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fpmlUMib. fic CSrcnt Untiicy Country, Govern on men of 0,428,800 acres ol Iniiil, 4,031,1)01 iicrwi yet vncnnt subject to entry under tho public land lam of tlio United Hlalcs. The Official Papor of lUrnejr County lui the largMtt circulation and la one of he belt advertising mediums In Eastern Oregon. f he XXIII BURNS, HARNEY COUNTY, OREGON, NOVEMBER 12, 1910 NO 52. FARMING DOCTRINE -pts of Prof. Shaw's Address at Dry Farm Congress ODS USED, CROPS GROWN erv Practical Sucrcestiona mat snoism uc en Consideration and Trial by Local Farmers hods That Promise Success The Equipment. ties-Herald lias received that it ia of tho highest' money Etext of Prof. Thomas 'value, because ot tne largo yieius ,j . .. i.- , obtained. Tho yields obtained UUlWoa KltWU fcj.vw wi ling congress at Spokane and prints a portion of bblem of dry farming is test problem that con- i people of the West to- from winter wheat properly grown have in somo instances gone boyond GO bushels per acre. The average yield is not less than 25 bushels per acre. Tho phe nomenally largo yields of winter "Vl wheat arc due: first, to the ele- IlUmimuuu ,L CAua ,. BnnnA t ihn .i l l T I I11C11LO in uh: OUUi WWIIUi w - Diems comuiuuu. in , . . ,, . . r . .. ... .. ., maiurinir oi mo wneai ucioro il ion witn ituiemiiHiiKiH-,. . . , , . .. . . lt - is niiDaired by drought, and S-,:--'-s The problem of irri-,"1 - ... .... one of great signifi- next to winter wheat is probably d yet when irrigation . T " "Z thebestthatitcando,'"'"".uctiI"""- ."" "" , .. . fiVanotyis mentioned because it ! Ulan IWU pel tern, ui - .... , id land in the West can c,an unquestionably endure more ;ht under irrigation. All arougnc wan any ouier vanu. mainline portion, exclud- - - . -- - t areas, must be made iIlu """ ""' . .. :ce crops, if it is l0 pro-1 '-' "".""'"" ,.w , ', UU lu spring uicuiumk ua nuo m- reacly been shown. The other spring crops that have proved successful are spelz, white hul less barley and oats. Spelts is probably equal to durum wheat in its ability to withstand drought, and it yields well. The same may be said of white hul less barley. Both spelts and white hulless barley mature early and this means that they are less liable to be injured than Borne other crops by the dry weather that usually accompanies the ma turing of the grain. Tho oat crop also may be successfully crown, but not so easily as the other croDS named, as it stools more than these and calls for more moisture to make the trrowth successful. The cultivated crops that may bo grown are corn, potatoes, 1 .. .l !11 untr. rt IhnoA in. ucana anu huiu iuuu ui uii fern at all on the methods applicable to what is ly denominated ury Conservation Congress held at St. Paul, many it features were dwelt : the various speakers, most important subject ervation was never once ed. The reference here proper conservation of Bture in the soil. In other it may be spoken of as the dtion of the precipitation 31s upon the semi-arid lunnc what may proper- fcnominated the period of bwth, that is, a period tho months of April, iine and July. The value noisture that falls during lonths if properly con- tia worth more than the of all. other material combined : farminir then may well urage, when they think of nitude of the work whicn : trying to further. s discussion of this great (4) the crops that may vn under dry conditions; iition that should be fol- and (6) the equipment of ler during the first sea- en he locates upon ma rhese phases of the work discussed in the order i been proved beyond the of a doubt that good of wheat, rye, barley, bats and peas can be grown rimer-fallowed land, pro- he work of summer-fal- the land has been properly unusual drouKht. and that arge yeilds may be obtained ason when the rainfall is The advocates' corn fodder is unquestionably the most valuable and important, it is valuable because it will furnish fodder to the farmer which is so much needed in dry areas. It will furnish more fodder than any the plan followed, will other crop that can be grown. It outline as follews: (1) is valuable because me oniy iinu- s of dry farming the sue-1 tations that may be set to its hich have been proved;, growtn are tne neeas oi mo mr- ;hods that are likely to mer and nis ability to utilize mo methods that are rich in crop. but have not been fully i The experience of the past sea son has confirmed the view, mat it is hazardous to try to grow a cmn of cram on the -bench lands of Montana when these have I been plowed in tho spring and the crops sown the same season. If the season should prove moist a good crop may re sult, but if it .should prove very dry it will assuredly fail, and tho failure may be complete. The growing of crops thus in the dry country, is in a- sense a sort of gamble. There is always an element of uncertainty in it which should not bo risked. The It has also been proved season cannot bo forecasted, I 1 t .1 ..tn ?!.. ..t.sxnAn lilt 11.113 I ItYl fT 1 t J Tl H f I Tl O iSOnabjy gouu ciupo umucuwuiii hi""' wi..... nonsuch land in a sea-, tho land tho previous year I or the cron of the next season. If. however the farmer feels that he must incur tho hazard, an normal. These results' some crops may be grown more followed such preparation; surely than others in a dry sea- ;nd so uniformly that they son. Ono of these is durum whpnL a second is sneits. anu a third is flax. Tho flax crop can be grown with more certainty on spring plowed land than any other. But when the attempt is made to grow it thus, it should bo sown early. It should bo sown on a well prepared bed ahd judiciously harrowed at tho right stage in tho growth of the plants. While it is an assured fact that a cerial crop on tho bench will give at least a fair return after summer-fallow properly manag ed, provided tho crop has been sown in season and properly cared for, it would seem reason able to suppose that lands devot- 1 a 4-1. a rvwtiiftnr Af n nulflvnful ;be doubted any longer. fey will nottollow on every ft land. Experience has that it is much more diffi- , rule to grow a crop in feence of irrigation in the lands beside tho streams In the bencn lanus aoovo I This is owing to tho more baracter of tho subsoil in ner. crops that may bo success- rown in the dry larming nay be divided into three They are (1) cereals, ttivated crops and (3) al , Among tho cereals winter is beyond all comparison at important for tho rea- cereal crops that would give a fair return to tho grower. This conclusion is based on tho fact that as far as concerns tho culti vation of tho soil, tho process is not greatly different from that employed when cultivating tho summer fallow. In both instan ces the cultivation will bo clean or at least H ought to bo, and in both cases tho soil is stirred with no little frequency. Thus far, therefore, tho two processes aro almost identical. But thero is a marked differ ence in ono respect, no crop is grown on tho summer fallow, and thorcfore, no moisture is taken from tho soil in that way. A crop is grown in tho other in stance, and while- it isr being grown, it is s6 fa'r taking mois ture out of tho soil. How much moisture will thus bo taken will depend somewhat on tho nature of tho crop. It follows, there fore, that after a cultivated crop there will be less moisture left in the soil than after a summer fallow. Tho opponents of this theory of growing crops, object, that because they take moisture from tho soil while thoy aro be ing grown, in the semi-arid country, there will not bo enough loft to assure a fair crop of grain coming after a cultivated crop. Tho great reliance for forage will be alfalfa. Tho farmer in tho dry country mu3 depend more on alfalfa for hay than any other cron. Haum v it can be grown and successfully in all or nearly all the bench land country that is susceptible of cultivation. On our demonstration farms in Montata. the failure to cet a stand of alfalfa wevo fewer than with any other crop. In nearly every instance tho crop was grown on spring-plowed land. In nearly every instance, tho crop came up and grew successfully. In some instances where there was not enough of moisture to start the seed, it camo up weeks later. At Chinook, on a sandy loam soil, alfalfa, sown in tho spring gave two cuttings to tho lower ground, the rainfall was but 3.95 inches from April 1st to September 1st The land was spring plowed. At Chester al falfa sown late in May, has given a splendid stand on some new fallowed land. From ono to one and one-half tons may bo grown per acr.e per year, and in moist seasons even larger crops will be obtained. What has been said, prepares the way for what is to bo said regarding rotation. It will bo clearly apparent, therefrom that a part of tho land should bo fal lowed every year, that a part will be devoted to cultivated crops, and that a part will bo devoted to tho growing of alfalfa and pasture. Tho most profita ble rotation will grow winter wheat and on the summer-fallowed land and spring crops on tho cultivated land. Cultivated crops will be grown after winter wheat, tne ground being pioweu in tno fall, the summer fallow will fol low the spring cereals. By this system two crops can bo grown in threo years, whenever it is possible to grow cultivated crops with reasonable success. Tho alfalfa will furnish a crop more or less every year, and after a time this land may bo broken and cultivated. Tho alfalfa will renew the land, not only by en riching it but also by supplying it with humus every few years, tho alfalfa would bo grown on a different portion of tho farm, but a change should not bo made until a stand had been secured on other land. Tho proportion of the cultivated land growing crops should about equal that of tho summer-fallowed land, to properly carry out this rotation, but of course this may bo modified. From what has been said it will bo very evident that a man that settles on bench lnnd in tho spring and breaks up sod land with tho expectation that ho will get a crop, may bo sorely disap pointed. His crops may almost completely fail. In tho autumn ho may bo loft without any sup port. In tho spring ho should break up land and he should con tinuo breaking as long as tho work can bo done with a reason able amount of labpr and ex pense. But ho should not try to grow a largo area of spring crop. Ho should rather devote his ener- EXTEND RAILROAD WEST Toward This Valley From Vale says The Malheur Enterprise ENGINEER APPLYS F01I7 MILES Construction Engineer Puts in Application to O. S. L. Directors Whriwarc Snid to be ravoraoie-uoum Mean Buildinrof Harriman Trans-Oregon Line. r..M .1 u..ii.i: nf d,;a Hmo fJim'urlKdiction of tho engineers' ii. .. nmmiotmr tlmn nvnr ' corns of tho United States army, before. A few days ago Con-1 although its head will continuo to struction Engineer D. H. Ashton, bo tho secretary of tho interior, of Mm local construction office, , It is said cultivation, Ho Is anxious, when tho tim bered valleys aro opened, to havo tho lands and the timber go to tho permanent homesteaders, and not to timber companies or to speculators. On this bottom land is moro than enough timber to meet all tho demands of tho homoslcador; enough, in most instances, to net him a handsome profit, after paying the expense of clearing. But this profit is not begrudged the homesteader, if ho acts in goo 1 faith. INDUSTRIAL NOTES. sent into headquarters of tno Oregon Short Lino system at Salt According to tho ntory received hom from Washington, the mat- LakoCityan application for tho J tor has gono so far that Secretary construction of an extension of Ballinger on Oct 27 took it up 27 miles of road bed and track1 with President Taft personally, from Vale on west, says tho Valcand it is said that tho president expressed views mat coinciucu with thoso of Ballinger regarding "what ought to bo done." Two army engineers also took nnrt in tho conference and tho Enterprise. This matter will bo taken up shortly at tho directors' meeting nlonrr with other proposed exten sions to be mndo early next year, part in tlio coniercnco anu mo It will be remembered that last president was given a clear idea month tho stockholders of tho Oregon Short Lino voted an in crease of $72,500,000 to tho road's capital stock, making a total cap italization of $100,000,000. It is the plans of tho Short Lino pcoplo to uso a large part of this money in tho construction ol tho proposed extension from Vale across tho state. When asked whether ho tlmntrlir the application for the extension would be granted, Engineer Ashton only smiled and replied that ho was not allowed to say. But tho smile was one of satisfaction and easily a reply that everything was most favor able for tho beginning of con struction work on the Harriman trans-Oregon lino in tho spring from this point It was also gathered that as soonns tho 27 mile extension was completed further appropriations would bo made to ca'rry on tho road across tho state to meet tho Deschutes line. All this is verified by the pre sence in Vale this week of Right-of-wnvAcent H. B. Thompson of tho O. S. L. headquarters at Salt Lake City. Mr. Thompson, who secures and closes all titles to right-of-way wherever tho Short Lino is to build extensions, has been working on right-of-way hero and put in tho past few days among tho record books in the countv clerk's office. . Mr. Thompson states that right-of-ways aro being closed very satisfactorily in manycases but that a few ranchers aro bound to obstruct railroad construction by demanding exhorbitant prices for their right-of-way Ho has almost come to tho conclusion that ranchers in this vicinity are not in favor of railroads. as to tho plans under considera tion, it is averred. Many thousands of dollars an nually iro expected to bo saved as a result of this reorganization, according to Secretary Ballingcr's ideas, a3 considerable duplication will bo done away with. With the rumor that Nowcll is to be removed, and an army en gineer placed in his position as chief of the reclamation service, speculation finds great opportun ity to whot itself on tho query as to the identity of the army engi neer who is to bo given tho job. It is practically certain that Pres ident Taft will appoint tho man that Secretary Ballenger chooses as best fitted for the office, and it is generally believed that Ballin gor will pick h'rs man from the members of tho board of army engineers that was appointed early this year to examine and report on government irrigation projects with a view to ascertain ing which are feasible and most worthy of receiving a share of tho $20,000,000 from tho bond is sue passed by tho last congress. LANDS IN FORESTS WILL HE OPENED CHAN0.E IN RECLAMATION SERVICE. Gossip i3 rifo in local reclam ation circles over tho rumor that reorganization of that service with a view to greater efficiency and greater economy has been begun by Secretary of tho Inte rior Richard A. Ballinger. This story originated evidently in Washington and its significance has created quite a stir in official dom, particularly among the en gineers connected with tho irri gation projects being built by Uncle Sam, says tho Boiso Statesman. It is rumored that within a short time Frederick H. Newell, director of the reclamation ser vice, will resign to make way for an army engineer. It has been determined to bring this branch of tho interior dopartmont under Tlio Forest service is prepar ing to open to homestead entry a number of fertile, though tim bered valIoy3, within the forest reserves of tho Northwest, says the OrcKoninn's Washington cor respondent. Tho lands in ques tion will not bo eliminated from the reserves, but will be listed for entry "under the act of Juno 11, 190G, which permits tho homesteading of agricultural lands within forest reserves. As soon as somo plan is devised to make sure that these timbered valloy lands will fall exclusively into tho hands of bona fido set tlers who intend to make their normanent residence in tho re serves, steps will bo taken to get tho lands on tho market so to speak. Henry S. Graves, who succeed ed Gifford Pinchot as Forester, is responsible for this now move and is tho first official of tho Forest Service who have been willinir to permit settlement on forest reserve land that is cover ed with merchantable timber. Mr. Graves has found, as a re sult of his travels in tho west this summer, that there aro a great many valleys, following streams heading in tho mount ains, which could bo turned into profitublo farms if cleared of M-inif fimhor Ho concedes that somo of tho western land now timbered, is moro valuablo for agriculture, and such lands ho proposes shall bo placed under (Portland Correspondence.) Salem will play host to the con vention of the Oregon Develop ment League, which will bo held at the Capital City November 28, 29 and 30. Invitations aro be ing prepared by Secretary Chap man of tho League and will bo sent out soon to tho various Orc- tron commercial bodies Having membership in the parent body. The coming meeting promises to bo attended by a largo num ber of delegates from every part of the state. Tho Oregon devel opment Leacrue has accomplished a great deal in bringing tho dif ferent sections of the state to rcalizo tho common interest that binds them all together and this splendid organization prom ises to accomplish much moro in advancing the interests of tho commonwealth as a whole. A program that offers much of interest has been arranged. Salem pcoplo are going to hand out a brand of hospitality un surpassed anywhere for the en joyment of delegates in atten dance. A big banquet will be tho closing feature of tho session. Automobile rides and visits to state institutions aro planned. Mcdford scored during tho past week when a car of yellow Newtown npples, entered by that city, carried off first prize at the Canadian National Apple Show at Vancouver, B. C. The same exhibit won third prize in the sweepstakes contest, despite the many exhibits entered by Cana dian apple growers and thoso of Northwest states. This showing is a splendid one, and indicates that Southern Oregon fruit will offer keen competition at Spo kane, as well as at tho Portland apple show. Real estate men of the state plan a federation whose objects are to protect tho members and bring about a better understand ing between tho buying and sell ing public. There are between 4,000 and 5,000 persons engaged in selling real estate in Oregon nrul it is thoucht an association would bo an highly effective machino for advancing the inter ests of realty men throughout tho Btate, as well as aiding the development of tho whole com monwealth. Oregon fir will bo used for tho decks of the world's largest steamship, the keel for which has been laidatStottin, Germany. Tho ship Omega has reached the harbor for tho lumber required, which is 2,000,000 feet. The now liner will be operated be tween America and Europe by tho Hamburg-American lino and will havo a speed of 22 knots. She will bo of 45,000 tons gross register, with a length of 880 foot, beam 90 feet, and will havo accommodations for 5,000 pass engers. Dates of tho Fifth Annual Roso Festival havo been fixed by tho manacement for tho week boffinning Juno 5, 1911. Next year's Festival, say tho officials, will bo tho most splendid in tho history of tho city. Now fea tures aro being planned and next vear's show will undoubted- lv outdo anything of tho kind heretofore held. Seasonable Merchandise Insuring Quality and Style A new and well selected stock of winter goods equalled only by the higher class city stores bought direct from exclusiyc fur houses New and Snappy Coats for Ladies A fashionable line of SXTESL.'T'ESFt COATS New things in pretty wool garments for the babies.... Everything has the Quality and Style Brown's Satisfactory Store N. BROWN & SONS Burns, Oregon k r M. L. LEWIS imEJNSlJR ... Represents the.... Home Insurance Co., of New York, Live- pnol, London & Globe, Fire Assurance Co,, Philadelphia. OFPICK Wirtl HIOOS & UlUdS. Burns, Oregon, lorricr south of LiinaburK & Dalton'4. ! W-WS $$i The HOTEL BURNS N. A. DIBBLE, Propt. CENTRALLY LOCATED,, GOOD, CLEAN MEALS, COMFORTABLE ROOMS Courteous treatment, rates reason able Give me a caU A First Class Bar in ! Connection Job printing Tlio Times-Herald Mnir'and S.losLn. Secretary nd Notary Public. THE INLAND EMPIRE REALTY COHPANY KenrcponU That Which laTmto.l uml lUIM.Iu. nd IUndla BuceoH.rully allBortB ot Ileal Ebtnto Duilneii. Wo nro ARonla For tlio Unliable AETNA and PHOENIX FIRE INSURANCE COMPANIES AMERICAN LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY THE OREGON MISERY COMPANY AND THE 1DAU0 STATE NUSERY TREES ARE THE BEST Wo Know Our Uusl- Talk Your ltou! Kutato Mattoro Over With Us. Your HiuIneBS Will He Strictly (Jonudentlal. iiusi, Attend To Our Uualnpas and Want Your IlUBlnoas. FIRST DOOR SOUTH OP llARNBY COUNTY NATIONAL, HANK I I ' C. M. KELLOGG STAGE CO. Four well equipped lines. Excellent facilities for transportation of mail, express, passengers Prnlrle City to Burns. Vnlc to Burns Burns to Diamond Burns to Venator E. B. WATERS, Agent. ?mmwmm The Harriman Mercantile Co. GENERAL MERCHANDISE BEST GOODS AT BURNS OREOON Complete line of Groceries and Dry Goods Gehts Furnishings FULL AND COMPLETE LINE OF HAMILTON BROWN SHOES HARDWARE FARM' IMPLEMENTS, WINONA WAGONS, BARBED WIRE Wo guarnnteelqunlity nndlprices Let us prove'to you that we have tho goods nt rightlpriccsCall nnd sec us 3E3CGbiri7XXELXl, 027f- Tfc. irw Towrv t crt crw o.jp Irst, that is tho surest crop m 1& i bo grown; and second, crop could also bo followed by i (Continued on paRo )