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The Florida agriculturist. [volume] (DeLand, Fla.) 1878-1911, March 06, 1907, Image 1

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OVOL. XXXIV No. 10.
THE KUMQUAT
IN FLORIDA
A number of kumquats on rough
lemon stock planted on rather moist
ground have come under personal ob
servation in which it was found that
there was a more or less copious flow
of gum from the region just above the
union of the stock and cion. In all
cases where this occurred it appeared
that the cion was the only part af
fected. The trees were in an un
healthy condition. The diseased con
dition, if we may so designate if, did
not appear to be mal-di-goma, though
in some respects it resembled it. The
trouble may have been due to the fact
that the great foraging power of the
Jroots enabled them to collect, in cer
tain soils, more food than the less
rapidly growing top could readily as
similate.
On the other hand, on soils contain
ing less moisture and presumably less
fertility, a number of trees budded up
on rough lemon roots have been ex
amined which were vigorous and per
fectly healthy. If one desires to use
the rough lemon stock for the kum
quat on some soils the best plan would
be to adopt the practice to insert
kumquat buds in sprouts from rough
lemon roots which already support
and feed a sweet or mandarin orange
top. A perfectly healthy union is se
cured in all cases as most of the food
gathered by the roots is used by the
larger and more* vigorous top.
Regarding the stock used for the
kumquat in China, Mr. Fortune makes
the following statement: “The kum
quat is propagated by grafting on a
prickly wild species of citrus which
seems of a more hardy nature than
the kumquat itself. This fact should
be borne in mind when the plant is
introduced into this country; other
wise we shall have a compartively
hardy plant growing on a tender one.”
These remarks undoubtedly refer to
Citrus trifoliata, the stock now so
commonly used throughout Northern
Florida for all varieties of citrus trees.
Sweet stock, on account of its sus
ceptibility to the attacks of mal-di
goma should not be used. On some
soils and in some localities the trees
might continue to live and thrive for
many years but there is no knowing
at what time they may become dis
eased. The pomelo stock appears to
be entirely free from mal-di-goma and
it is well adapted to the kumquat.
Six Weeks for Ten Cents.
Until further notice we will send
the Agriculturist six weeks for io
cents to new subscribers only.
S O I_L S .
Their Physical Nature and Chemical Composition
and Possibilities*
By A* T* Cuzner, M. D.
Having considered briefly in our
last article the connection that exists
between the soil and its natural pro
ducts, we will return and consider
its physical properties, and the effect
draining has on its fertility.
Among the merely mechanical
methods by which those changes are
to be produced upon the soil, that
are to fit it for the better growth
of valuable crops, draining is allowed
to hold the first place. That it must
be the first step in all cases where
water abounds in the surface soil will
readily be conceded; but that it
can be beneficial also in situations
where the soil is of a sandy nature —
where the subsoil is light and porous,
or where the inclination of the ground
appears sufficient to allow of a ready
escape of the surplus water —does no\
appear so evident, and is not unfre
quently, therefore, a matter of doubt
and difficulty.
It may be useful, then, to briefly
consider the nature of the various sub
soils, as a possible knowledge of these
will ena'ble us to settle any doubt as
to the advisability or not, of draining
any given piece of ground.
Beneath the immediate surface soil,
tHrough which, the plow makes its
Jacksonville, Fla., Wednesday, March 6, 1907.
r. ?.■ ’.Mm •
No. 5.
way and to which the seed is intrust
ed, lies what is commonly called sub
soil-. This subsoil occasionally con
sists of a mixture of the general con
stituents of soils naturally different
from that which forms the surface
layer—as when clay above has a san
dy bed below, or a light soil on the
surface rests on a retentive clay be
neath.
This, however, is not always the
case. The peculiar characters of the
soil and subsoil often result from the
slow operation of natural causes. In
a mass of loose matter of considerable
FLORIDA LIMES
depth, spread over an extent of coun
try, it is easy to understand how —
even though originally alike through
its whole mass —a few inches at the
surface should gradually acquire dif
ferent physical and chemical charac
ters from the rest, and how there
should thus be gradually established
important agricultural distinctions be
tween the first twelve or fifteen in
ches of soil, and the next fifteen in
ches (subsoil) and the remaining sub
strata or mass of deeper earth, which
does not come under the observation
of the practical agriculturist.
(Continued on page 5.)
ONE OF OUR USE
LESS OFFICIALS.
f _____
Editor of Agriculturist:
As to the question of a county treas
urer —possibly there are some fea
tures to this that I need to be in
formed about, but it seems to me the
counties have about as much need
for a paid treasurer as a wagon has
for five wheels. The tax collector
collects money and pays it over to the
treasurer, and he takes out his five
per cent. Money is needed for county
expenses, a check is drawn by the
proper authorities, authorizing the
treasurer to pay to Mr. Blank a cer
tain sum of money and, Mr. Treasurer
gets another five per cent. It is true
there must be someone to do this,
and he must give bond.
I know of states where the county
fathers, a body with the same powers
possessed by the county commission
ers, will ask the banks in the county
seat or, if there is no bank in the
county that this board is willing to
trust, they ask other banks: “What
will you give to be made the county
depository? You to receive and re
ceipt for all county monies offered
you, and to pay out money when a
properly drawn warrant is presented;
you to give good and sufficient bond
that you will receive and safely care
for our money and pay it out as we
desire it paid?” and the counties often
get several hundred dollars put into
their treasury instead of the five per
cent out, going and coming.
Now, which is better for the tax
payer to have to pay a county treas
urer, or have the treasurer pay some
thing to the county for the use of
its money? The treasurer places the
money in some bank on deposit, and
usually gets the bank’s officials on
his bond. The bank officials could
give a good and sufficient bond to the
county commissioners and receive and
disburse the county money just as
well as any individual.
Will someone please tell me why
this plan will not work in Florida
as well as in other states? I think
the treasurers’ commissions should be
saved to help make good roads and
pay better salaries for teachers to edu
cate the children of the state.
S. H. Gait^kill.
Macintosh, Fla., Feb. 28, 1907.
Six Weeks for Ten Cents.
Until further notice we will send
1 the Agriculturist six weeks for 10
cents to new subscribers only.
Established 1873.

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