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FARM AND1 HARDEN.
MATTERS OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURISTS. SomsUp-to-Dato II lots A boat Cul tivation or tha Soil and Yield Thsrsof Horticulture, Viticulture and Floriculture. Note from Western New York. The 44th annual meeting of the Western New York Horticultural So ciety was held at Rochester. Jan. 25 and 26. The attendance was very large, there being at least 500 present, and stand ing room was at a premium. The papers and topics discussed were handled with ability and the en thusiasm was great. Elwanger and Barry made an exhibit of 45 varieties of pears and a fine display of grapes, and the Geneva Experiment Station showed 56 varieties of apples. There was also a number of other smaller displays. Exhibitors of pumps and spraying apparatus were very plenty. Tresldent Harry being sick, Vice President Willard presided. "The De cay and the Preservation of Fruits" was the topic of a paper by Dr. G. C. Caldwell. He said that the decay of fruits was the action of germs, which break up the sugar of the fruit. Flies, wasps, and other insects carry the in fection of rotten fruit from one place to another. One year a large number of wasps was noticed and there was a great deal of decay in fruit, the next year there was few wasps and few de cayed fruit, showing that without doubt the germs of decay was spread by the wasps. The fungi once In the fruit creates a poison which destroys the cells of the fruits, the more acid and tannin in fruits the less It Is at taked by the fungi of rot. Q. Will it pay to have hogs run in the orchard to eat up dropped and rotten apples? A. Yes; they are a great help. Q. What shall we do with rotten grapes? A. Continued spraying of grapes with Bordeaux mixture will do away with the rot In grapes. R. Morrill said he picked all rotten fruit and diseased twigs early In the morning when damp with dew so that the germs would not scatter, and boiled them in caldron kettles, thus killing the germs by heat. ! "Horticultural Research," by Prof. Vf. H. Jordon, was the next subject. He said that he had lately been In at tendance at the Canadian meeting f dairymen and Cheesemakers and had found that the Canadians were strong In points where we were weak In this country. We had spent much effort in studying methods of production but had neglected the point of finding a profitable market for our products, and that was Just where they had expended their greatest efforts. At their meet ing he found the minister of agricul ture and several members of parlia ment all interested experts in cheese production. We have not got many members of congress in this country that are cheese makers or expert cheese men. Where we were weak they were strong, for they have put their efforts into finding a market for their prod uct, and the correct methods of mar keting. If the horticulturists of New York two years ago had thrown away half of their fruit and sold only the best, they would have received more for the crop than they did. The Amer ican farmer is not as loyal to organi zations as his Canadian neighbors, but if we would combine thoroughly and guarantee quality of all fruit we put on the market we would gain by it. We have been experimenting at the station to prove the falsity of the claims made by Andrew H. Ward that soda will take the place of potash. We have grown tomato plants In pure quartz sand, giving different plants the necessary quantities of nitrogen and phosphoric acid. Some of the plants were given potash and others soda but they absolutely refused to grow with soda and without potash, but grew nicely when no soda was furnished, showing that soda was not a necessary article of plant food and could not take the place of potash. Also grew some barley plants In same manner with but slightly different results. The barley would grow when provided with soda until about one foot high when all growth stopped, showing that the demand for potash did not commence at as early a stage In the growth of barley as in tomatoes. Latent Fertility In the Soil. There is no more Important question before the farmers of the country to day than that of maintaining and keep ing up the fertility of the soil, says Mirror and Farmer. The success of all farming operations depends upon it. Whether the farmer's specialty Is live stock, dairying or grain growing, he cannot make a success of any one unless he gives special attention to maintaining the fertility of his land and making it as productive as possi ble. ; In the December number of The In dustrialist, Mr. R. W. Clothier dis cusses the latent fertility of the soil. He states that farms do "run out" from long-continued usage and improper treatment, but adds that in the major ity of cases a very small per cent of their natural fertility has been taken away in the form of crops. By far the greater portion has been wasted by im proper methods of cultivation. To quote: : "A vry small per cent of the total weigr.t or plants is lurnisncd by the minerals of the soli; and of this small per cent the following elements are necessary to plant growth: Iron, sul phur, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, silicon, oxygen and ehlorln. Of these, all but potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen are present in the soil in such abundance as to be practically inexhaustible. The amount of these three elements, then, contain ed In a soil will determine its fertility; and since all of them may be consid ered of equal importance to plant growth, a deficiency In any one of them makes the soil poor." Taking Kansas soil as an example the writer goes on to show that it con tains 6,600 pounds of nitrogen to the acre to the depth of one foot. For an ideal crop of wheat 59.46 pounds of nitrogen per acre is required for both grain and straw. According to this an ideal crop of wheat could be grown yearly for 70 years before the supply of nitrogen would be exhausted. By the same cropping the phosphoric acid would last 115 years and the potash 200 years. But these represent the fertil ity In only the first foot of soil. Many of the roots penetrate below this depth, and, as the rain annually brings down to the soil from six to ten pounds per acre of nitrogen, it would seem that the fertility of the soil is prac tically inexhaustible. But the writer recognizes the fact that soils do wear out, and explains it as follows: In the first place only a small por tion of this plant food is ever available to the plant at any one time. Nearly all the nitrogen, for example, exists In the form of organic matter, which cannot be used until it undergoes the process of nitrification, the process oy which the nitrogen of organic matter Is converted Into nitric acid and ni trates. Nitrification takes places by means of bacteria, which live in the soil. In order that these bacteria may thrive and perform their work well, they must have conditions of warmth and moisture, must be supplied with oxygen, and the acid formed must be removed or combined with some base. Quite often a base easily acted upon is not present and too much free acid accumulates. Then, too, in water logged soils the temperature remains too low and the air Is excluded by the water. We must find some way to supply these necessary conditions. Enallage and City Milk Supply. A correspondent writes to Hoard's Dairyman as follows."' Our local paper has copied the following item, which has created some inquiry and a little disturbance in our milk trade, as It has In other localities: "Licenses to sell milk in the city have been withheld from several milk men because of Improper feeding, principally of ensilage. According to investigations by the board of health, the milk produced by ensilage feeding is not good. Butter makers will not buy it, it is refused at the condensed milk factories and at some cheese fac tories. Its sale has been forbidden In the city. The health board believes that the quality of the milk used has much to do with the health of a com munity; and the stringent rules en forced here in regard to the sale of milk, backed by the notably good health of the city, gives the claim strong ground. Meadvllle (Pa.) Tri bune." Can you point me to the latest facts as to ensilage feeding and its effect on milk and butter? Also, as to the rules of condensed milk factories as to the use of ensilage. Albion, Pa. E. F. D. Hoard's Dairyman replies: It would be interesting to know where the board of health obtained the Information on which It founded its adverse decision regarding the use of ensilage. It Is. probably a case of misguided enthusi asm, rather than a decision from ac tual facts. City boards of health have often very peculiar methods, and in their endeavors to make a "record" for themselves, frequently do foolish thlng3 and make equally fool rules aiil regu lations. Ensilage has passed the stage where its healthfulness as a milk pro ducing feed can be questioned by prac tical dairymen or by any one who has practical knowledge on the subject. Much of the butter and cheese produc ed in Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota is from cows whose feed is part en silage during the winter months. H. B. Gurler, whose certified milk sslls freely for the use of children and hospitals in Ch'cago at 12 cents a quart, uses en silage freely. We could bring up nu merous other cases, but It 13 hardly worth while, as ensilage is a perfect ly wholesome food for milk produc tion. The board of health is right when It claims that the quality of the milk has much to do with the health of a community, but its quality Is more a factor of age and cleanliness than any other condition. For some time manufacturers of condensed milk have refused to allow the use of ensilage because they were afraid of its possible effect on the milk that was sent to foreign countries. This objection is giving way and in Michigan the owners of condensing fac tories are beginning to advocate the use of ensilage and encourage the farmers to build silos. Oata and I'eaa aa Cow Feed. Mr. H. B. Niles, of Farmington, Minn., who relates his experience in this method of feeding In the North western Farmer as follows: I wish to add my testimony for the above named crop for summer feed for the dairy or other stock. That this crop Is not generally known to be val uable as It Is, I think we find proof as we look among the dairymen who practice ummer feeding and see how little of it is grown. At Westwood stock farm, after all other small grains were sown one and three-fourths acres of peas and oats were sown in the usu al manner, the peas being plowed un der at the rate of one bushel per acre and, a few days after, the oats were sown with seeder broadcast and har rowed in; cats sown at the rate of two bushels per acre. The crop was not put in early, as there was evidence of good pasture for some time, hut pas tures are gottlne o tliey deceive us and Just when -. . 'iirm most the fall, and It was po this season in this locality. July 1 the peas were Just be ginning to pod and the oats to head out. On that day I cut the first feed, and I give you some figures Just for what they are worth and not as proof positive of anything. We continued to feed from this plat once a day for twen ty days, all they would eat, to the fol lowing stock: Fifty-four cows and heifers, not all in milk; these were fed the whole twenty days. The first eight days twenty calves and three aged bulls were fed about what they would clean up at a feed. As the milk from the herd is weighed at each milk ing, I give you the figures for the last seven days before feeding the peas and oats, 5,060 lbs. The first seven days of July the milk weighed 5,232 lbs. and the next seven days 5,097 lbs. This brought us up to July 15, when the peas and oats began to show the effecti of the continued dry, hot weather, but the cows ate them clean until the last. July 21 we began feeding drilled corn on which the ears were well set but not much corn on them. Fed all the cows would cat up once a day for seven days when the milk record showed 4,459 lbs., an average of 63S lbs. per day, against an average for fourteen days on peas and oats of 737 lbs., and to help out my hobby a little more, will state that on the 22d of July, the second day we fed corn, one heifer's milk was added to the mess, averaging 18 lb3. per day. After this date we began feeding twice a day of the corn, and with the help of two more of those special purpose heif ers, brought the mess up to 700 lbs. per day. This is not all: it took less rods of land to feed of the peas and oats than of the corn, which was a good growth. Totatoea Scientifically Ralaed. A report sent out by the Cornell Ex periment Station says: Such remark able results in potato growing have been secured during the past three or four years on the Cornell Experiment Station grounds, that it has been thought desirable to test the methods employed here to ascertain whether they will give similar results on other 6oils and in other hands. It is hoped, also, by having the tests made by the farmers themselves on their own farms, to attract the attention of po tato growers throughout the state, more emphatically than It has been possible to do by the work done at the station. The land used for these experiments at the station la a gravelly soil which analysis has shown Is carrying little more than half the potential plant food found In average soils. It has not been manured or fertilized since the autumn of 1893, and has produced heavy crops of grain or forage each season till planted to potatoes. In 1893, eight plants averaged at the rate of 352.6 bushels, ranging from 304 to 415 bushels, according to treat ment. That year was especially fav orable for potatoes and the average for the state was extra high, being 122 bushels per acre. In 1896, nine plats averaged at the rate of 319.4 bushels, ranging from 245.8 to 350.3 bushels. The average yield of potatoes In New York for that year was 89 bushels per acre. In 1897, ten plat3 averaged at the rate of 322 bushels per acre, ranging from 234 to 384 according to treat ment. The average in the state for this year was 62 bushels per acre. The experiments of 1898 were simi lar to those of 1897, and are described in Bulletin 156. The average yield of eleven plats was 292.3 bushels, ranging from 206 to 398.6 bushels, according to treatment. Let the Itloori Flow to the Udder. From Farmers' Review: Any ex citement or disturbance of the animal system always affects the milch cows. In April, 1S98, the Kansas Agricultur al College purchased 12 head of cows from Lincoln county, which had to be forwarded by rail for over 100 miles. Records were kept from each Individual milking, and It was found that with the ride, homesickness and change of feed It took nearly two weeks for these cows to return to their normal quantity and quality of milk. Observations since then have demonstrated that any unusual excite ment or disturbance always influences the milk flow. A little knowledge of the structure of the udder will show why. The udder Is composed of cavities, or milk cisterns, and milk ducts, sur rounded by muscular connective ana fatty tissues. At the end of these milk ducts we find small cells which have the property of secreting and transforming nutrients from the blood Into milk. These cells are most active at the time of milking, and in fact a large part of the milk is elaborated at this time. This necessitates a good supply of blood to the udder during the process of milking, for it is im possible fcr these cells tp manufac ture milk without fresh supplies of nutrients from the blood. Any ex citement that tends to contract the muscles of the udder or turn the blood to other portions of the body will cause a decrease in the flow of milk. Beating the cow with a milk stool or speaking to her In hartft lan guage may cause tho blood to flow, but not to the udder. Even feeding the cow while milking her is a bad practice, as It tends to divert the blood from the udder to the digestive tract. Every act of the milker and every surrounding of the cow should be such that the latter will give her whole attention to the secretion of milk at milking time. In other words, allow the blocd to flow to the udder. . H. OTIS. Poultry on the farms of this country exceeds sheep In the value of product, and it is claimed that even the wheat crop must yield It p:r.cc to the large supply of p(,, :,..- , ,sa in valu Nil MAGH ruin. Appalling Accident Reported from Toulon, France. DEATH LIST REACHES SIXTY. Dlaaater at I.a Goabran, la the Depart ment or Var Over One Hundred l'er aona Said to Have lleen Injured Ki ploalob of Smokeless Powder. Great loss of life and property was occasioned by an explosion in naval magazine No. 1 at La Goubran, be tween La Seyne and Toulon, France. Sixty bodies have been taken from the ruins. Some of the victims are supposed to have been blown to atoms while others are believed to have been carried Into the sea and drowned. The injured number 110 and many of these are seriously hurt. The explosion Is supposed to have been caused by chemical decomposi tion in a box of smokeless powder. J. MADISON WELLS, OF RETURNING BOARD NOTORIETY. (From a Photograph Taken James Madison Wells, ex-governor of Louisiana and president of the re turning board that declared that state to have been carried by the Republic ans in 1876, thereby electing Hayes president of the United States, died suddenly the other morning at his home in Le Compte, Rapides parish, after an hour's illness. He and his BOTH RECEIVE REWARD. Senate Conflrma the Promotions of Dewey and Oil). President McKlnley sent to the sen ate the nominations of Rear-Admiral George Dewey to be admiral in the navy, and Brlg.-Gen. Elwell S. Otis to be a major-general by brevet. The senate confirmed the ncmlnatlons. Named by Michigan Prohibitionists. The Michigan prohibition judicial convention adopted a platform favor ing woman suffrage and the adoption of the Initiative and referendum. Frank B. Clark of Detroit was nominated for justice of the supreme court. Loss May lteach 8300,000. Fire In the clothing store of Bessp, Mills & Co., In the Windsor hotel block at Holyoke, Mass., totally destroyed the hotel and burned out several big stores. The loss will be at least 250, 000 and may reach $300,000. Soldiers In a Wreck. A special train, consisting of six coaches, filled with discharged sol diers, was derailed on the Mobile & Ohio railroad, near Tupelo, Miss. Sev en BoTuTl'rs were seriously Injured. Want a Cuban Soldier Ilttalned. Gen. Maximo Gomez asks Gov. -Gen. Brooke to reduce the American army of occupation to 10,000 men, retaining 10,000 Cuban soldiers In the service of the military government. Prnnonnee the Story Absurd. The war department officials pro nounce absurd the story that Agulnal do has taken several hundred Ameri can soldiers prisoners and removed them to the interior. Cripple Creek's Gold Output. Gold worth almost $56,000,000 has been taken out of the mines in the Cripple Creek, Colo., district In the eight years since the camp was lo cated. The Situation at Manila. There is a very noticeable change In Manila for the better, probably due to the arrival of re-enforcements for the American troops. Increase Wages of Employe. The American Steel and Wire com pany at Anderson, Ind., Increased the wages of 1,000 employes from 5 to 10 per cent. Made Appropriation of HI, 56(1,800,01 0. Appropriations mad3 by the Fifty fifth congress shows an aggregate of $1,506,890,016. AGAIN FOR GRANT. Michigan Ilepubllcan Renominate Su preme Juatiee. The Michigan republican state Judi cial convention nominated Claudius E. Grant for Justice of the supreme court. For regents of tht state university, Col. II. S. Dean of Ann Arbor and Col. Ell R. Sutton of Detroit were nominated by acclamation. The platform reaiflrms the principles of the St. Louis platform and pledges them support as a sure guarantee of national prosperity and honor. THREE PERSONS KILLED. Futilities Caaaed by a Cyclone at Macll aonfllle, Tenn. Three persons were killed outright, two fatally and eight others seriously injured by a cyclone at Madlsonvllle, Tenn. The dead are: Edward L. Hor ton, John Moser, Mrs. John Moser. The fatally Injured are: Mrs. Edward L. Horton, Miss Willie Irwin. Those seriously injured are: R. A. Roberson, wife and 2-year-old-chlld; Miss Delia Mason, Miss Rogers, Chas. Pierce, Hugh Hicks and Prof. Charles Kelley. Thirty-four Years Ago.) father before him were two of the largest cotton producers In the world, and also extensive breeders of blooded stock, owning Le Compte, who ran against Lexington on the Metarle track, now Metarle cemetery, In 1856. Because of his great wealth, family connections, and prominence In poli tics. Wells was elected a member of the secession convention. KASKASK1A SWEPT AWAY. Mlaalaalppl lllver Destroy Remnants ot First Capital of Illinois. By a sudden shift In the current ol the Mississippi river almost all ot what little remained of the historic town of old Kaskaskla the first set tlement in the Mississippi valley, the first capital of the state of Illinois was swept away Saturday. Itallroad Wreck In I'ennaylvanla. The Pennsylvania newspaper flyei was wrecked near Altoona, Pa. Two of the train crew were killed and twe Injured, and twenty cars and three locomotives were broken up. The thir ty passengers on the flyer ewaped al most without a scratch. Wagea to He Keatured. At Lowell, Mass., the operatives ol all the cotton mills have been notified that an advance iu wages generally, restoring the reduction of January. 1898, will take effect on April 3. Honors for Curl .Schiirat. The .vcventieth anniversary of the birth of Carl Schuiz was celebrated at New York. Congratulatory letters and telegrams were received from all over the world. Doublea Speed of Ship. Sig. Cordosa, a distinguished Italian Inventor, has Invented a screw pro peller which will double the speed ol hips at half the present coal con sumption. Uermany Deride to Walt. It is said Germany will not propose the partition of the Samoan Islands, but will wait and see whether Great Britain or the United States will pro pose It. Fuel Scarce In Teiaa. The magnitude of the Indian Terri tory and Arkansas coal miners' strike Is alarming the Industrial circles ol Texas. Fuel Is becoming scarce. lltirglara Loot a PoatoAlee. Burglars blew open the safe In the East Syracuse, N. Y., postofflce aud obtained nearly $3,000 In postage stamps and money. Chile May Sell Cruiser. The Chilian government, it is ru mored, contemplates a sale of several cruisers to the United State and Ecua dor. UoTernment Oilers a Warship. Our government has proffered th use of a warship to convey the re; mains of Lord Hcrschell to England. " Only the Firsi Step is Difficulty The first step in Spring should be to cleanse Nature's house from Winter's accumti lations. Hood's Sarsaparilla does this work easily. It is America's Greatest Spring Medicine. It purifies the blood, as millons of people say. It makes the weak strong, as nervoaa men and women gladly testify. It cures all blood diseases, as thousand of cured voluntarily write. It is just th medicine for you, as you will gladly say after you have given it a fair trial. Bad BlOOd-" Although past 70 years off age I am thoroughly well. It was tare bottles of Hood's Sarsaparllla that md me so after spending over $ In medical attendance. My trouble wai a raw sore on my ankle." Mrs. Louisa Masox, Court Street, Lowell, Mass. Running Sores-" After worrying toor months 1 gave my children Hood's Sarsa- f arllla and it cured them of running sores. Iood's Pills cured me of dyspepsia and constipation." Mrs. Kate K. Thomas, 31 Governor St., Annapolis, Md. Consumptive COUgh -"live years ago I had a consumptive cough which re duced me to a skeleton. Was advised to take Hood's Sarsaparllla which I did and recovered normal health. I hav e been well ever since." Matilda Hridgf.water, Cor. Pearl and Chestnut Sts., Jeffersonvllle, Ind. Hood a 1111a rurs Hrer lllf, the non Irritating aal tho only cathartic to taka "with" Hood HartaprUU It isn't what a man gives, but tbe way he gives it that shows his true character. The liquor question staggers the in temperate man more than any other. The man who has to struggle for living acquires a superior education. J Some men drop all their money try ing' to pick up more. TESTS PATIENCE. The Most Patient People Muat Show An noyance at Times. Nothing spoils a pood disposition quicker. Nothing taxes a man's patience. Like any itchiness of the skin. Itching piles almost drive you crazy. All day it makes you miserable. All night it keeps you awake. Itch. Itch. Itch. Vvith no relief.'. Just the same with eczema. Can hardly keep from scratching it. . You would do so but you know it makes you worse. Such miseries are daily decreasing. People are learning1 they can be cured. Learning the merits of Doan's Oint ment. Plenty of proof that Doan's Ointment will cure piles, eczema, or any itchi-- ness of the skin. Read the testimony of a Battle Creek citizen. Mr. A. G. Ayers, bookbinder of 197 West Main street, Battle Creek, sayst My hands became so sore from eczema that it was with difficulty I could bend. my fingers. The skin cracked open, large scabs formed and in addition to the spots being tender they itched intolerably. I tried everything I could hear about or get hold of to stop the trouble but I was unable to do so until I procured Doan's Ointment. I bad heard it spoken about by several peo ple but as I thought It would act like all the other preparations which I tried I waited some time until I was com pelled from the condition of my hands to do something. Doan's Ointment cured me. Up to date, and this is soma months after I stopped the treatment. , I have had no indication of any return. Doans Ointment for sale by all dealers. Price 50 cents. Mailed bi Foster-Milburn Co., Buffalo, N. Y. , sol'i agents for the U. S. Remember thi name Doan's and take no substitute. What some people don't know they are always talking about. THE EXCELLENCE OF SYRUP OF FIGS is duo not only to tho originality and simplicity of the combination, but also to the care and skill with which it is manufactured by scientific processes known to tho California Fio Srnur Co. only, and we wish to impress upon all the importance of purchasing the true and original remedy. As the genuine Syrup of Figs is manufactured by the California Fio Syrup Co. only, a knowledge of that fact will assist one in avoiding the worthless imitationn manufactured by other par ties. The- high standing of the Cali fornia. Fio Stkup Co. with the medi cal profession, and the satisfaction which the genuine Syrup of Figs has given to millions of families, makes the name of the Company a guaranty of the excellence of its remedy. It is far in advance of all other laxatives, as it acts on the kidneys, liver and bowels without irritating or weaken ing them, and it does not grijuj nor nauseate. In order to get its beneficial effects, pleat e remember the name oC tho Companj' CALIFORNIA FIG SYRUP CO. MAN riltlVClSC. CaL LOL'ISTLLLE, Cj. MEW YORK,