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Hot Springs weekly star. (Hot Springs, S.D.) 1892-1917, May 23, 1902, Image 3

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United States Bids Godspeed to
Liberated Patriots.
Transfer of Government Is Made and
I'aima Inaugurated President.
ftea1 ization of Ifopcs of 3Iany Years
C.ime When the American Colors
Woic Displaced
the Blue and
White Lone-Star Flag of Cuba—New
Kt public Mnkc.s Its Initial Bow to
tlic Nations of the Kartli.
now an established
fait. The L'niied
Slates has handed
over Cuba to tile
Cubans and lias
withdrawn 111
the island -with all
the paraphernalia
of gov in
which has obtained
there since the
war. May 2D, 1!K2,
will long remain
N memorable in li
tory. On that date President Palma was
installed, and the long hoped for. eagerly
awaited republic of Cuba made its initial
bow to the nations.
The giving over of Cuba to the Cubans
in the inauguration of Palrna as president
of the republic marks the closing of an
epoch in American history and the his
tory of the world which has few paral
lels and records the attainment of the
•iMul for which for centuries Cubans have
fought. The spirit of the Teller resolu
tion, which was adopted by Congress just
ptv\ ious to the declaration of war with
Spain, has dominated all the acts of the
United States toward Cuba since the
first fleet of United States warships was
sent from Key West to Havana to main
tain a blockade of the port. Those reso
lutions pledging the United States to es-
Publish a Cuban republic dominated by a
Cuban government and disclaiming any.
purpose to seize the island for the pur
pose of annexing it to the United States
have been fulfilled to the letter.
Upon the transfer of government and
•control to the President and Congress of
Cuba Brig. Gen. Wood, the retiring gov
ernor general, advised them that such
transfer was upon the express under
standing and condition that the new gov
ernment does thereupon and by the ac
ceptance thereof, pursuant to the pro
visions of the appendix to the constitu
tion of Cuba adopted by the constitu
tion.".' convention on the 12th of June.
1901, assume and undertake all the ob
ligations assumed by the United States
with respect to Cuba by the treaty be
tween the United States of America and
her majesty the Queen« Regent of Spain,
signed at Paris on the 10th day of De
•ceniber, 189S.
Gen. Wood's order further read: It is
the understanding of the government of
the United States that the government
of the island will pass to the new Presi
dent and Congress of Cuba as a going
concern, all the laws promulgated by the
government of occupation continuing in
force and effect and all the judicial and
subordinate executive and administrative
offices continuing in the lawful discharge
of their present functions until changed
by the constitutional officers of the new
government. At the same moment the
responsibility of the United States for
the collection and expenditure of revenues
and for the proper performance of duty
by the officers and employes of the in
sular government will end, and the re
sponsibility of the new government of
'Cuba therefor will commance.
Constitution's Provisions
The Cuban constitution makes it im
possible for the island government to en
ter into any treaty with foreign powers
which will tend to impair its indepen
dence, to go in debt beyond its ordinary
revenue receipts and to invalidate any
acts of the United States during its
military occupancy. Cuba has given her
pledge to keep up the sanitary condition
•of the island. The Cuban government
has also agreed that the United States
way exercise the right to intervene for
the preservation of Cuban independence
for the maintenance of a government
adequate for the protection of life, prop
erty and individual liberty and for dis
charging the obligations with respect to
Cuba imposed by the treaty of Paris
upon the United States, now to be as
sumed and undertaken by Cuba.
The Cubans have further agreed to sell
or lease certain lands for coaling stations
and to omit from the constitutional boun
daries of Cuba the Isle of Pines, the
title of which is to be left to future ad
justment by treaty.
With the exception of these few pro
visions the ropublic of Cuba enters upon
its career of independent government ab
solutely free and untrammeled. During
his occupancy Uncle Sam has spent mill
ions of dollars on the island that he
will never get back and has done a won
derful amount of work in bettering its
condition. New roads have been con
structed and old ones repaired, streets
have been cleaned and improved, sewers
have been built and parks laid out, the
governmental machinery has been organ
ized. the yellow fever has been stamped
out all over the island, and its sanitary
conditions have been so thoroughly im
proved that if the work is continued there
will be no menace in the future from
Yellow Jack for either Cuba or the Unit
ed States.
Brief Review of Events Coming Out
of the War,
The occupation of Cuba by the United
States practically began with the land
ing of Shatter's army at Siboney on
.Tune 22, 1898. The previous events in
the drama for the liberation of Cuba
from the tyranny of Spain began with
the destruction of the Maine on the 15th
of the previous February. This was fol
lowed after a period of great national
excitement by the declaration of war
against Spain by Congress on April 21.
A powerful fleet had previously been
assembled at Key West, and this was at
once sent to Havana to blockade that
port. Next to the destruction of Mon
tejo's fleet at Manila by Dewey on May
1. the discovery of Cervera's fleet in
Santiago on May 29 was the most impor-
tant of the preliminary events of the
war. That discovery, followed as it was
by a successful blockade of Santiago
harbor, enabled the assembled troops at
Tampa to take transports for the south-
ern coast of Cuba to begin operations
against the city and harbor of Santiago.
The destruction of Cervera's fleet on
July 3 by Schley tras the next event of
importance. It hastened the surrender
of Santiago, whisk occurred on July 27.
From that time Cuba was in our pos
session. The military control was con
tinued without cessation in all of the
Gen. Wood became governor general in
the early part of 1900, and under his di
rection a constitutional convention was
assembled in 1901. It adopted the or
ganic law upon which the new govern
ment is founded. After the constitution
had been ratified by the people elections
were held and Tomas Estrada Palma
was elected President of the new repub
lic. A Senate and House of Representa
tives were also elected, and now by the
official order all these are centered in a
free Cuba, free now to become a na
tional power.
Herbert G. Squiers Selected for This
Important Place.
The first minister from this country to
Cuba will be Herbert Goldsmith Squiers.
He is at present first secretary of legation
at Pekin and has
been there four
years. During the
siege of 1900 lie
was chief of staff
to Sir Claude Mac-
Donald. He distin
guished himself for
his bravery and it
was largely through
his military knowl
edge that the lega
tion was saved. His
courage is no great-
jjan kjs
as a diplomat, and both qualities are nec
essary in the man who goes to deal with
the peculiar situation in the island re
public. Prior to his service at Pekin
Mr. Squiers was located for four years
in Berlin, as second secretary of the
American embassy.
Gen. Edward S. Bragg of Wisconsin
has been named as consul general at Ha
vana. Gen. Bragg is a Cleveland Demo
crat and was com
mander of the
"Iron Brigade"' in
the Civil War. Gen.
Bragg after serving
a term in Congress
was made minister
to Mexico. lie is
75 years old, hav
ing been born in
Unadilla, N. Y., on
Feb. 20, 1827. Gen.
Bragg entered the
Union army as a
captain in 1801,
and was promoted
G12.N*. E. S. JJUAUG.
through successive
grades until he became a brigadier gen
eral. The salary of consul general at
Havana is 95,000.
Wretched Lines Which Charge Pas
sengers 12 Cents a Mile.
Cuba has 124 railways, with more than
2,000 miles of track for the lot, yet trav
eling in Cuba is not cheap. There are
lines which charge passengers 12 cents
a mile. The average rate is about 7 cents
for first-class passengers and 5 cents for
second class, and travel on some of the
lines means many hours of miserable
jolting over a wretched roadbed. Freight
rates are as exorbitant as passenger
rates. So detrimental is the railroad ex
tortion to the welfare of the country, in
fact, that a modification of rates by mili
tary order was talked of, but the legality
of the step was 4oubtful.
The entire railroad system of the island
is valued at $70,000,000. But of the 124
lines only seventeen are public lines in
the generally accepted sense. The rest
are private roads, built for the transpor
tation of sugar cane to the grinding mills.
What to Avoid In Cuba.
Many things should be avoided by the
newcomer in Cuba. The hot midday sun
the heavy tropical dews sitting in cloth
ing damp with perspiration liquors and
tropical fruits they nfust be left alone,
liush methods in the tropics mean loss
and not profit.
Havana One of the Most Beautiful of
the World's Cities.
Americans, naturally, are much more
interested in Havana than in any other
city of Cuba. It has always been the
royal capital of the island, and is still
the capital of the republic. It is the
greatest city, ranking high in the cities
of the western world, especially since
the work of reconstruction by Americans
lias been brought to a condition approx
imating comparative perfection. The
revolution wrought by Americans in the
city since the occupation by the troops
of the United States at the close of the
Spanish-American war, is one of the
greatest marvels of the century. Under
the rule of Spain the city was one of
the filthiest in the world. No effort hav
ing been made to improve its sanitary
conditions during the centuries o£ its ex
istence, malaria was prevalent at all
times, and scarcely a season passed with
out an epidemic of yellow fever which
carried off its residents- by thousands,
placed an embargo on its commerce and
dissipated in a couple of months its in
crement of the rest of the year. Under
such conditions, progress was impossible
and substantial improvement was some
thing not to be even thought of. In addi
tion, Cuba was continually torn by inter
necine strife and political intrigue .kept
the whole island in ail uproar.
But things have changed of late and
the day is not far distant when the "gem
of the Antilles" will become one of the
most popular winter resorts for wealthy
Americans. It will soon be the vogue for
fashionable folk to spend the winter
months there. The beauties of Havana
have always been many, but since the
advent of the Americans, they have been
wonderfully augmented.
As an instance, take the "punta." This
locality is directly across the bay from
Morro Castle and was formerly compara
tively worthless and little visited. Now
it has been turned into a promenade,
where thousands stroll at evening, en
joying the wonderful Cuban moonlight
and listening to bands which mingle
Spanish airs with the songs of America
and the music of Sousa.
The Prado is the principal pleasure
ground of the Havanese. It has flowers
and trees, electric light, seats in pro
fusion and several band stands. Its
nearest counterpart in the United States
is found on the boulevards of Chicago,
where there are double driveways lined
with residences and having a strip of
flowering park between. Havana is lib
erally endowed with parks in all ways
and they are well designed and tended.
Tlie street life of Havana presents an
interesting study in cosmopolitanism.
One sees all classes of foreigners and na
tives there. The sidewalks are extreme
ly narrow, but the natives have mastered
the art of keeping to the proper side of
the 'walk, and they manage to navigate
with little confusion. Fruit and candy
venders, who carry their wares in bas
kets borne upon tlieir heads and shoul
ders. are a feature of street life. The
vehicles of traffic are nearly all two
wheeled carts drawn by mules or oxen.
The business houses and dwellings of
old Havana are indiscriminately inter
mingled, and the view presented of a
typical street in Havana gives an idea
of the general appearance of the stivets
of the city.
There are still many things in Ila»ana
which bring forcibly to mind the recent
war. The wreck of the Maine, Morro
Castle and Cabanas attract most atten
tion from American tourists.
Man Who Kept Faith with Cubans Is
Loved by Tliem.
(.ion. Leonard Wood, the military gov
ernor. lias had the full confidence of the
best Cubans. They appreciate that ha
has done more for
Cuba in three years
than the Spaniards
did in 300. He is a
tireless worker. He
has made a success
of his administra
tion in Cuba by the
same means that he
adopted to succeed
before going to
Cuba—by applying
himself. The story
of Leonard Wood's
success is the kind
one likes to tell. He worked liis'way
through Harvard, and after through
medical college. When he went to Wash
ington to be examined for a place in the
army he had only $20 in his pocket, and
not a single acquaintance among the au
thorities to assist him by influence. Of
fifty-two applicants he finished second.
Cuba's Reptiles.
A small red asp, said to have been im
ported from Santo Domingo, infests
many of the sugar plantations of Cuba,
and its bite is exceedingly dangerous.
The scorpions in Cuba are very unde
sirable neighbors, and though their bites
have not been known to result fatally
they are attended by rather serious eon
sequences. A large boa is also occasion
ally to be met with, but it is not at- all
dangerous. Some members of the bat
family attain an enormous size, the leath
ery wings measuring from a foot to a
foot and a half from tip to tip. They are
visitors occasionally to apartments, which
they enter through the open doors and
windows. They are uncanny looking in
truders and are regarded as ill omened,
though not otherwise objectionable.
A Grazing Country.
In addition to its great crops of sugar
and tobacco, Cuba affords splendid graz
ing facilities, which should make it in
course of time a great cattle-producing
country. Hogs would thrive there, and
there is no reason why the island should
not produce all its own pork. The rea
son it has never done so is because the
Spaniards taxed hogs so heavily that the
people could not afford to raise them.
Winter Wheat Making Satisfactory
Progress—Corn Is Doing Well—En
couraging Outlook for Cotton—Peach
and Apple Trees Injured by Frost.
The weekly crop report issued by the
weather bureau says: Prom the upper
Mississippi valley eastwaml to the New
England and middle Atlantic coasts the
week was decidedly cold and unfavora
ble to growth, with light 1o heavy frosts,
causing much damage fruit in the
northern portion of the middle Atlantic
Stales and in Xew England. The tem
perature conditions in the So a* hem
States. Missouri valley and thrfi'.ighout
the Kocky Mountain and Pacific coast
districts were favorable, highly so vr the
north Pacific coast. trough!'. continues
in Florida and over portions of the cast
gulf and south Atlantic States, and rain
is generally needed in the Ohio valley
and middle Atlantic States. Kains have
attorded relief locally in the middl
southern Kocky Mountain district
more is needed in those sections.
greater part of the upper lake io
portions of the upper Mississippi, upper
Missouri and lied River of the North
valleys are suffering from excessive mois
(•wing to excessive rains little or no
corn has yet been planted in Minnesota
and Wisconsin, and planting has been de
layed in South ]akota and northern
Iowa, but generally throughout the cen
tred valleys and middle Atlantic Slates
this work has made rapid progress. (Jood
stands are generally reported in the Mis
sissippi and Missouri valleys, but cut
worms are impairing the stands in the
Ohio valley and Tennessee. In Kansas.
Oklahoma and Texas the crop has made
rapid growth, and much has been laid ia
The last week has not been unfavora
ble to winter wheat, and generally the
crop has made satisfactory progress, the
least favorable reports being received
from the Ohio valley and middle Atlantic
Stales, while a decided improvement is
reported from Nebraska. The crop has
made slow growth in the Ohio valley and
middle At lantii* States, but has advanc
ed rapidly in the lower Missouri valley,
in the southern portion of which it is now
heading. Lodging is threatened in parts
of Missouri. The north Pacific coast re
gion has experienced a week highly fav
orable to the wheat crop, which is much
improved in that section. The crop con
tinues in excellent condition in central
and northern California, but is in poor
condition in the southern part of the
Early sown spring wheat has 'germi
nated well and is making vigorous
growth, especially in the southern portion
of the spring wheat region. Owing to
continued rains much of the crop is yet
to lie sown, not more than half the in
tended acreage having been sown in
North Dakota.
Oats harvest has begun in South Caro
lina. and the crop is ripening in Texas,
while seeding continues in the northern
districts. This crop has made generally
satisfactory progress in the States of the
central valleys, but has deteriorated in
the east gulf States, where it is heading
low and not filling well.
Further improvement in the condition
of meadows is indicated in the States of
the Missouri and upper Mississippi val
leys. the lake region and New England,
but less favorable reports are received
from the Ohio valley and middle Atlan
tic States.
Reports front Western States.
Illinois—Went her conditions generally fa
vorable for growth of vegetation, though it
was quite -uol toward tlie latter part of
week showers occurred over most of State
wheat, rye, oats, meadows, pastures and
gardens improved corn being planted and
much up to good stands potatoes doing
well prospect for peaches, blnckberriss and
raspberries pour apples fair to good other
fruits good.
Indiana—Heavy rains: ground too wet to
work in northern tier of counties lighter
showers, unevenly distributed and insuffi
cient. in central section: droughty conditions
continue in south section too cold over en
lire State for rapid growth of vegetation
rye in excellent condition wheat improved,
but light, ahil fields spotted: oats iloing fair
ly well: corn planting well advanced, some
coming up, being damaged by cut worms
fly damaging wheat in Washington County.
Ohio—Light precipitation: cool last of week,
with light to killing frosts on the Kith: some
injury to small fruits and gardens wheat
slightly improved oats, rye and barley do
ing well corn being planted, germinating
well, but cut worms are at work in south
insects injuring tobacco potatoes and gar
dens doing fairly well: grass is growing
slowly pastures improved.
Michigan—Cold and wet soil lias delayed
field work and retarded germination of late
oats and peas: early oats, peas and barley
germinated nicely and are making fait
growth wheat, rye. meadows and pastures
much Improved corn planting and sugar
beet seeding In progress early fruit and
strawberries blossoming heAvlly and appear
not damaged by frost and snow.
Wisconsin—Week cool, with freezing tem
perature latter part in north aud central
counties: generally copious to heavy raints
snow Friday night and Saturday, three to
six inches in central counties: no damage
except possibly to fruit In few localities.
Little farm work done, but preparations for
corn well advanced winter wheat, rye and
spring grains making slow growth, but con
dition satisfactory pastures and meadows
Iowa—Cool and wet weather has been fa
vorable for grass and small grain corn
planting delayed but Hearing completion iu
southern and well begun in extreme north
ern counties germination satisfactory and
soil in fine till general crop prospects never
better at middle of May.
South Dakota—Seasonable temperature
well distributed rains spring wheat in very
healthy condition early sown making vig
orous growth, latest germinating nicely oats
and barley making good growth, sowing
nearly completed corn planting becoming
general, retarded by rains pasturage good
potato planting advanced, flax sowing gen
eral fruits In bloom.
Nebraska—Week warm, with good show
ers, very favorable for growth of vegetation
winter wheat very much Improved rye
heading In southern counties with short
straw oats anil grass In pastures Improved
com planting has progressed rapidly, and
early planted coming up nicely in southern
Missouri—Drought In northwest relieved
temporarily corn and cotton coming up to
good stands, cultivation general wheat im
proving In northwest, heading In central and
south, some becoming too rank and In dan
ger of falling oats, flax, grasses and minor
crops making good progress apples some
what less promising, failed to set much
damage by caterpillars in north.
Kansas—General rains and warmer bettei
conditions improving oats, coru, grass and
the soli wheat heading In south and centnal,
but much plowed up central and north corn
growing rapidly, cultivation more general
pastures and cattle Improving strawberries
ripe In extreme south.
Yale University bestowed the degree o!
uu i. on Lord Kelvin of England,
7 71 "At a time when consutnp-
NeV lOrK. I
demands surpass all
previous records in the na­
tion's history it is unfortunate that pro
duction should be curtailed. Yet that
is the present situation. Fires, labor
controversies and a tornado stopped
work fit many points, greatly reducing
the output, and many more wage dis
putes must be settled before
the end of
the month or furnace fires will be bank-
ed and wheels cease to revolve. Losses
by the elements have been severe, thoi
largest tin plant in the world being
rendered idle probably lor a
month, while many foundries and shops
were destroyed. Prices of commodities
on May ], as shown by I'mi's index
number, rose to the highest point in re- .
cent years, gaining (5.3 per cent over Ihe
corresponding date last year, but ihts.i
week there has been a materia! decline
some products, notable grain. lMstnllu-:
tion through retail channels continues
very heavy, seasonable weather exerting
a most helpful iulluciuv. Railway
earnings are steadily gaining, full returns
for April exceeding last year's by ltl.ii
per cent, and V.K.lt) by 25.0 per cent."
R. fi. Hun iV Co.'s weekly review thus
sums up trade conditions.
The review continues: Procrastinating
consumers who predicted a collapse in
the iron and steel market similar to fIn
break that occurred two years ago have
greatly augmented tlie pressure by
tardily attempting to supply their re
quirements. It has been obvious for
some time that there is utterly lacking
the artificial element tending to inflate
prices that was conspicuous in the open
ing months of ]D00. The only limit to
prices appears to be the ability of pur
chasers to pay fancy figures, according
to the urgency of their needs. Mean
while there is no advance on long term
contracts, and these cover the large bulk
of the business. Productive capacity is
being greatly enlarged, but there is no
evidence as yet that the nation's needs
are not expanding equally fast.
Failures for the week numbered 21X in
the United States, against 187 last year,
and 24 in Canada, against 2(i last year.
Some of the Western
railroads have been reach
lng out this week and feel­
ing around with a view to ascertaining
what may be expected in future west
bound tonnage. The roads know thu
crops will make or unmake their earn
Starting with hope and confidence in
the situation, and assuming that this is
certain to be a satisfactory crop year,
they are carrying their analysis further
along and covering every phase of the
outlook down to the most minute details.
In the advices received from agents to
many points there is much of encour
agement. Stocks of merchandise in the
hands of country merchants in the mid
dle west are found to be. on the Whole,
considerably lighter than is usual at
this time. In the northwest they are
moderate. The southwest is carvytng
light stocks as the natural result of the
uncertainty and recent fear of a win
ter wheat failure, which prompted eon
servativeness. There is no noteworthy
accumulation anywhere, even in the sta
ple commodities, which were purchased
liberally early in the spring.
Wheat has ruled steady and Quiet,
with a moderate showing of strength at
times. Scarcely any wheat is coming
in anywhere just at present. North
west stocks are light and decreasing,
and a portion of the Red River Valley
is very late with seeding. With north
western conditions paramount, wheat
would probably be higher, but in the
southwest the recent heavy rains have
materially improved the winter wheat
outlook, and there is a lack of bullish
enthusiasm in consequence. For the
week there was a decided falling off in
wheat exports, the figures showing only
3.302,0(X) bushels, compared with 5,308,
000 in the previous week and 4,179,000
:i year ago.
Chicago—Cattle, common to prime,
$4.00 to $7.35 hogs, shipping grades,
$4.25 to $7.50: sheep, fair to choice, $3.00
to $0.25 wheat, No. 2 red, S2c to 84c:
corn, No. 2, 02c to 03c oats. No. 2, 41c
to 43c rye. No. 2, 55c to 50c hay, tim
othy, $10.00 to $15.00 prairie, $5.50 to
$13.50 butter, choice creamery, 20c to
22c eggs, fresh, 13c to 15c potatoes,
80c to 83c per bushel.
Indianapolis—Cattle, shipping, $3.00 to
$7.10 hogs, choice light, $4.00 to $7.00
sheep, common to prime, $2.50 to $5.00
wheat, No. 2, 79c to 80c corn. No. 2
white, 05c to 00c oats, No. 2 white,
44c to 45c.
St. Louis—Cattle, $4.50 to $7.15 hogs,
$3.00 to $7.15 sheep, $2.50 to $5.50
wheat. No. 2, 80c to 81c corn, No. 2,
C3c to 64c oats. No. 2, 42c to 43c rye,
No. 2, 50c to GOc.
Cincinnati—Cattle, $3.00 to $0.50 hogs,
$3.00 to $7.15 sheep, $3.25 to $5.00
wheat, No. 2, 85c to SOc corn, No. 2
mixed, 05c to 00c oats, No. 2 mixed,
43c to 44c rye. No. 2, 01c to 02c.
Detroit—Cattle, $2.50 to $0.30 hogs,
$3.00 to $6.85 sheep, $2.50 to $5.00
wheat, No. 2, 87c to 8Sc corn. No. 3
yellow, 63c to 64c oats, No. 2 white,
45c to 40c rye, 59c to 60c.
Toledo—Wheat, No. 2 mixed, 83c to
85c corn, No. 2 mixed, 63c to 64c oats.
No. 2 mixed, 42c to 43c clover seed,
prime, $5.00.
Milwaukee—Wheat, No. 2 northern,
76c to 77c corn, No. 3, 61c to 63c oats,
No. 2 white, 44c to 45c rye, No. 1, 57c
to 59c barley, No. 2, 73c to 74c pork,
mess, $17.42.
New York—Cattle, $3.75 to $7.30 hogs,
$3.00 to $7.10 sheep, $3.50 to $6.30
wheat, No. 2 red, 87c to 88c corn, No. 2,
70c to 71c oats. No. 2 white, 50c to 51c
butter, creamery, 22c to 23c eggs, west
ern, 14c to 17c.
Buffalo—Cattle, choice shipping steers,
$3.00 to $7.25 hogs, fair to prime, $3.00
to $7.45 sheep, fair to choice, $3.25 to'
$6.00 lambs, common to choice, $4.00 to
August Nolte, a wealthy farmer, com
mitted suicide by hanging himself in hit
barn In Morgan County, Missouri.

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