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Monday Morning, July 13, 1925.
SCOPES EVOLUTION TRIAL UNDER WAY | OLD-TIME RELIGION ' ‘AND SCIENCE COME ’TO GRIP IN DAYTON ; , - - ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■■■■«■■—■ ■ MAIN STREET OF DAYTON, TENN., THE LITTLE MOUNTAIN CITY THAT HAS BECOME THE SPOTLIGHT OF THE NATION. Kl.ni.ntn Kn4mnnn nt/1 ttmn I a(a«»nJ on Qi-ffiltmint omnno l thorn. THE struggle between old time religion which accepts the Bible version of the creation of man and the universe, and the new scien tific liberalism of modernists and colleges which want to remake the Bible in the mould of things proved ih the laboratories of science, is i being brought to a head in the lit* tie town of Dayton, Tenn. f Sixty-five years ago Charles Dar win promulgated the theory of evo lution—that all life, plant and ani mal, descended through slow and successive stages from a single cell. WHAT DARWIN TAUGHT The theory, contrary to general belief, does not -teach that man de scended from the monkey, any more than a horse descended from a mon key. But that men, monkeys, horses, trees, corn, wheat, in fact all forms of life, have a common ancestor, a small one-celled living organism, which existed some hundreds of mil lions of years ago. Scientists claim that the theory is backed up by plenty of evidence, obtained by a close study of animal and plant life. Those who believe in the letter of the Bible, take the explanation of the creation, as given in the first chapter of Genesis. And thus for sixty-five years there has been , strife between thei follow ers of the two beliefs. In Tennessee a state law was passed, prohibiting the, teaching of the theory of evolution in the public schools. , But regardless of the law. text books, Upholding the theory, were in use in many high schools and col leges. John T. Scopes, a Kentucky uni versity graduate, teaching in the Dayton (Tenn.) schools, was using one of these books. | Meeting in the town's drug store with George W. Rappelyea, chemical engineer of the Cumberland Coal Company, and two young lawyers, just out of college, Sue M. Hicks and Wallace Haggard, the men, Prosecutor . E. T. Stewart, district attorney general, who obtained the indict ment against Scopes, and who is ex pected to play a leading role in the prosecution. Stewart is 31 and un married. t started an argument among tnem selves over evolution. Scopes mentioned the book he was using in school. They found a copy of the book in the drug store, and read the chapters on evolution. DECIDE TO TEST Then Rappelyea, a firm believer in the evolution theory, induced Scopes to permit himself to be indicted to test out. the Tennessee law, and clear up the argument. The indictment was returned, and,, at once the entire nation became in terested. William Jennings Bryan,, one of the nation’s hardest fighters of evo lution, wired his assistance as prose cutor of young Scopes. Clarence Darrow, noted Chicago criminal lawyer, entered the fight as counsel for Scopes. Scopes, seeing that he was being made the spotlight of the world, tried to withdraw, but the case had gone too far. It was not a question of .whether Scopes should be fined a few hun dred dollars for violating the state law, but whether the Bible version of the creation of life, or the scien tific version, should stand. Other prominent attorneys* includ ing Dudley Field Malone, New York, . offered their services for the defense of Scopes. And equally as many theologians, and firm believers in the Bible ver sion, came to the aid of the state’s attorney general and the county prosecutor for the prosecution of the case. ARMY TENTS FOR VISITORS Dayton, Tenn., a town of ISOO population, began wondering how the city could take care of all the ex pected visitors at the trial. Congressman Hull of the has arranged with the War Depart ment for cots and tents. The coun ty fair grounds or the baseball park, possibly will be used as a place for the court to sit. The trial is scheduled to open July 10. and will continue for weeks. Clarence Darrow Hero of many a court battle, Clar ence Darrow, Chicago criminal law yer, will match his intelligence against that of William Jennings Bryan at the Dayton (Tenn.) evolu tion trial. Nogales International—The People’s Favorite Newspaper Who's Who in Evolution Trial PROFESSOR JOHN* T. j SCOPES, 24, Paducah, Ky„ in* ! structor in science and ath* j i ietics at the Dayton and Rhea j ' Central high school. Dayton, ij Tenn., defendant who hi | charged with violation of Ten* j nessee state law, which makes ; ! it a criminal offense to teach , the Darwinian theory of evo* j 1 lutlon in the public schools, j WILLIAM JENNINOB I 1 BRYAN, defender of the Bible ; } as it is written, and bitter j i enetny of all evolutionists, as* •; sociated counsel for the j I prosecution of Scopes. 1 CLARENCE DARROW. Chi* I | cago criminal lawyer, whose services as associate counsel 4 | for the defense has been ac* } j cepted by— j JUDGE JOHN RANDOLPH » ‘ NEAL. Knoxville, Tenn., ; former professor of law in the Tennessee University, but who was ousted from the faculty for his support of Dr. J. W. Sprowls. professor of psychol ogy. who ordered some text books which contained com* ment on evolution, and was dismissed. Judge Neal will head the defense, and will have with him, besides Dar* ' row— « DUDLEY FIELD MALONE, j New York lawyer, former col* j S lector of the New York port, j and former third assistant ( secretary of state. |j JUDGE JOHN L. GODSEY, W. E. BENSON, Day* J •on, will assist the defense, ij while the prosecution is in ii “harge of — h] ATTORN BY GENERAL 1 FRANK M. THOMPSON of •r.o s»u.te of Tennessee, who j «ill have with him i E. J. STEWART, prosecut*| attorney, and — j CUE Xj* HICKS, W. C.l HAGGAKD AND H. E.J wicks, Daymen attorney*. * 1 i\sdk J Judge Neal Says The question is not whether evo lution is true or untrue, but involves the freedom of teaching. Or, what is more important, freedom of learn* ing. As we see it, the great question is whether the Tennessee legislature has the power to prevent the young minds of Tennessee from knowing what has been thought and said by the world’s greatest scientists, and thus to prevent them from forming their own judgment in regard to questions of life and science. We regard it as equally un-Ameri can and, therefore, unconstitutional whether it is kingly or ecclesiastical authority or legislative power, that would attempt to limit the human mind in Its inquiry after the t^uth. Bryan Says — The hand which writes the pay checks should rule the schools. A majority of the people of the nation believe in the Bible. The disgrace is not the law of Tennessee, signed by the governor and passed by the legislature —the disgrace is that any one would make such a law neccj sary* The teachers are employes of the taxpayers, and should no more os allowed to teach what they person ally believe than a clerk should be allowed to dictate the policy of a bank. The disgrace is that teachers should betray the trust that is im posed in them by the taxpayers. I believe that the greatest menace we have today is the substitution of education for religion. NOGALES-BISBEE STAGE Via Patagonia, Sonoita, Fair banks and Tombstone, making connections with Douglas stage in Bisbee. Leave Nogales 9 a. m. Leave Tombstone. 11:80 a. m. Arrive Bisbee 12:30 p. m. Leave Bisbee 4 p. m. Leave Tombstone— 5 p. m. Arrive Nogales 8 p. m. Fares: Nogales to Bisbee, |6.00; Nogales to Tombstone, $4.50; Phone 68, Nogales, for reservations. THOUSANDS THRONG TOWN WHERE TEACHER TAUGHT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION By W. J. LOSH (United Press Staff Correspon dent) (United Px«m) DAYTON, Tenn., July 10.— ( The green foothills of the Appalachians as a background, a little country town fairely bristling with new dignity and fresh paint, an old ivy clad court-house crowded with ju rists, scientists, clergy and laymen famous the world over—such was the setting as the trial of Professor John T. Scopes on a charge of teaching high school pupils the theory of evolution opened here Friday. Here and there in the throng that milled about the Rhea County Court House one could single out the beaming features of William Jennings Bryan, the stooped figure of Clarance Darrow, or catch a glimpse of the young defendant as well-wishers pushed forward to shake his hand. Vastly more the offense of young Professor Scopes against the laws of the state was at stake to day—the theory of the freedom of education was on trial. Scopes and hs text-book were merely tangible things about which the two great schools of thought whose leading oxponents gathered here today could weave their arguments and base their contentions. Troopers Guard Court House Accordingly, it was the disting guished counsel, and the unofficial observers, who drew the stares of the curious and the excited buzzing of comment as they presented cre dentials and passed though the lines of troopers who guarded the court house against a stampede by those whom lack ox space forbade admission. This, of course, was a red-letter day for the towns-folk of Dayton. Let the lawyers for the defense, Bainbridge Colby, a former secre tary of state, and Clarence Darrow a lawyer of international fame, de plore this attitude of holiday-mak ing and urge the seriousness of the sssues at stake. There were some Dayton citizens today whose exuberance at the momentary focus of national atten tion knew no bounds. Serious Air in Court But at the trial itself, with Judge John T. Raulston of the Criminal Court presiding, every thing was seriousness itself. Op posng cousel exchanged courtesies with a deal of formality. Professor Scopes, the defendant, was the most serious of all his face slightly pale behind his horn-rim med glasses. He is only 24, this Kentucky youth who is the central figure in what has grown into one of the most famous trials of theory in history. When not engaged n the class-room at the local high schiol, he ciached the athletic teams. In his best known remark anent the present case, Professor Scopes said it was “drug store argument that got out of control.” As a mat ter of fact, he was persuaded, somewhat reluctantly, to play his part in what men interested n ed ucation in Tennessee felt should be made a test case. How Charge Arose , Scopes taught his pupils from a textbook approved by the school board which contained an exposi tion of the theory of evolution. He was indicted on a charge of in structing his charges in a “theory that denieg the story of Divine creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals.” There is no doubt that this law is on the stat uate books, it being the work of John W. Butler, a farmer legisla ture, who lives 100 miles away over the rolling foot-hills on a bad ly run down little farm. The defense, including on legal staff Professor John R. Neal, chief counsel, Clarence Darrow, Dudley Field Malone, Bainbridge Colby, and others in various capacities, will seek to show:— First, that the theory of evolu tion is by no means a denial of the story of Divine creation; Second, that education in scien tific Subjects should not he denied the school children* of the United States because it occasionally en ters upon controversial ground. To Appeal If Scopes is convicted, as near ly everyone believes he will be at this trial, he will be subject to a fine of from SIOO to SSOO. An appeal will be taken, and it is in their arguments for the defense hope to do their moat telling work. The prosecution today wii represented by Attorney General Frank M. Thompson, with asso ciate. The Commoner has thrown himself into the fight with an en thusiasm matched only by that of the counsel for the defense. Bryan’s slogan, upon which he was expected to expound when his turn came to speak, was:— “The hand which writes the pay checks should rule the schools. The teachers are employes of the tax-payers and should no* more be allowed to teach what they per sonally wish than a clerk should be allowed to dictate the policy of a bank. The greatest menace we have to face today is the sub stitution of education for re ligion.” To which Professor Neal, who was a professor in the College of Law of Tennesee University pre vious to his removal incident to a somewhat similar dispute over freedom of education, replies:— “The question is whether the Tennessee legislature has the pow er to prevent the young minds of Tennessee from knowing what has been thought and said by the world's greatest scientists, thus i preventing them from forming their own judgement in regard to questions of life and science.” Dudley Malone * - * !||| ; jtjj| P I A' | : #sssiSl w msM yajsgj Dudley Field Malone, regarded as one of the leading attorneys of New York City, hag volunteered his services in behalf of John T. Scopes, young Dayton (Tenn.) school teacher who went on trial July 10, charged with teaching the theory of evolution in violation of the state laws. MERCED* Calif., (United Press) July 12.—“ Find work or leave town,” was the ultimatum to seventy-five itinerant laborers ar rested in a raid on the Southern Pacific park here. The men left town. The International ia your paper for your patronage makes it pos sible. Page Five