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OVOL. XXXIV No. 10. THE KUMQUAT IN FLORIDA A number of kumquats on rough lemon stock planted on rather moist ground have come under personal ob servation in which it was found that there was a more or less copious flow of gum from the region just above the union of the stock and cion. In all cases where this occurred it appeared that the cion was the only part af fected. The trees were in an un healthy condition. The diseased con dition, if we may so designate if, did not appear to be mal-di-goma, though in some respects it resembled it. The trouble may have been due to the fact that the great foraging power of the Jroots enabled them to collect, in cer tain soils, more food than the less rapidly growing top could readily as similate. On the other hand, on soils contain ing less moisture and presumably less fertility, a number of trees budded up on rough lemon roots have been ex amined which were vigorous and per fectly healthy. If one desires to use the rough lemon stock for the kum quat on some soils the best plan would be to adopt the practice to insert kumquat buds in sprouts from rough lemon roots which already support and feed a sweet or mandarin orange top. A perfectly healthy union is se cured in all cases as most of the food gathered by the roots is used by the larger and more* vigorous top. Regarding the stock used for the kumquat in China, Mr. Fortune makes the following statement: “The kum quat is propagated by grafting on a prickly wild species of citrus which seems of a more hardy nature than the kumquat itself. This fact should be borne in mind when the plant is introduced into this country; other wise we shall have a compartively hardy plant growing on a tender one.” These remarks undoubtedly refer to Citrus trifoliata, the stock now so commonly used throughout Northern Florida for all varieties of citrus trees. Sweet stock, on account of its sus ceptibility to the attacks of mal-di goma should not be used. On some soils and in some localities the trees might continue to live and thrive for many years but there is no knowing at what time they may become dis eased. The pomelo stock appears to be entirely free from mal-di-goma and it is well adapted to the kumquat. Six Weeks for Ten Cents. Until further notice we will send the Agriculturist six weeks for io cents to new subscribers only. S O I_L S . Their Physical Nature and Chemical Composition and Possibilities* By A* T* Cuzner, M. D. Having considered briefly in our last article the connection that exists between the soil and its natural pro ducts, we will return and consider its physical properties, and the effect draining has on its fertility. Among the merely mechanical methods by which those changes are to be produced upon the soil, that are to fit it for the better growth of valuable crops, draining is allowed to hold the first place. That it must be the first step in all cases where water abounds in the surface soil will readily be conceded; but that it can be beneficial also in situations where the soil is of a sandy nature — where the subsoil is light and porous, or where the inclination of the ground appears sufficient to allow of a ready escape of the surplus water —does no\ appear so evident, and is not unfre quently, therefore, a matter of doubt and difficulty. It may be useful, then, to briefly consider the nature of the various sub soils, as a possible knowledge of these will ena'ble us to settle any doubt as to the advisability or not, of draining any given piece of ground. Beneath the immediate surface soil, tHrough which, the plow makes its Jacksonville, Fla., Wednesday, March 6, 1907. r. ?.■ ’.Mm • No. 5. way and to which the seed is intrust ed, lies what is commonly called sub soil-. This subsoil occasionally con sists of a mixture of the general con stituents of soils naturally different from that which forms the surface layer—as when clay above has a san dy bed below, or a light soil on the surface rests on a retentive clay be neath. This, however, is not always the case. The peculiar characters of the soil and subsoil often result from the slow operation of natural causes. In a mass of loose matter of considerable FLORIDA LIMES depth, spread over an extent of coun try, it is easy to understand how — even though originally alike through its whole mass —a few inches at the surface should gradually acquire dif ferent physical and chemical charac ters from the rest, and how there should thus be gradually established important agricultural distinctions be tween the first twelve or fifteen in ches of soil, and the next fifteen in ches (subsoil) and the remaining sub strata or mass of deeper earth, which does not come under the observation of the practical agriculturist. (Continued on page 5.) ONE OF OUR USE LESS OFFICIALS. f _____ Editor of Agriculturist: As to the question of a county treas urer —possibly there are some fea tures to this that I need to be in formed about, but it seems to me the counties have about as much need for a paid treasurer as a wagon has for five wheels. The tax collector collects money and pays it over to the treasurer, and he takes out his five per cent. Money is needed for county expenses, a check is drawn by the proper authorities, authorizing the treasurer to pay to Mr. Blank a cer tain sum of money and, Mr. Treasurer gets another five per cent. It is true there must be someone to do this, and he must give bond. I know of states where the county fathers, a body with the same powers possessed by the county commission ers, will ask the banks in the county seat or, if there is no bank in the county that this board is willing to trust, they ask other banks: “What will you give to be made the county depository? You to receive and re ceipt for all county monies offered you, and to pay out money when a properly drawn warrant is presented; you to give good and sufficient bond that you will receive and safely care for our money and pay it out as we desire it paid?” and the counties often get several hundred dollars put into their treasury instead of the five per cent out, going and coming. Now, which is better for the tax payer to have to pay a county treas urer, or have the treasurer pay some thing to the county for the use of its money? The treasurer places the money in some bank on deposit, and usually gets the bank’s officials on his bond. The bank officials could give a good and sufficient bond to the county commissioners and receive and disburse the county money just as well as any individual. Will someone please tell me why this plan will not work in Florida as well as in other states? I think the treasurers’ commissions should be saved to help make good roads and pay better salaries for teachers to edu cate the children of the state. S. H. Gait^kill. Macintosh, Fla., Feb. 28, 1907. Six Weeks for Ten Cents. Until further notice we will send 1 the Agriculturist six weeks for 10 cents to new subscribers only. Established 1873.