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United States Bids Godspeed to Liberated Patriots. A BEPUBLIC IS BORN. Transfer of Government Is Made and I'aima Inaugurated President. ftea1 ization of Ifopcs of 3Iany Years C.ime When the American Colors Woic Displaced )y the Blue and White Lone-Star Flag of Cuba—New Kt public Mnkc.s Its Initial Bow to tlic Nations of the Kartli. I RA LI HKIC is now an established fait. The L'niied Slates has handed over Cuba to tile Cubans and lias withdrawn 111 the island -with all the paraphernalia of gov in which has obtained there since the war. May 2D, 1!K2, will long remain N memorable in li tory. On that date President Palma was installed, and the long hoped for. eagerly awaited republic of Cuba made its initial bow to the nations. The giving over of Cuba to the Cubans in the inauguration of Palrna as president of the republic marks the closing of an epoch in American history and the his tory of the world which has few paral lels and records the attainment of the PRESIDENT PALMA. •iMul for which for centuries Cubans have fought. The spirit of the Teller resolu tion, which was adopted by Congress just ptv\ ious to the declaration of war with Spain, has dominated all the acts of the United States toward Cuba since the first fleet of United States warships was sent from Key West to Havana to main tain a blockade of the port. Those reso lutions pledging the United States to es- STREET SCENE IN HAVANA. Publish a Cuban republic dominated by a Cuban government and disclaiming any. purpose to seize the island for the pur pose of annexing it to the United States have been fulfilled to the letter. Upon the transfer of government and •control to the President and Congress of Cuba Brig. Gen. Wood, the retiring gov ernor general, advised them that such transfer was upon the express under standing and condition that the new gov ernment does thereupon and by the ac ceptance thereof, pursuant to the pro visions of the appendix to the constitu tion of Cuba adopted by the constitu tion.".' convention on the 12th of June. 1901, assume and undertake all the ob ligations assumed by the United States with respect to Cuba by the treaty be tween the United States of America and her majesty the Queen« Regent of Spain, signed at Paris on the 10th day of De •ceniber, 189S. Gen. Wood's order further read: It is the understanding of the government of the United States that the government of the island will pass to the new Presi dent and Congress of Cuba as a going concern, all the laws promulgated by the government of occupation continuing in force and effect and all the judicial and subordinate executive and administrative offices continuing in the lawful discharge of their present functions until changed by the constitutional officers of the new government. At the same moment the responsibility of the United States for the collection and expenditure of revenues and for the proper performance of duty by the officers and employes of the in sular government will end, and the re sponsibility of the new government of 'Cuba therefor will commance. Constitution's Provisions The Cuban constitution makes it im possible for the island government to en ter into any treaty with foreign powers which will tend to impair its indepen dence, to go in debt beyond its ordinary revenue receipts and to invalidate any acts of the United States during its military occupancy. Cuba has given her pledge to keep up the sanitary condition •of the island. The Cuban government has also agreed that the United States way exercise the right to intervene for FREEDOM! the preservation of Cuban independence for the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, prop erty and individual liberty and for dis charging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the treaty of Paris upon the United States, now to be as sumed and undertaken by Cuba. The Cubans have further agreed to sell or lease certain lands for coaling stations and to omit from the constitutional boun daries of Cuba the Isle of Pines, the title of which is to be left to future ad justment by treaty. With the exception of these few pro visions the ropublic of Cuba enters upon its career of independent government ab solutely free and untrammeled. During his occupancy Uncle Sam has spent mill ions of dollars on the island that he will never get back and has done a won derful amount of work in bettering its condition. New roads have been con structed and old ones repaired, streets have been cleaned and improved, sewers have been built and parks laid out, the governmental machinery has been organ ized. the yellow fever has been stamped out all over the island, and its sanitary conditions have been so thoroughly im proved that if the work is continued there will be no menace in the future from Yellow Jack for either Cuba or the Unit ed States. A RETROSPECT. Brief Review of Events Coming Out of the War, The occupation of Cuba by the United States practically began with the land ing of Shatter's army at Siboney on .Tune 22, 1898. The previous events in the drama for the liberation of Cuba from the tyranny of Spain began with the destruction of the Maine on the 15th of the previous February. This was fol lowed after a period of great national excitement by the declaration of war against Spain by Congress on April 21. A powerful fleet had previously been assembled at Key West, and this was at once sent to Havana to blockade that port. Next to the destruction of Mon tejo's fleet at Manila by Dewey on May 1. the discovery of Cervera's fleet in Santiago on May 29 was the most impor- TYPICAL SCENE IN CUBA'S INTERIOR. tant of the preliminary events of the war. That discovery, followed as it was by a successful blockade of Santiago harbor, enabled the assembled troops at Tampa to take transports for the south- PLOWING IN CUBA. ern coast of Cuba to begin operations against the city and harbor of Santiago. The destruction of Cervera's fleet on July 3 by Schley tras the next event of importance. It hastened the surrender of Santiago, whisk occurred on July 27. From that time Cuba was in our pos session. The military control was con tinued without cessation in all of the provinces. Gen. Wood became governor general in the early part of 1900, and under his di rection a constitutional convention was assembled in 1901. It adopted the or ganic law upon which the new govern ment is founded. After the constitution had been ratified by the people elections were held and Tomas Estrada Palma was elected President of the new repub lic. A Senate and House of Representa tives were also elected, and now by the official order all these are centered in a free Cuba, free now to become a na tional power. FIRST MINISTER TO CUBA. Herbert G. Squiers Selected for This Important Place. The first minister from this country to Cuba will be Herbert Goldsmith Squiers. He is at present first secretary of legation at Pekin and has been there four years. During the siege of 1900 lie was chief of staff to Sir Claude Mac- Donald. He distin guished himself for his bravery and it was largely through his military knowl edge that the lega tion was saved. His courage is no great- H. G. SQUIERS. er jjan kjs a t,jlity as a diplomat, and both qualities are nec essary in the man who goes to deal with the peculiar situation in the island re public. Prior to his service at Pekin Mr. Squiers was located for four years in Berlin, as second secretary of the American embassy. Gen. Edward S. Bragg of Wisconsin has been named as consul general at Ha vana. Gen. Bragg is a Cleveland Demo crat and was com mander of the "Iron Brigade"' in the Civil War. Gen. Bragg after serving a term in Congress was made minister to Mexico. lie is 75 years old, hav ing been born in Unadilla, N. Y., on Feb. 20, 1827. Gen. Bragg entered the Union army as a captain in 1801, and was promoted G12.N*. E. S. JJUAUG. through successive grades until he became a brigadier gen eral. The salary of consul general at Havana is 95,000. RAILROADING IN CUBA. Wretched Lines Which Charge Pas sengers 12 Cents a Mile. Cuba has 124 railways, with more than 2,000 miles of track for the lot, yet trav eling in Cuba is not cheap. There are lines which charge passengers 12 cents a mile. The average rate is about 7 cents for first-class passengers and 5 cents for second class, and travel on some of the lines means many hours of miserable jolting over a wretched roadbed. Freight rates are as exorbitant as passenger rates. So detrimental is the railroad ex tortion to the welfare of the country, in fact, that a modification of rates by mili tary order was talked of, but the legality of the step was 4oubtful. The entire railroad system of the island is valued at $70,000,000. But of the 124 lines only seventeen are public lines in the generally accepted sense. The rest are private roads, built for the transpor tation of sugar cane to the grinding mills. What to Avoid In Cuba. Many things should be avoided by the newcomer in Cuba. The hot midday sun the heavy tropical dews sitting in cloth ing damp with perspiration liquors and tropical fruits they nfust be left alone, liush methods in the tropics mean loss and not profit. NEW REPUBLIC'S CAPITAL. Havana One of the Most Beautiful of the World's Cities. Americans, naturally, are much more interested in Havana than in any other city of Cuba. It has always been the royal capital of the island, and is still the capital of the republic. It is the greatest city, ranking high in the cities of the western world, especially since the work of reconstruction by Americans lias been brought to a condition approx imating comparative perfection. The revolution wrought by Americans in the city since the occupation by the troops of the United States at the close of the Spanish-American war, is one of the greatest marvels of the century. Under the rule of Spain the city was one of the filthiest in the world. No effort hav ing been made to improve its sanitary conditions during the centuries o£ its ex istence, malaria was prevalent at all times, and scarcely a season passed with out an epidemic of yellow fever which carried off its residents- by thousands, placed an embargo on its commerce and dissipated in a couple of months its in crement of the rest of the year. Under such conditions, progress was impossible and substantial improvement was some thing not to be even thought of. In addi tion, Cuba was continually torn by inter necine strife and political intrigue .kept the whole island in ail uproar. But things have changed of late and the day is not far distant when the "gem of the Antilles" will become one of the most popular winter resorts for wealthy Americans. It will soon be the vogue for fashionable folk to spend the winter months there. The beauties of Havana have always been many, but since the advent of the Americans, they have been wonderfully augmented. As an instance, take the "punta." This locality is directly across the bay from Morro Castle and was formerly compara tively worthless and little visited. Now it has been turned into a promenade, where thousands stroll at evening, en joying the wonderful Cuban moonlight and listening to bands which mingle Spanish airs with the songs of America and the music of Sousa. The Prado is the principal pleasure ground of the Havanese. It has flowers CUBAN COUNTRY DWELLING. and trees, electric light, seats in pro fusion and several band stands. Its nearest counterpart in the United States is found on the boulevards of Chicago, where there are double driveways lined with residences and having a strip of flowering park between. Havana is lib erally endowed with parks in all ways and they are well designed and tended. Tlie street life of Havana presents an interesting study in cosmopolitanism. One sees all classes of foreigners and na tives there. The sidewalks are extreme ly narrow, but the natives have mastered the art of keeping to the proper side of the 'walk, and they manage to navigate with little confusion. Fruit and candy venders, who carry their wares in bas kets borne upon tlieir heads and shoul ders. are a feature of street life. The vehicles of traffic are nearly all two wheeled carts drawn by mules or oxen. The business houses and dwellings of old Havana are indiscriminately inter mingled, and the view presented of a typical street in Havana gives an idea of the general appearance of the stivets of the city. There are still many things in Ila»ana which bring forcibly to mind the recent war. The wreck of the Maine, Morro Castle and Cabanas attract most atten tion from American tourists. GENERAL WOOD. Man Who Kept Faith with Cubans Is Loved by Tliem. (.ion. Leonard Wood, the military gov ernor. lias had the full confidence of the best Cubans. They appreciate that ha has done more for Cuba in three years than the Spaniards did in 300. He is a tireless worker. He has made a success of his administra tion in Cuba by the same means that he adopted to succeed before going to Cuba—by applying himself. The story of Leonard Wood's success is the kind one likes to tell. He worked liis'way through Harvard, and after through medical college. When he went to Wash ington to be examined for a place in the army he had only $20 in his pocket, and not a single acquaintance among the au thorities to assist him by influence. Of fifty-two applicants he finished second. GEX. WOOD. Cuba's Reptiles. A small red asp, said to have been im ported from Santo Domingo, infests many of the sugar plantations of Cuba, and its bite is exceedingly dangerous. The scorpions in Cuba are very unde sirable neighbors, and though their bites have not been known to result fatally they are attended by rather serious eon sequences. A large boa is also occasion ally to be met with, but it is not at- all dangerous. Some members of the bat family attain an enormous size, the leath ery wings measuring from a foot to a foot and a half from tip to tip. They are visitors occasionally to apartments, which they enter through the open doors and windows. They are uncanny looking in truders and are regarded as ill omened, though not otherwise objectionable. A Grazing Country. In addition to its great crops of sugar and tobacco, Cuba affords splendid graz ing facilities, which should make it in course of time a great cattle-producing country. Hogs would thrive there, and there is no reason why the island should not produce all its own pork. The rea son it has never done so is because the Spaniards taxed hogs so heavily that the people could not afford to raise them. CONDITION OF CROPS. WEEKLY REPORT ISSUED BY THE WEATHER BUREAU. Winter Wheat Making Satisfactory Progress—Corn Is Doing Well—En couraging Outlook for Cotton—Peach and Apple Trees Injured by Frost. The weekly crop report issued by the weather bureau says: Prom the upper Mississippi valley eastwaml to the New England and middle Atlantic coasts the week was decidedly cold and unfavora ble to growth, with light 1o heavy frosts, causing much damage fruit in the northern portion of the middle Atlantic Stales and in Xew England. The tem perature conditions in the So a* hem States. Missouri valley and thrfi'.ighout the Kocky Mountain and Pacific coast districts were favorable, highly so vr the north Pacific coast. trough!'. continues in Florida and over portions of the cast gulf and south Atlantic States, and rain is generally needed in the Ohio valley and middle Atlantic States. Kains have attorded relief locally in the middl southern Kocky Mountain district more is needed in those sections. greater part of the upper lake io portions of the upper Mississippi, upper Missouri and lied River of the North valleys are suffering from excessive mois ture. (•wing to excessive rains little or no corn has yet been planted in Minnesota and Wisconsin, and planting has been de layed in South ]akota and northern Iowa, but generally throughout the cen tred valleys and middle Atlantic Slates this work has made rapid progress. (Jood stands are generally reported in the Mis sissippi and Missouri valleys, but cut worms are impairing the stands in the Ohio valley and Tennessee. In Kansas. Oklahoma and Texas the crop has made rapid growth, and much has been laid ia Texas. and 1 The and The last week has not been unfavora ble to winter wheat, and generally the crop has made satisfactory progress, the least favorable reports being received from the Ohio valley and middle Atlantic Stales, while a decided improvement is reported from Nebraska. The crop has made slow growth in the Ohio valley and middle At lantii* States, but has advanc ed rapidly in the lower Missouri valley, in the southern portion of which it is now heading. Lodging is threatened in parts of Missouri. The north Pacific coast re gion has experienced a week highly fav orable to the wheat crop, which is much improved in that section. The crop con tinues in excellent condition in central and northern California, but is in poor condition in the southern part of the State. Early sown spring wheat has 'germi nated well and is making vigorous growth, especially in the southern portion of the spring wheat region. Owing to continued rains much of the crop is yet to lie sown, not more than half the in tended acreage having been sown in North Dakota. Oats harvest has begun in South Caro lina. and the crop is ripening in Texas, while seeding continues in the northern districts. This crop has made generally satisfactory progress in the States of the central valleys, but has deteriorated in the east gulf States, where it is heading low and not filling well. Further improvement in the condition of meadows is indicated in the States of the Missouri and upper Mississippi val leys. the lake region and New England, but less favorable reports are received from the Ohio valley and middle Atlan tic States. Reports front Western States. Illinois—Went her conditions generally fa vorable for growth of vegetation, though it was quite -uol toward tlie latter part of week showers occurred over most of State wheat, rye, oats, meadows, pastures and gardens improved corn being planted and much up to good stands potatoes doing well prospect for peaches, blnckberriss and raspberries pour apples fair to good other fruits good. Indiana—Heavy rains: ground too wet to work in northern tier of counties lighter showers, unevenly distributed and insuffi cient. in central section: droughty conditions continue in south section too cold over en lire State for rapid growth of vegetation rye in excellent condition wheat improved, but light, ahil fields spotted: oats iloing fair ly well: corn planting well advanced, some coming up, being damaged by cut worms fly damaging wheat in Washington County. Ohio—Light precipitation: cool last of week, with light to killing frosts on the Kith: some injury to small fruits and gardens wheat slightly improved oats, rye and barley do ing well corn being planted, germinating well, but cut worms are at work in south insects injuring tobacco potatoes and gar dens doing fairly well: grass is growing slowly pastures improved. Michigan—Cold and wet soil lias delayed field work and retarded germination of late oats and peas: early oats, peas and barley germinated nicely and are making fait growth wheat, rye. meadows and pastures much Improved corn planting and sugar beet seeding In progress early fruit and strawberries blossoming heAvlly and appear not damaged by frost and snow. Wisconsin—Week cool, with freezing tem perature latter part in north aud central counties: generally copious to heavy raints snow Friday night and Saturday, three to six inches in central counties: no damage except possibly to fruit In few localities. Little farm work done, but preparations for corn well advanced winter wheat, rye and spring grains making slow growth, but con dition satisfactory pastures and meadows excellent. Iowa—Cool and wet weather has been fa vorable for grass and small grain corn planting delayed but Hearing completion iu southern and well begun in extreme north ern counties germination satisfactory and soil in fine till general crop prospects never better at middle of May. South Dakota—Seasonable temperature well distributed rains spring wheat in very healthy condition early sown making vig orous growth, latest germinating nicely oats and barley making good growth, sowing nearly completed corn planting becoming general, retarded by rains pasturage good potato planting advanced, flax sowing gen eral fruits In bloom. Nebraska—Week warm, with good show ers, very favorable for growth of vegetation winter wheat very much Improved rye heading In southern counties with short straw oats anil grass In pastures Improved com planting has progressed rapidly, and early planted coming up nicely in southern counties. Missouri—Drought In northwest relieved temporarily corn and cotton coming up to good stands, cultivation general wheat im proving In northwest, heading In central and south, some becoming too rank and In dan ger of falling oats, flax, grasses and minor crops making good progress apples some what less promising, failed to set much damage by caterpillars in north. Kansas—General rains and warmer bettei conditions improving oats, coru, grass and the soli wheat heading In south and centnal, but much plowed up central and north corn growing rapidly, cultivation more general pastures and cattle Improving strawberries ripe In extreme south. Yale University bestowed the degree o! uu i. on Lord Kelvin of England, 7 71 "At a time when consutnp- NeV lOrK. I tive demands surpass all previous records in the na tion's history it is unfortunate that pro duction should be curtailed. Yet that is the present situation. Fires, labor controversies and a tornado stopped work fit many points, greatly reducing the output, and many more wage dis putes must be settled before 1 the end of the month or furnace fires will be bank- ed and wheels cease to revolve. Losses by the elements have been severe, thoi largest tin plant in the world being rendered idle probably lor a month, while many foundries and shops were destroyed. Prices of commodities on May ], as shown by I'mi's index number, rose to the highest point in re- . cent years, gaining (5.3 per cent over Ihe corresponding date last year, but ihts.i week there has been a materia! decline some products, notable grain. lMstnllu-: tion through retail channels continues very heavy, seasonable weather exerting a most helpful iulluciuv. Railway earnings are steadily gaining, full returns for April exceeding last year's by ltl.ii per cent, and V.K.lt) by 25.0 per cent." R. fi. Hun iV Co.'s weekly review thus sums up trade conditions. The review continues: Procrastinating consumers who predicted a collapse in the iron and steel market similar to fIn break that occurred two years ago have greatly augmented tlie pressure by tardily attempting to supply their re quirements. It has been obvious for some time that there is utterly lacking the artificial element tending to inflate prices that was conspicuous in the open ing months of ]D00. The only limit to prices appears to be the ability of pur chasers to pay fancy figures, according to the urgency of their needs. Mean while there is no advance on long term contracts, and these cover the large bulk of the business. Productive capacity is being greatly enlarged, but there is no evidence as yet that the nation's needs are not expanding equally fast. Failures for the week numbered 21X in the United States, against 187 last year, and 24 in Canada, against 2(i last year. Chicago. Some of the Western railroads have been reach lng out this week and feel ing around with a view to ascertaining what may be expected in future west bound tonnage. The roads know thu crops will make or unmake their earn ings. Starting with hope and confidence in the situation, and assuming that this is certain to be a satisfactory crop year, they are carrying their analysis further along and covering every phase of the outlook down to the most minute details. In the advices received from agents to many points there is much of encour agement. Stocks of merchandise in the hands of country merchants in the mid dle west are found to be. on the Whole, considerably lighter than is usual at this time. In the northwest they are moderate. The southwest is carvytng light stocks as the natural result of the uncertainty and recent fear of a win ter wheat failure, which prompted eon servativeness. There is no noteworthy accumulation anywhere, even in the sta ple commodities, which were purchased liberally early in the spring. Wheat has ruled steady and Quiet, with a moderate showing of strength at times. Scarcely any wheat is coming in anywhere just at present. North west stocks are light and decreasing, and a portion of the Red River Valley is very late with seeding. With north western conditions paramount, wheat would probably be higher, but in the southwest the recent heavy rains have materially improved the winter wheat outlook, and there is a lack of bullish enthusiasm in consequence. For the week there was a decided falling off in wheat exports, the figures showing only 3.302,0(X) bushels, compared with 5,308, 000 in the previous week and 4,179,000 :i year ago. WE Chicago—Cattle, common to prime, $4.00 to $7.35 hogs, shipping grades, $4.25 to $7.50: sheep, fair to choice, $3.00 to $0.25 wheat, No. 2 red, S2c to 84c: corn, No. 2, 02c to 03c oats. No. 2, 41c to 43c rye. No. 2, 55c to 50c hay, tim othy, $10.00 to $15.00 prairie, $5.50 to $13.50 butter, choice creamery, 20c to 22c eggs, fresh, 13c to 15c potatoes, 80c to 83c per bushel. Indianapolis—Cattle, shipping, $3.00 to $7.10 hogs, choice light, $4.00 to $7.00 sheep, common to prime, $2.50 to $5.00 wheat, No. 2, 79c to 80c corn. No. 2 white, 05c to 00c oats, No. 2 white, 44c to 45c. St. Louis—Cattle, $4.50 to $7.15 hogs, $3.00 to $7.15 sheep, $2.50 to $5.50 wheat. No. 2, 80c to 81c corn, No. 2, C3c to 64c oats. No. 2, 42c to 43c rye, No. 2, 50c to GOc. Cincinnati—Cattle, $3.00 to $0.50 hogs, $3.00 to $7.15 sheep, $3.25 to $5.00 wheat, No. 2, 85c to SOc corn, No. 2 mixed, 05c to 00c oats, No. 2 mixed, 43c to 44c rye. No. 2, 01c to 02c. Detroit—Cattle, $2.50 to $0.30 hogs, $3.00 to $6.85 sheep, $2.50 to $5.00 wheat, No. 2, 87c to 8Sc corn. No. 3 yellow, 63c to 64c oats, No. 2 white, 45c to 40c rye, 59c to 60c. Toledo—Wheat, No. 2 mixed, 83c to 85c corn, No. 2 mixed, 63c to 64c oats. No. 2 mixed, 42c to 43c clover seed, prime, $5.00. Milwaukee—Wheat, No. 2 northern, 76c to 77c corn, No. 3, 61c to 63c oats, No. 2 white, 44c to 45c rye, No. 1, 57c to 59c barley, No. 2, 73c to 74c pork, mess, $17.42. New York—Cattle, $3.75 to $7.30 hogs, $3.00 to $7.10 sheep, $3.50 to $6.30 wheat, No. 2 red, 87c to 88c corn, No. 2, 70c to 71c oats. No. 2 white, 50c to 51c butter, creamery, 22c to 23c eggs, west ern, 14c to 17c. Buffalo—Cattle, choice shipping steers, $3.00 to $7.25 hogs, fair to prime, $3.00 to $7.45 sheep, fair to choice, $3.25 to' $6.00 lambs, common to choice, $4.00 to 17.00. August Nolte, a wealthy farmer, com mitted suicide by hanging himself in hit barn In Morgan County, Missouri.