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CHIEF TOPICS AND SPEAKERS AT CONFERENCE
FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Natural Resources Conference Topics Under Discussion (All from Stereographs, copyright, UOS, by Underwood & Cndorwood. Now York.) ingenious news Photograph, showing at a glance a most remarkable, epoch-making conference, the first of its kind in the history of civilization. In the center, Mr. Roosevelt. In the inner circle iibout him. beginning at tin." top and passing from left to right, nre Speaker Cannon, Forestry Chief PlnchOt, Post-ma.-' r General Meyer, John Hays Hammond, president f the American Institute of Mining Engineers; Senator La Follette, Senator Knox and sen-tary Root, in the outer circle, beginning at the top, John Mitchell, Beth Low. Bamuel Gtompers, Secretary Cortelyou, Gov Folk of Missouri, Justice Moody of the supreme conn, Oov. Hask.-i! of Oklahoma, Gov. Curry of New Mexico, William J. Bryan, Andrew Carnegie, James Wilson, secretary of agriculture: . Hughea and Gov, Johnson of Minnesota. On the margin are pictured mining, cattle raising, railroading, farming, river transportation, manufacturing, building material and forestry. When the conference of governors , of states and men distinguished in po litical life of the nation met at the White House In Washington, May 13-14-15, in behalf of tht preservation of the country's natural resources, the st i .ingest, and. perhaps, the most im portant convention ever held in the ca; !tol was inaugurated. Among those invited to attend by President Roosevelt himself were m m bers of the cabinet, judges of the su preme court of the United States, governors. Of all the states in the union, including the executives of A1fck and Hawaii, and Andrew Car negie, William Jennings Bryan, James J. Hill, the railroad magnate; John Mitchell, the labor leader, and prom !.( nt scientists and business men ftr m all over Ihe country. Political differences, opposing issues of national questions and business rivalry were laid aside to discuss the ways and means of conserving the nat ural resources of the country. President Roosevelt opened the con vention with an exposition of the why and wherefore of the conference and an outline of his views of the mat ter. While on his trip dow i the Mis sissippi river last fall, with the gov ernrrs of 16 states, under the auspices of the Inland Waterways association, bo is said to have obtained the nucleus of the idea which resulted in Um present conference. j It will be remembered that Presi dent Roosevelt on that trip expressed the opinion that the question of the Q serration of the natural resources of the country was of more Import al e than th I regulation of the rate question. A number of papers, prepared at ?! president's request, were read and discussed. .Tames J. Hill, the railroad king, poke on "Relations Between Rail and water Transportation." His paper dealt with such subjects as the growth of rail transportation, its dis tribution and extent of systems, cost and present value, traffic and earning c apacity, estimated cost of the cultiva tion of trees for railroad ties and th r preservation, increasing railways to meet prospective requirements, etc. Regarding water transportation Mr. Hill dealt with Its cost, present facil ities, relation to rail transportation, pressing lines of development, regu lation by business Interests or by law, influence of cheapened transportation on production, etc. Vnder the general head of land resources. Prof. T. ( Chamberlain of the University of Chicago, in a paper on '"Soil." dealt with Its origin, nat ural products, progressive enrich ment, effects of cultivation, erosion, and general estimates of loss to the country through needlessly reduced fertility and decreased production. The question of "Forests" was ex pounded by R. a. Long, president of the Long-Hell Lumber company of Kansas City, Mo., who explained their early use and destruction, present ex tent and value, rate of consumption, estimated duration, prospective prices of forest products, the intluence of forests on coil, ground water and springs, rivers, floods and low water, waterway improvement and naviga tin. and the relation between forest control and crop production, com merce and population. Dr. George V. Kobor of Washington in a paper on "Sanitation" spoke of the development of systems of com munity water supply, relation between pu.ity and clarity of water for com munity supply, mortality and disease due to Impure water, and the action required in the interests of the public health. "Reclamation." by Hon. George C. Pardee of Oakland, Cat., dealt with the extent of arid and semi-arid re gions, development and extent of Ir rigation, growth of concepts concern ing water-rights and water as a basis of property, influence of irrigation on production. commerce, population. Consumption of water and other re sources, reclamation and stream con trol by drainage, and extent of swamp and overflow lands and increased value available by drainage, protection and flood prevention. Judge Joseph H. Carey of Cheyenne, Wyo., in a paper on "Land Laws," dealt with their early policy of dis posal, transfer under state charters, especial grants, etc., development, ef fect of creation of national parks, forests and other reserves, advantages of making this a nation of homes and home owners, state and federal action required, etc. Hon. H. A. .Tastro, president of the National Live Stock association of Hakersfleld. Cal.. delivered a paper on "Grazing and Stock Raising." He treated on the development of the in dustries in the United States, their extent and value, grazing in the arid and semi-arid regions, methods and results, comparative cost and profit and relation between stock raising and commerce. Under the general head of mineral resources, Dr. I. C. White, state geo logist of West Virginia, In speaking of mineral fuels, dealt with the coal fields of the United States, methods of mining, losses In mining, estimated duration of present methods of min ing and use. improvements in mining and use, connection with coal produc tion and transportation, relation be tween coal and other resources, pe troleum and rock gas and possible substitutes for fuel. Andrew Carnegie spoke on "Ores and Related Minerals," their produc tion in the United Slates, price, esti mates of available quantity, dtiration of supply, processes of mining and QUSrrying and probable consequences of exhaustion of standard minerals. On May 12 President Roosevelt en tertained at dinner the cabinet, the members of the supreme court, the governors and the other more dis tinguished guests. Gifford Pinchot, chief of the forestry division, gave a r ( option to the governors and the In land Waterways association on May 14. On the afternoon of May 15 Mrs. Roosevelt gave a garden party on the White House grounds for all the dele gates to the convention. At the vari ous hotels in Washington arrange ments were made for smaller recep tions and dinners. All of the governors who accom panied President Roosevelt on his Mis sissippl rl?er trip last fall were pres ent. They are: Comer of Alabama, Broward of Florida, Deneen of Illi nois. Cummins of Iowa, Hock of Kan sas, Blanchard of Louisiana, Folk of Missouri. Shelton of Nebraska, Cuny of New Mexico, Rurke of North Da kota. Frantz of Oklahoma. Chamber lain of Oregon. Davidson of Wisconsin and Brooks of Wyoming. That the conference attracted world wide interest was evidenced by the fact that many of the foreign diplo mats at Washington followed the af fairs of the convention closely. Those who were in close touch with the conference arrangements declare they have never known another move ment which has been greeted with such quick and enthusiastic popular approval. An indication of public opinion was afforded by the great mass of corre spondence which poured into the White House on this subject. Organi zations of all sorts expressed realiza tion of the greatness of the enter prise. That, conservation of national re sources is nothing about which the political parties wish to raise an Is sue is indicated by the attitude of the Democratic leaders. Roth William J. Bryan and Gov. John A. Johnson, leading candidates for the Democratic presidential nomination, wrote to President Roosevelt expressing their approval. Equally emphatic indorse ment, it is understood, has been voiced by Grover Cleveland. Mr. Bryan's letter to the president read: "I great ly appreciate your kind Invitation and shall take pleasure In attending tfte conference on the conservation of nat ural resources. I am, I beg to assure you, In hearty sympathy with the pur pose of the conference, and I have no doubt that the discussion of the sub ject will be very helpful to us all." Gov. Johnson's letter read: "To as At the White House May 13, 14, 15 Some of the Chief Talkers sure you that I heartily agree with your conclusion that the conservation of the natural resources of our country presents a problem demanding the best thought of OUT times is superflu ous. We have been exploiting our resources with no thought of the mor row, and the claims of posterity upon us should certainly be taken Into ac count." In his letter of invitation to the conference President Roosevelt said: "There is no other question now before the nation of equal gravity with the question of conservation of our natural resources, and It is the plain duty of us who. for the moment, are responsible, to take inventory of the natural resources which have been handed down to us, to forecast the needs of the future, and so handle the great sources of our prosperity as not to destroy in advance all hope of the prosperity of our descendants." The need for such a conference Is illustrated by a few facts vouched for by investigators. Government experts say that between 300.000.000 and 400, 000,000 tons of coal were lost in 1908 by penny wise and pound foolish methods, and that the total so wasted since the beginning of the industry is 50,000,000,000 tons. Millions upon millions of horsepower are going to waste through failure properly to utilize and conserve the waterpower of the United States. The construction of reservoirs at the sources of streams in which flood waters may be stored to be released at periods of low water Is expected not only to keep the waters at. a con tinuous level, but prevent the destruc tion of property by floods, maintain constant levels for navigation and to develop water power. At the present rate of timber con sumption it is estimated that the price of every kind of lumber will be about double the present price only one de cade from to-day. It Is said that the total Iron ore available In the world to-day is 25, 000.000,000 tons, of which three-fifths Is in the United States. Should the rate of consumption continue to In crease In the United States In the same ratio that it has in the course of the last score of years, at the end of two centuries there would be no more ore to be mined. In the United States there Is an area of 175,000,000 acres of land susceptible to reclamation by Irrigation, and 500. 000.000 acres of western public range which may be made available for In creased production of meat by restrict ing the grazing and resoedlng portions which have been destroyed by unre stricted grazing. With this area made available once more, It is esti mated that its meat producing capac ity will be nearly doubled, NEEDS OF THE NAVY TWO BATTLESHIPS TO BE ADDED TO FLEET. President's Recommendation That Four Be Constructed This Year Not Heeded by Congress Avoids Rivalry with Other Nations. The senate concurred with the house in limiting to two the number of battleships to be authorized this year. The president was insistent that there should be four. Congress, which holds the purse strings, would only grant the smaller number. That ends the matter for the time being. If the majority in congress could have been brought to believe that the two additional ships would be an effectual insurance against war it would have voted them in spite of the fact that expenses are outrunning receipts and that economy is highly expedient. The majority did not agree with the presi dent as to the need of so much in surance. The coming yean will de termine whether it or the president was the wiser. There Is a belief which perhaps is not ill founded thai the result of this year's contest over battleships will be an annual provision for two ships, thus doubling the program of recent years. In lf06 only one battleship was authorized; ditto in 1907, It would take too long if the program of a hip a year were adhered to, to pro vide substitutes for the smaller bat tleshlps still in commission, which were constructed several years ago. Those battleships do not compare fa vorably with the huge ones which are being constructed nowadays and should not be counted in the same class with them. The needs of the navy are not re stricted to battleships. It requires more and better armored cruisers, tor pedo boats, and torpedo boat destroy ers arid submarines. It needs more colliers and all the other paraphernalia of a complete fleet. The appropria tions for these different vessels end tor the sailors to man them will add to the bulk of future appropriation lulls, but they will be necessary ex penses. The special naval activity of one Country SlmOSt inevitably sets the pace for others. If a foreign nation with which there appeared to lie any danger of the United States coming into collision Were to set about in creasing its naval force at an unusual rate congress would change its pres ent policy and proceed to build ships on a more extensive scale. On the other hand, if the United States were suddenly to expand its program of naval construction in a marked degree, other nations, uncertain as to the pur pose, would hasten to insure them selves by adding more vessels to their fleets. That, would be an unwhole some rivalry which should be avoid ed for the sake of the taxpayers. Chi cago Tribune. Testimonial to American Navy. Some of the criticism that has lately been directed against the navy may have come from sincere, conscientious but timid men. though most of the critics seem to be constitutionally un fitted to see good in anything. if there are any persons who are really convinced that our battle-ships are inferior they should listen to what Sir William Henry White has to saw Sir William was for nearly 20 years responsible designer of all British war ships, and the purchase of two of his designs was the foundation of the present American navy, for from those designs the Charleston and the Balti more were built. According to this good authority, we have naval architects as capable as any in the world, and our shipbuilding yards are quite equal to any in Great Britain. The result Is that, in Sir William's opinion, the United States has a fleet that, ship for ship, is as good as anything the world contains and, next to the British navy, is the most formidable in existence. This testimonial from a man who knows what he is talking about should more than offset the vaporings of amateurs who assert that the Amer ican navy would be unable to repeat the glorious exploits of Manila and Santiago if we were opposed by a first-class power. Let Us Have Action. We would once more urge upon con gress the ureat necessity for emer gency currency legislation at this ses sion. The commission Idea Is a good one, but It provides no suitable substi tute for immediate action. The com mission project should be regarded as something supplementary. It should follow the passage of a law that will satisfy the public mind that the coun try has protective legislation that it did not have last fall. The mere ex istence of such a law would serve to establish confidence and so to pre vent panics. It is obvious also that a postpone ment at this stage will be discourag ing to all schemes of currency reform If we should be so fortunate as to pass Into a new era of confidence and Indif ference. The subject awakens the grsatest possible Interest now because the memory of the last panic Is so fresh. Delay will lead to delay. Lack ing the powerful pressure of the pres ent time, politicians and financial ex perts will be the more inclined to em phasize their disagreements and reject compromises. They may even quarrel over a commission's report and then sink into a comatose state until the next big Jolt comes. Let us have action ncr r.ad liter w can argue bcut reports Indenniro t and m comparative sate; v. TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN. Arbitration Compact Probably Good for Both Countries Concerned. The senate ratified the arbitration treaty with Great Britain, though it had revived many vigorous protests vhlch were Intended to prevent rati fication. The treaty resembles In Its general terms one that has been ne gotiated with France, but contains two provisions all its own. One of these is that the special agreements that St I made according to its terms shall not be binding upon Great Britain before they are binding upon the United States. This stipulation Is due to the Intervention Of our senate as part of the treaty making power, which may cause daleys. and If the present. British sug gestion is a novel one it will be seen that it is a perfectly natural one and that it would merely put tin two OOUntries on even terms. The second provision to which we have referred relates to the self-governing British colonies. Before Great Britain under takes to arbitrate a question in which any of these colonies is ")i:eeined she must by the terms of the provision first secure the concurrence of the colony affected. Turning now to (be general features of the treaty, we find that no startling advance with the principle of arbitra tion is proposed. The problems to be submitted at The rlagu I are only such as relate to differences of a legal na ture that cannot be satisfactorily set tled through the usual diplomatic channels. Furthermore, each power may decide tor itself whether a sub ject under discussion is proper for submission or not, which is to say that in the United States the government may act as it sees tit. But we have no doubt that the machinery that, is provided in the treat; will steadily encourage resorts to arbitration and that every sueh means for preventing international misunderstandings an 1 promoting peace will have the strong and Increasing support of public senti ment. As to risks there need be no f' Uis, for governments move very cautiously in these matters. Differences affecting the vital interests, independence or honor of the contracting powers are outside the range of the treaty. The Panama Canal. Secretary Taft goes to the isthmus of Panama presently to see how work on the canal is getting along and to look after some little matters that need attention. The trip ought to be a welcome diversion from banqueting and speoehmaking, and the report which he will make after his return should give the public some Idea of the progress which is being made in the construction of the canal. Kvery month or so there appears a state ment from the chief engineer tolling how many cubic yards of earth have been removed, but these statements do not paean D)UCh to the average American, who finds it hard to remem ber how many yards still remain to be moved. For several weeks nothing friendly or unfriendly has been said about canal affairs. The last bit of adv. use criticism was Mr. John Blgelow's pamphlet, in which he condemned the present pain of construction in every particular and drew the gloomiest pic ture of the length of time and hun dreds of millions in money that would be required to carry out that plan. Nobody connected with the canal has made any reply to Mr. Bigelow's charges and predictions. Little notice was taken of them by anybody, part ly because it was assumed that Col. Goethals knows more about the sub ject than a man who has a reputation as a publicist but is not an expert in canal construction and has no person al knowledge of conditions on the isthmus. When Secretary Taft gets back he may make a comprehensible report that will let the public know what, has been done, what there is to do, and whether the earlier estimates as to the length of time it will take to complete the canal or the money that will be needed should be modi fied in any particular. A Change of a Word. It requires but a little effort of thft memory to recall how the gentle and benign McKlnley was denounced as tyrant and Imperialist by the frantie antis who worked themselves into fury over the retention of the Philippines. The madness spread over several years, breaking out in public meetings, in numerous books and in countless petitions, and a large part fell upon Roosevelt. Hut It passed, as such things do. Now the cry is executive usurpation. Some of the extremists In congress and In Democratic and Populistlc con ventions are arraying their strongest adjectives in trying to show bow Roosevelt had overridden the consti tution and taken to himself all the powers of the three branches of gov ernment. It Is amusing how angry they seem to get when, as a matter of fact, nobody Is angry at all. This is the gain we have made. The anti-imperlallsts were really sincere. The executive usurpationlsts are Pick wicks. Baltimore American. The Question in Illinois. What has been done to Sullivan or to Bryan In the meanwhile that he who was once obnoxious should now be acceptable? The Nebraska statesman, according to all accounts. Is as severely pure as ever. Sullivan, for all we know or can see or hear. Is as tough as ever. We cannot be sure that he was ever an antl-Lryan man. We must assume, therefore, that be sinned in methods and details, and it is obvious that Bryan has for given him. But why? That is and i remains the ticcslln. New York 1 Sun.