their full value or cost in the shape of stock feed, and equally as great a sum as fertilizers, constantly enriching the soil while maintaining the live stock at a profit. No more fattening material, nor better milk-producer can be found than the Japanese sugar cane, intro duced into the state by the United States Agricultural Department at the Sugar Experiment Station at Runey mede, Fla., in 1890-95, and exploited by Mr. N, H. Fogg, of Altamonte Springs, Fla., who, soon after the freeze of 1895, recognized its value as a profitable crop, to replace the groves. It will grow luxuriantly on the poorest land with but little attention or fertilizer. On good land it makes a wonderful growth of valuable lorage. It wi-1 grow for years from one planting; in fact, it becomes practically a peren nial in this climate, reproducing itself from the stubble or rattoons year after year. Asa pasture or for soil ing it has few equals and no superiors. Para grass, introduced by Captain F. A. Hendry at Fort Thompson, in the early Bo’s, frequently called Fort Thompson grass, is probably one of the most valuable acquisitions to the Florida stock grower. It thrives in all classes of soil, but is best adapted to well drained “flat woods,” and grows with wonderful luxuriance on the drained muck lands of the Kissim mee and Caloosahatchee Valleys and near Lakes Flirt and Hickpochee, on the partly drained saw grass lands. It is readily established by layers or cuttings; spreads and increases rapid ly. It, however, can be readily con trolled, and if desired destroyed by cultivation. Thousands of acres now cover the partly drained lands near Fort Thompson, while it is gradually being introduced into other parts of the state, particularly the flat woods of South Florida. Both the ordinary ribbon cane and the Japanese variety, are superior stock feed, in addition to their value for syrup and sugar making. High Price of Fertilizers. The following article was written, for the Progressive Farmer, by Prof. C. M. Conner, formerly of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, but now of North Carolina: The general increase in price of fertilizers is caused by a number of conditions. The scarcity of labor in the mines and the demands made by the arts has caused a steady advance in the price of nitrate of soda. The price had about reached the top notch when the Chilian earthquake caused another advance of about $5 a ton. The disturbance in the meat packing district caused a falling off of the number of animals slaughtered, hence a decrease in the amount of blood and bone to be used as fertilizer and an advance in price. The demand for cottonseed meal by foreign countries and high price of labor has caused cottonseed meal to advance beyond the price of former years. Phosphate rock is becoming scarce and the price is advancing. There seems no pros pect of the price dropping soon. It is evident that under the present con ditions the farmer must grow more cowpeas and clover to supply the am monia to their crops, and study more closely the value of potash and phos phoric acid to the plants. The winter months could be profit ably employed in hauling leaves and woods mold and mixing it with the manure made on the place so as to make a compost for the land. Of course this presupposes some animals kept on the place. Such a compost will go far towards supplying the plant food that is ordinarily purchas ed in the form of mixed fertilizers. Six or eight loads of this compost worked in well every two years to gether with the use of 300 pounds of acid phosphate and 150 pounds of kainit will partially solve the problem. I need not mention that cowpeas should be planted in the corn and af ter the small grains. It should not be forgotten that deep plowing will add much to value of the compost to the land. When a deep soil is made by plowing deep and incorporating organic matter, the roots feed deeper and are not in fluenced so greatly by the drouth dur ing the summer. Reducing Orange Decay. A Riverside correspondent of the Chicago Packer tells of anew plan to prevent orange rot. Of course, if Mr. Whitcomb’s ideas on this subject are correct, and he presents very strong evidence in its favor, then there is no need of such expensive apparatus as is mentioned. Still we are anxious to present every phase of the subject in an effort to reach a correct solution: A local orange shipper, A. L. Wood ill, has evolved a plan which he be lieves 'will greatly reduce the loss caused by the decay of citrus fruits on their way to the East. It is found that this loss is especially heavy when oranges are picked in wet weather, or immediately after. Mr. Woodill’s plan is to artificially dry the fruit by the use of large electric fans. While the scientific men have been conducting elaborate experiments to discover the cause of the decay of citrus fruits in transit Mr. Woodill has done a little practical investi gation along the same line and has come to the conclusion that it is the dampness of the fruit that causes the trouble, for the most part. For some time after a rain, although the fruit is apparently dry, the orange sk'n retains considerable moisture. This the paper wrapper shuts in. Mr. Woodill proposes to equip his packing-house on Pachappa avenue with electric fans, placed at intervals on a series of three shafts, length wise of the building. Before ship ment the open boxes of oranges will be subjected to a powerful current of air from these fans. It is claimed that the device will also be useful in cooling the fruit in warm weather, thus reducing the danger of decay in oranges shipped in the summer. To make them more effective the fans will be placed on the “quincunx” system and the boxes of oranges will be placed directly under them. The boxes will be opened out so that the strong current of air from the pow erful fans can have free course among them. Mr. Woodill promises that a current strong enough to blow a man’s hat off can be generated and the fans can be kept in operation all night. Packers and shippers to whom Mr. Woodill has spoken of his proposed experiment are quite enthusiastic over the plan and believe that it will ma terially reduce decay and thus in crease values.