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(I j HfiMtfHiiMkfAMMtt rilfa s .sa . gift 1&xX Iffa&ra. -&S5?tfRIA. OREGON: to6.4tWAo .xtretsr. VlJislE&&XY JANUAKY 29. 1879 Wgb'& lorto?e ituilway. Wfe'ferfe ill receipt of a copy of the 5biil 'itftt-oduced irito the Senate of -the United States by Senator Mitchell on the 7th inst, and refer red 'to the committee on railroads. Frdm reading this :bill we find :tJhat it will not be optional with the company to build either upon the state or territory side of the river, unless a corporation organized un der the laws of -Oregon can build in the territory. It seems to us that this is "Sh error. The Oregon Steam -Navigation company al ready own 'he land on the Oregon side, ancl operate a railroad from the'Balles'to Celilo. I'f this bill 'should pass, in its present form, 'the best thing that could happen for the country would be to let the Oregon Portage company purchase 'from the Oregon Steam Naviga tion company the railway now in operation, and re-invest 'the money in a narrow gauge from Columbus, or some other available landing on the Columbia above Celilo, to the mouth of the Klickitat valley, twelve miles below The Dalles, ihus forming at once a connection from Walla Walla, etc., virtually carrying out the ititeritions of the act, and at the same time laying the foundation ;for a sj'stem of railways necessary to 'Klickitat and Yakima, which could easily be carried up lo "a connection with the proposed Seattle and Walla Walla road across the Cascade range to the north. Observations made upon a journey into that country last summer, teaches us that this is a system entirely feasi ble. The worst portions of the construction wduld be found from ?the 'lower end of Klickitat valley to the Columbia river, through a rocky canyon, butit is by no means impossible, and through the Klicki tat valley, and natural passes in the narrow chain of mountains di viding it from Yakima, a narrow gauge railroad would be profitable from the start. It would develop a region of country more exten sive and equally as fertile as the Willamette 'valley. Dalles city would not suffer any from this system of railway the locks and canal completed at the Cascades 'will draw to The Dalles from the "boundless "resources of Wasco county, sufficient to make her a city of no mean pretensions with out any assistance from the sur- rounding country; but from the -very force of circumstances the growth and development of the regions north of her would greatly augment he 'wealth and -increase her business sind popula tion, making her in fact the Queen City of the Mountains. The report frequently circu lated and recently revived that Wilkie Collins was to finish Dick en's story of Edwin Drood," is denied by Mr. Collins. He was asked to do it, but declined. A leader of fashion in San 'Francisco has had 'her chairs and sofas, and the cushions of her car ' riages stuffed with aromatic herbs, in imitation of a practice preva lent among Oriental nations. She lives in an atmosphere of constant perfume. " Some entirely disinterested persons, says Jude virgin 'df :j Maine, "cannot tell the real, abso lute truth if they try,'because they :ave not got mind enough to com prehend and understand, and then he honesjy to.dout. DiXCrlHimatioas Against American Commerce. Bearing upon the question of unjust discriminations against the commerce of America, to which The Astorian has previously re ferred, Capt. J. T. Woodbury, of the ship Valley Forge now in this port, has kindly 'consented to per mit us to publish the following letter, written nearly ten years age: Cardiff, Feb. 15,4809. Hon. Freeman H. Morse, Londen: Dear Sib: With your kind per mission, antl knowing the great inter est yon take in the commerce of our country, I beg to trouble you -with a few remarks on some of the treaties made by our government with foreign powers. Last summer while I was m New York, a treaty or convention be tween the United States and Great Britain was published, whereby ves sels under the -British flag were per mitted to arrive and enter at the cus tom house in the United States, with their tonnage as stated in their British register. Our ships, on the other hand, on entering at British custom houses, to have their tonnage taken as per their American register. This, on its face, would look very fair; but its operation with most American vessels is very un fair. The !N orway, for instance, meas ures in !New York 2107 tons; in Eng land, by British measurement, 1984, or 123 tons less than the American measurement. Now, I am obliged to pay my dues on the full tonnage of 2107, This puts me at a disadvantage as compared with English vessels. And our total dues here of every kind, estimated on tonnage, are about 16 pence per ton, and for 123 tons would be 8.4. Here, by an arrangement of our own government, I am made to pay this excess over the ordinary rates that are demanded of other vessels. We may be pretty sure that -"England, in her commercial treaties, don't give, or intend to give, more than she is to receive. Though the wording may be ambiguous, it is for this advantage only. The instance of the Norway is the rule, and not the exception. The -ship Ne Plus Ultra, of New York, that 1 commanded before the Norway, measured in New York 1534 tons; in Liverpool, 1450 tons. There are ex ceptions, I allowbut they are so in consequence of errors having been made in the tonnage in the United States. In this last case of recipriocity we are losers, as in the first; as I will endeavor to explain. Many.years ago, there was a rule -laid down -by our government that we would enter-into treaties of reciprocity in foreign rnsvijjation with any foreign country that would extend to us the same privileges. Nearly every nation in Europe has availed itself of this treaty. The free cities of Hamburg and Bremen were among the first to reciprocate, but in wording those treaties, the flag was made to cover the vessel. Until within a few years, this made no difference, but within the last ten years a great change has taken place. Nearly every nation in Europe allow their subjects to natural ize any foreign bottom they may buy; whereas the American oan only nat uralize a vessel built in his own coun try. A citizen of Hamburg can go to England and buy an iron steamer, place her under the North German flag, and sail her between any foreign county and the United States on re ciprocal terms with an American ship. The A merican, on the other hand, is prohibited by his own laws from doing this. Iron is now the only material of which ocean steamers can be profitably built, and at the present tune they can be built much cheaper in Great Britain than in any other country, and the effect of our reciprocity treat ies is to drive all foreisn trade into the hands of foreigners. Not only is iron the only material that sea-going steamers can be profitably built, but it is getting into very general use for sailing ships; and now great ad vantage is given to iron vessels in the rate of insurance, so that iron sailing ships can command os per ton over wooden ships in Calcutta and Bombay; and as the number of iron vessels in creases, greater will be the difference m freights. The excessive duties that we have, on all the materials that enter into ship-building, make our wooden ships cost higher, and act as a prohibition to the building of iron vessels, 'whether for sail or steam, to be used in ocean navigation; and, naturally, foreigners with cheaper ships can take cheaper freights, even in our own trade. The effect is, that the great foreign trade between.New York ai d Europe is by steam, and in the ham-8 of foreigners. The depre- h ciation t f our commerce, and its pres- uui, Hiair, li owing to tms more than to the war. As bv the action of our v.ur own tr ;aties we have placed for eigners n t lis position. We-owe it to our own su ejects to place them on the same fot tin ;, which can only he done by repea m.j the navigation laws, and permittirg them to buy (and natural ize), shijs wherever we find them cheapest. I don't know as I have placed all this so you can understand it; I hope I have. Should vou have time to J.this subject very acuch, and wish -to see It thoroughly ventilated. As things go xm, ten yaurs will drive us from the ocean" for in that time most of the ocean navigation will be made of iron, and propelled by steam. With much esteem, I remain re spectfully, J. F. Woodbury, Ship Norway. Circumstances and the Congress of the United States have not very materially altered the case since the writing of the above letter. Capt. "Woodbury there refers back ten years to the hardships attend ing the commercial fleet of America and predicted fully what may be seen to-day. Let us look back over the past ten years. There has been no perceptible improve ment. Statistics of the mercatile marine of the different nations have lately been published. The following table shows Hihe present condition of the leading merchant navies: 8AIIJXG VESSELS. Number. Gross Tonnage. 1ST7. 1873. 187T. ltffr. BritislU.,...f7,765 18.394 5,526,930 5,500,018 United States 6,307 G.tW) 2.H6.731 2,075,S32 Norwegian ... 4,135 4,157 1,352.949 1,374.824 ItallanMu..tM. 4,402 3,133 1,296.683 9l!3.i25 German 3,140 3,001 875 814 914.674 French 3,300 2,972 6CG.7U7 535,9X STEAMERS. British fc.133 3,2t8 3,283.010 3,465,187 United Suites 542 516 G74,03.'J 603.101 French 272 275 319.179 33",216 Herman 220 220 259,785 2oJ.b77 Spanish .224 199 176.340 152,703 Dutch 110 111 112,879 116.149 The total tonnage of the sailing vessels has decreased 5Sl,0o3 tons, while that of steamers has increased S7,476 tons, which leaves a net de crease during -the year in ihe ton nage of the world's mercantile marine of 493,582 tons, the com bined tonnage of steamers and sailing vessels being 19,813,247 in 1S78, against 20,306,S29 in 1877. The ship builders of Maine have not done more than half the work last year they did in either the three years preceding. Only eleven ships were built in the state, and not one of these on the Pe nobscot or to the eastward of it. The average tonnage ofthe ninetv six vessels constructed is about 425 tons, the total 411)60. In 1S77 the total was 76,308, in 1876 it was 73,573, and in 1875 it exceeded 75 00 tons. When the ships are taken out the average tonnage is less than three hundred tons. In Bangor district, where many large ships have been launched, they turned out last year two vessels, one of nine tons and the other of 203. In the York and Saco dis tricts nothing was built. In the Wiscasset, two schooners were built which footed up the amazing amount of forty-six tons. The prospect now is that this year's work will be less than 1878. A Bath ship builder says"; Unless there-is a sudden and very unexpected improvement in the freight market, which is not at all likely to occur, the amount of ton nage built in Maine in 1879 will be less than has been built in any of the last thirty years. Although materials and labor are so cheap, there is no inducement to build. At present rates of freight, vessels are absolutely of no value, for there is no port in -the world where suf ficient freight can be obtained to pay 'expenses and insurance and leave any profit to the owner. It is time that the press of this country spoke out on this subject, and turned the attention to things than the scramble for office. In this article may be found the whole secret of the trouble to our commerce. How manypoliticians will read it. -Not one, perhaps; as as it may not make for him votes which is paramount, in his mind, to the grandeur of this na tion upon the high seas. "Over the Hills to the Poor house" was the the title of a new play to be produced in Battle Creek, Mich., by a traveling-theatre company. The leading actor got so drunk that he could not perform, creditors seized the baggage, and one of the unpaid employes actual- go over the 'hills to-thepoQr- .-house, ' NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. INSURANCE COMPANY OF CAI.1FOKRIA. ORGANIZED IN 1863. Tetal LesHcs Fald Since OrgRBizatlea. $8,680,485 98. E. C. HOLDEN, Agent. Astoria Oregon. GUNS, XOCKS, AXI SETTING MACHINES IEEPAXRISB. KEYS FITTED AND LOCKS REPAIRED, SAWS FILED, ETC.. BY tf. W. WASS, Main street, next door to Geo. Ross. riEO. IOVETT, TAILOR, CLEANING and REPAIRING PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. Benton street, opposite Tost-office, Astoria. C GRAY, Manufacturer of HARNESS, SADDLES, BRIDLES, "WHIS, ETC. fiS-Oars leathered, and leather for sale. COAL LAND FOR SALE. nr ACRES of iron and coal lands for JLOU sale, situated near 'Columbia city, Oregon. Trice $900 cash down. For particulars inquire at v7-tf The Astorian Ofilce. I. w. case; IMPORTER AND WHOLESALE AND RE TAIL DEALER IX GENERAL IERCHAMSE, Corner Chenamus and Cass streets. ASTORIA - 'OREGON. JUST OPENED A PULL AND COMPLETE LINE OF GOODS, IN EVERY DEPART MENT OE TRADE SUITABLE TO THE "WANTS OF THE PEO PLE ALL OF -WHICH "WILL BE -SOLD ESTTurchasers are requested to call and inspect my goods before purchasing else where, as I am confident of my ability to please one and all. I. "W. CASE, Corner Chenamus and Cass Streets, ASTORIA, OREGON. Notice to All Concerned. 'Men awd Bovs Muct h 2 JOXISSSi I As well as to have toys for Christmas. Christmas is Over ! HUT HAS NOT 1 MB And now invites the attention of every body to his Fuji and Complete Stock, Consisting in part of af CLOTHING SOTm Gents Furnishing Goods; ALSO : Large Stock of Family Groceries; Canned Fruits, Etc. ALSO : Watches, Jewelry, Marine and Opera Classes, etc? Besides a choice lot of TOBACCO ftND CIGARS, Wholesale and detail. Call and see. MAIN ST., - - ASTORIA, OGN. FltOM A SUPPEhp.7 i Do not fail. If bad health' von'r afmid'nf Of knowing exactly what vonV w5 r llliiUU oi. -. . Nowffiwmest(tcl.y.rrcxperiencel,ve Oh, then he careful in ItntSiJ Jc' i what's at stake, e' you know Iet me advise you (for TVnftW- .. brand to tukP K snow now) what t your grocer give you no other kfn fnr this is guaranteed ULerKind for Xju use Donnolly's Yeast ?ftTO,1fl , eood health nrn ovLt?wer and of good health puraandlVhtbr,. -auiv. ----wv.wr BAKKD1G AKJD INSURANCE. BANKING AND INSURANCE. i. vr. case, BROKER, BANKER, . -AND INSURANCE ADEN! ASTORIA, OREGON, Exchange bought and sdld on all parts -of the United States and Europe. mJnHPF ?S-From 8 o'clock until 4 o'clock p. v. a. m. COIHMERCIAt UiSTOar ASSURANCE COMPANY Capita! SI 2,500,000, MATT H. SIBSON, Agent, Astoria, Oregon I AGGREGATE CAPITAL $40,000. IMPERIAL OP IiOXBOr. NORTHERS OF IiOXDOX, QUEEN OF IiXVERPOOI. FIRE AND MARINE INSUR ANCE COMPANIES.. AGE5T. ASTORIA, --- - OREGON. Hie Mutual Insurance Co, OF CALIFORNIA, T. F. Houotiton.. ...President Cn'AS. R. Story Secretary Hamilton Boyd, i ac, r. nr-ar,r Geo. L. Story, j AsellvS for 0re8on Office Northeast corner of Stark and Firs streets, Portland, Oregon. 'Net Cash received for Fire Prem iums m 1877 5335.511 C-i Assets, Jan. 1.1S7S. .. 578,065 S LiaWitit Losses vnpaid S3.G38 37 Plvldcnds " 1AT7 00 5.505 .7? Surnlus for rrooeity Holders $572,470 4t "Losses paid In Oregon in six yearsS114,Gi6 72 I. W. CASE. Arjent. Astoria. Oregon. $67,000,X)00 CAPITAL. LIVERPOOL AKD LONDON AND GLOBE, NOETH BRITISH AND MERCAN TILE OF LONDON AND EDINBURGH. OLD CONNECTICUT OP HART FORD, AND COMMERCIAL OF CALIFORNIA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANIES, Representing a copitel of S457jOOO,M)0. A. VAN DUSEN. Agent. OUSETO LET. A "nice residence, new, rnntaininssix rooni3,illle ready for a tenant any time on short notice. Por particulars inquire at 55tf V THIS OFFICE. A BARE CHAHCE. I WILL SELL ANY OR ALL OF Tin, following described property, viz : 160 Acres, Stoc. 22, T. 8, 3f. orK. 9 vrvnL southeast quarter. Also, in OIneys Astoria Itfte 1, 2, 3, and 4, in Block 79r to 3, 4, 5, anil 6, In Block ICO; lots 2 and 4, in Block 128; and Lot S, in Block 132; North lialf of Block 8,-2 1-2 acres. DAVID INGALLS Astoria, Oregon, Dec. 10, 1878. 85-6m T. S. JEWETT. B. S. KIMBAU.. Draying & Trucking. fete. tef fcff-.-.- .t& ASTORIA TRUCK & DRAY CO., Squomucque st., between Cass and Main, Contract"! for juraying made and satisfaction CTiranceed. Orders left at the Occident do- , frnpiyni i. rritTi i tt -VirTTilXi. m 4hAJMUAJfcfc. aIt' ihuLx. -i -. yiM& ,-i.