Published Every Friday Morning
By J. W. SMITH.
Entered at Athena poctofflce as second-class
Per year, In adyance, - -
Single copies, In wrappers, 5c
Local reading notices, first insertion, 10c per
Ine. Each subsequent insertion, Sc.
All communications should be addressed to
the PRESS, Athena, Oregon.
Athena, Oregon, July 28th, 1893.
The one thing which seems to
trouble the farmers most at pre
sent, is where they can get money
to pay their , harvesting expenses.
The banks refuse to loan money;
and the few individuals who have
it ask such ruinous rates of inter
ests that the farmers cannot afford
to borrow from them. Some far
mers are talking of giving their
men time checks payable Novem
ber the 1st. This will be very
unsatisfactory, and is almost sure
to cause much trouble. In the
first place, many of the men who
work in harvest here are what we
call transcient, they come from
other parts of the country, work
through harvest, and then re
turn home. Should one of them
get sick, or find he cannot do the
work, he must take a time check
and quit. He cannot travel on a
time check, and, if he tries to sell
if Vl 1-1 i nil trVift tll t fr stnMvtsvl ni
411, u u itj ail yi uvuvillbjr ualiuuv gCb
more than 50 cts. on the dollar for
it. Again, harvest does not last
until the 1st of November. From
twenty to forty days is as long as
men can expect to get work.
Should they bo able to "hold their
job" until harvest is over, their
money will not be due, and they
will be in the same " condition as
those who had to quit. -
Should the plan of time checks
be generally adopted by the far
mers, it would, by the time har
vest is over, be almost impossible
to sell these checks for cash at any
price. It would be unjust to pay
men for honest labor with some
thing that would bo almost worth
less to them.
Then again, should the far
mer discharge one or more of his
men for any roaeon, the man so
dischargo might attach his machin
ery or teams and cause him a great
deal of trouble and expense.
We would make this suggestion
aB being the best way out of the
difficulty especially with those
who head and thresh at one time;
When you have run one or two
days, haul off the wheat and sell
it. If the local dealers will not
buy it, consign it to Allen & Lewis
at Portland or San Francisco with
instructions to sell it on arrival.
Then you will have the money to
meet your expenses and be indep
endent of the usurer. While you
might , not get as much by a few
cents on the bushel as you would
later on, yet advantage of having
the ready money would, we believe,
really be the cheapor in the end.
Let us say, for illustration, that you
cut and thresh in a day 25 acres of
wheat" that-will yield 30 bushels
per acre; that would give you 750
bushels, which at 40 cents per
bushel would bring you $300.
This amount would go far toward
paying the expenses. Should
every oho who runs a header and
a thresher togother, do this, money
would become more plentiful, and
we would not hear so much talk
about hard times. We believe
this plan would be better for the
farmer, and also for tho wage-earner.
The farmer could hire men cheaper,
and the men could afford to work
cheaper for cash than for time
checks, and there are various other
advantages which we need not
mention . We hope the farmers
will consider this question; and if
any one has anj better suggestion
to offer, we will gladly publish it
The grand jury has found true
bills against . Col. Fredrick Ains
worth, chief of records and pen
sions, in the division of the war
department; Geo. W. Dante, con
tractor; W, E. Covert, superinten
dent, and Francis Sasse, engineer,
holding them responsible for the
old Ford Theater disaster, last June,
in which twenty-three persons lost
their lives and a large number
THE REFERNDU 5f . 1
W. D McCraskan, in the Cosmopolitan for
' The referendum and initiative
virtually enable large bodies of
voters to govern themselves, direct
ly, without actually meeting to
gether. In a political sense, they
annihilate space. In substance,
the referendum is an institution
by virtue of which laws, framed
by representatives, ate referred to
the people for final acceptance or
rejection. The initiative is the
right of a voter, or a body of voters,
to initiate proposals for legislation.
The writer, however, will be oblig
ed to confine himself to the referen
dum in this article. This institu
tion may be optional or compul
sory, i. e., either all laws must be
submitted, or only certain kinds;
but in any case it enables voters to
stamp the acts of their legislators
with approval or dispproval.
There may " still be some in
telligent men who are satisfied
with the working of representative
government in the United States.
But they cannot realize its incon
sistencies and abuses. In State
and Federal legislatures, represen
tatives are elected by a fraction
only of the people, the unsuccess
ful voters being as completely dis
franchised as though they were
actually deprived of their ballots.
Practically, therefore, our represen
tative system belies its very name
it does not represent. Some
plan or proportional presentation
is urgently needed to correct this
primary fault. But even with
this improvement made, the peo
ple nave no guarantee inai od
noxious legislation will not be
forced upon them. Once elected,
representatives have a free hand;
there is no way of calling them to
account until their terms are over
and the harm is done. In truth
there must be a return to first
principle, to purer forms and
Given a small body of freeman,
how will they naturally proceed
to govern themselves? They will
unconsciously imitate the Swiss
Landsgerheinde or the New Eng
land town-meeting. Briefly stated,
they will meet at a fixed time to
settle matters of common interest,
to elect officers from their number,
commissioned to carry out the laws
they may pass, and to draw up a
set of rules, or a constitution. In
some races the instinct for self-
government is more strongly de
veloped than' in others. In the
United States men invaribly or
ganize on this principle, whether
they propose to found a settle
ment, a farmer's alliance, or a boat
club. The chances are that a
body of freemen will continue to
govern themselves in this manner,
until population and territory
have increased so much that it be
comes a physical impossibility for
them to meet personally. Then
direct democracy gives place to a
representative system of govern
ment. The people cease to exercise
their soverign rights -in person,
they are gradually weaned from
self-government, and the profess
ional politician makes his appear
ance. This is the critical moment
in the history of every democracy.
The people, having once surrender
ed direct government, almost al
ways become the prey of party
bosses. ; The referendum alone is
capable of restoring to them that
personal exercise of political rights
which is the heritage of freemen.
If there is any one whom the prac
tical politician professes to despise,
and invariably dreads, it is the
man who treats legislation serious
lyas a science. He calls him a
theorist, a college professor and
other bad names. And yet, when
all is said and done, even our happy-go-lucky
methods of making
laws must rest upon some scienti
fic basis. As it was resorved for
modern Btudonts to discover that
political economy had definite laws
of its own, so it is the duty of the
present generation to determine
tho rules which govern the science
The principle of the referendum
is by no means a novelty in the
United States. Constitutional
amendments are referred to pop
ular vote in every state of the
Union except Deleware. "Local op
tion" is in itself a form of referen
dum. Throughout the country there
are many examples in counties,
cities, townships and school dis-
ricts. The other dav the voters of
Somerville, a suburb of Boston,
met in a general assembly to con
sider the question of annexation to
that city. It was a perfectly legal,
city town-meeting, and an appli
cation of pure democracy to muni
cipal methods.- What is needed
now is to harmonize these various
forms, to increase their efficiency
and widen their applicability. It
would be wise to select some one
state perhaps, in order to develop
the referendum within its juris
diction in a systematic manner,
according to the best tenets of leg
islative science. Several state Su
preme Courts have already asserted
the competence of legislatures to
refer laws to the electors.
PRICE OF WHEAT. .
The Philadelphia Record in
speaking of the business situation
has the following with regard to
wheat: "An advance off to 1 cent
per bushel in the price of wheat
has been the feeble response of
the market to the most unfavor
able July Government crop report
that has been published for many
years. Crop conditions, accor ding
to Federal data, do not indicate a
total production of over 395,000,
000 bushels; and, according to the
Cincinnati Price Current, the sit
uation abroad points to a reduction
of 80,000,000 to 100,000,000 bush
els in the European wheat crop.
These decreases will be partly off
set by larger yields in India and
South America and by the big sur
plus from previous crops which
yet remains in this country; but
there is nothing in the supply
prospect to warrant the contin
uance of the present extreme de
pression in prices. The difficulty
of carrying the big stocks concen
trated at commercial centers dur
ing tho peroid of money stringency
is the chief source of weakness in
"The affable young gentlem an
who presides over the destinies of
the Athena Press." Milton Eagle.
What Does It Mean?
It is a well known fact that the
big Burlington route has surveyors
working out as far as Idaho, and
that their agents have been all
over Oregon looking around; that
they are now extending their line
this way in Montana, and that
they will get an outlet to the deep
water of the Pacific ocean in the
next few years. It is also known
that the Chicago & Northwestern
is already away out in Wyoming,
and that it, too, will soon extend
on out to a Pacific port. The big
Rock Island route has not yet
pushed out so for, but they run
magnificent trains into Denver.
In a letter to a Salem party recei
ved yesterday, John Sebastian,
general passenger agent of the
Rock Island. Chicago, said. "I
hope another year we will have
more mileage in that district."
Wonder what Mr. Sebastian
means? Does he mean that his
road is going to join in the chase
to the Pacific with the Burlington
and Northwestern? If so, the
writer hopes to see the race com
mence soon, and he believes the
time will be called not later than
next season, if, it has not already
been called. Salem Statesman.
A Valley Town Jumped.
Much excitement exists at
Brownsville, Linn county, Oregon,
over the fact that a man named
Monk has filed upon 162 acres of
land comprising about half the
town. The land was originally
sold as school land to J. H. Mc
Hargue. It was afterward claimed
by the O. & C. raihoad, and was
purchased as railroad land. Monks
claims now that the title of the
railroad company was not valid,
and files upon it as vacant land.
The improvements upon it are
worth $50,000. Attorney J, K.
Weatherford, of Albany and O. P.
Coshow, of Brownsville, who now
own part of the land, entered a
contest Saturday at the Oregon
City land office against the filings
of Monk. .
Services at the Christain Church.
Services in Christain church
July 30th, preaching at 11 a. m.
The subject for discussion. Divine
authority for observing the "Lord's
day," the first day of the week,
and not on the 7th, day Sabbath.
Subject for the evening, "The old
and the new Covenants." We will
investigate these covenants in the
light of scripture and reason and
ascertain, when and where they
began? To whom given? Fcr
what purpose? And then, deter
mine under which covenant we are
now living. We extend a cordial
invitation to all interested to at
tend these services.
Relics of an Indian Fight.
East Oregonian". George Adams
came in Sunday from Lehman
springs, and brought with himltwo
interesting relics, consisting of the
jawbone of an Indian the owner
being dead, presumably and an
old munleloading rifle, covered
with rust and minus the stock,
which had rotted off. The ''find"
was made at Battle creek, near the
head of Camas creek, so named
from a fight which occurad there
during the Indian war of 1878.
Friendly Umatulaa, led Dy nomi
ly. ttirprised and stampeded a band
of hostile Bannocks and Snakes.
Seventeen of the latter were made
good Indians forevermore, while
every Umatilla brave escaped witn
out a scratch. ,
The Preacher Caught It.
Last Thursday a large crowd at
tbe Dalles witnessed a preacher by
the name of Taylor receive a cow
hiding at the hands of a young
lady named Equa. Taylor had
swindled a lady friend of
Miss Fqua out of $100.
There were frequent cheers from
the . throng of persons, and it is
stated that on more than one oc
casion the reverend gentlemen was
held while Miss Equa belabored
him with a rawhide.
A Lucky Find.
Another gold discovery was
made at Baker City Tuesday. D. H,
Crouter and family, who occupy
the residence of Judge D. B. Scho
field, found a number of tin cans
on a joist in the cellar under the
house, and among them was one
containing fifty twenty dollar gold
pieces. The money belongs to
Judge Schofield, who now resides
at Grant's Pass, Ore. Before leav
ing this city, about one year since,
he made cash, and claimed he was
four thousand dollars short. This
discovery accounts for one thous
and of the shortage. Of late years
the old gentleman has been quite
feeble and his memory poor. He
has been apprised of the find.
Amy C. Jull, who lives near
Weston, has filed in the circuit
court to secure a divorce from R.
D. Tull. He deserted her, and his
whereabouts are unknown. She
asks for the custody of their four
minor children. They were mar
ried ten years ago.
Kussell In this city July 2Snd to the wife of
David Russell, a boy weight pounds.
Fee In Pendleton, 29th, 1893, to the wife Of
Judge Jas. A. Fee, a boy
Chandler At Vsnscycle, July 29th, 1893 to the
wife of John Chandler, a girl.
Booher In this city July 26th to tho wife of
A. R. Booher, a girl.
Van Hook To the wife of R. H. Van Hook,
of Alba, July 23, twins girls.
Day In Pendleton, July 21th, 1893, the infant
son of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Day, aged t
Carglll On Cold Spring July 31th 1893 Mrs.
W. H. Carglll, aged 23 years.
Rlppy At his home in Alba, James Rlppy,
July 19, 1893.
On the Side.
' Trout in the Umatilla are be
corafng small and few.
- Mr. and Mrs. R. L. Maloney's
little eon has been quite sick for
the past few days,
Chas. Cleve came in on yester
day morning's passenger and made
his arm ache shakine with old
Many citizens are signing their
name? to a petition to the
government, circulated throughout
the country, asking that settlers
who paid $2.50 an acre for pre
emptions and commuted home
steads in the same region, where,
under the 1890 forfeiture act,
Northern Pacific railroad lands
were sold for $1.25 an acre, be al
lowed a rebate of $1.25 an acre.
If You Don't
GET THE NEWS
HAMILTON & ROURKE,
ARE STILL HERE
GRAIN BAGS FOR
DAVE TAYLOR AGENT;
Athena, - - Oregon.
I fit leve our t lce4 Ke. I
tft lo our fcntW
An obey i H-tc! Y'wfr'' fr8 -
Makes trade slow, but we offer such RARE INDUCEMENTS
to Customers who venture forth, that they come to town in
spite of .
1 Foot Pace.
Whenever they are in town they find just what they want
and are able to make
Do not neglect the CHANCE,
liiniiiynE $ II
Our new Btock of DreSS GrOOCLS h
arrived from New York, and we will be pleased to
show them Among the dress goods will be the latest
patterns in Pointelles, Grendines, Sateens, Chambrays.
Cashmeres, Sublime, Summer Suitings, etc etc.
LATEST NOVELTIES IH
Chiffon and Oriental
edgings, fancy Ties, Gloves mitts, Handkerchiefs, etc.
Entirely new and complete line of Ribbons, unique
in design and very pretty, Underwear and Hosiery in
all grades, and remember that we .
HAVE JUST RECEIVED THE LARGEST INVOICE
of Ladies, Gents, Misses, Boy's and Children's Shoes
ever brought to the city. They comprise the latest
Btyles and for neatness and elegance cannot be beat,
and will be Eold at hard times
We would respectfully ask your inspection of these
goods, knowing you will be pleased, and it will be a
pleasure for us to show them to you.
but take ADVANTAGE of our
TRIMMINGS TO MATCH
laces, embroideries, Hamburg
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