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I J .: . f I ..i J; -ft , VOLUME : VII. KO. 33. , fr.nly:. 1 ; -.. SAGINAW, MICE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 21, I860. WHOLE JVO. 3dG. ; . ,.: .. . . a Buslnesi Directory. (, EABT S-A-O JT-A. W- , i ... SAGINAW VALLET feANK BLISS, FAY A Co., Unnkers , arid: ' llrokcrs, '" Buy and fell Exchanges, Bank Notes, (7 old , eud Silver, Canada L'urreuey. ' (5 W rrompt attention to Collection! and Gen eral Hanking Business. btricc on Washington Street, Bliss Block; , taat Sajrinaw, Mich, . , . WH. l Wr.BBKB. IHVtXrt . SMITH ; ; . i WBBBER ft SMITH, . AtUrooys,Canlor and Solicitors. Office, No's t 1 8, CrouDo Block. EAST SAGINAW FOUNDEBY, Tater street. 3d Ward, E't ngiiia- All kinds of cuting in brnnd iron, and repair ing and fitting of inaehinory of all descrip , Uons, dono promptly and reliably at the above Jiaslitution. ' ' ' OCOROE W. MERRILL, Proprietor. r . ; u. MORLEY BROTlIEItS, . Tlsalers tn Hardware, Iron, Nails, Ajrriculturel Implements, Au. I i " rBIZEIiLE DHOTHERSi - 'Wholesale and Retail Druygint aud Chemists, Drug; Medicine, lie hare full ajMortinoat of Paints, Oilf, Liquor, Dye Stuff, eto. Blook. BYRON 13. BUCKUOUT. 'Wholesale and Retail dealer Lu Unglwn and Amer ican Hardware, Cultery, Iron, Agruulturul Implement, Steves, UH 'A'n and Sheet Iron Ware, Ac. Brick Block, North Water Street' O. IC. ROBINSON. Attorney and Councilor at Law. mllglre prompt attention to collections Taxca paid fernon resident, and all buMnen connected With a Land A -;oncy promptly attended to. . LIVERY STABLE. A. W. Gates enables, vornor Waihlnjton and Tuscola utroetg, are fully stocked with Horsos, Carringoe, and everything required la the line. Terms reasonable. V ' H. MARKS, . Oenler in lints, Cap. , Furs and Skin, Ready Made Clothing, Ulovcs, lo. Opinnite llan eroft House. ' ' 8HAW, REYNOLDS & CO., Dealer in Hardware, Iron, Nails, (ilna, Paints, Oils, etc. Buena Yinta Block. " '. ' WILLIAM O. DIETZ, Builder and SnpiTintendt nt of Buildinp.", Fmnk - tin trect, between Oeneroe nil (lerniriii. GEORGE C. SANBORN, XMer In tiroeene, Pitvimo'u, If amily up " plies, Country Produce, uto. Ooniur 5tore, Bxchne Block, II. O. SILSBEE. Wholesale an 1 retKil dealer in uud innnnfiieto ' rerol Furniture of all kii'.ds ule l.n Coiiituercial Block. JOSEPH BUBO EB. , .... Manaraotiirorof and duulem in i.oot, Slioct, LKalhsr, Finding, ic , Ac. 2d door ent of Krerelt House. ' WW. II. SOUT1IWICK. rORIiCI!(4V.Nim.l.M A5I) ISBKLI.A TOI XTir Office at U.it Saginaw, All.irdt 1 Co' Tobac co Store. .' DR. B033. m 0(Ti.-e in Ties Blunk. 'unrr if Jcncce anil Woihirgten .ctn ets. Keiiden. ('urnrri'f Jef frou and Thouipsuu Street, Knt !ginnw PRANIC O. WILKIN, IIrhant lailr, and dealer in Clotb, Cloth- ing,anl (isnllemeu's Fuminbing Goods Si tturet'rnu corner, Exehang Bbwk, . -. .W. M. MILLER, . , Attorney-and -Coaneetlor at Law, and P roe tor In Admiralty. SAGINAW CITY. 'Ar 8.: OAYLORD, J Attorney and Counsellor at Law, Solicitor iu Chancery," 1c.' " SAGINAW CITY. V3J'S w: YAWKEY7 CI ComiuiHloo Agents and Dealer in Lumber,' 'Shingles,'' Lath, &c. Corner OflicO, SecoVd Floor, BuenaVliita 'Block, EAST SAGINAW, MICH. OHer filled p'ron.p'tly and at Market Rules. ' ' Insurance Agency;' Etna Insurance Co. f Hartford, Tire and , InUnd. .Asset, . . . $2,500,000 Security Fire, N. Y.. AaseU, ..650,000 Home Ina. Co. of New Haven, Conn. . Aaeeta, : 250,030 Conn. Mutual Life Ina. Co. Aa'ta 5,000,000 JOHN J. WHEELER, Agent For above Companies, Exchange Block, East Saginaw, Michigan.. .. . . .. . , 20Dy THIRD WARD N.-SOHMELCER-; CONTINUES IN THE GROCERY busine, in which he endeavors to keep pace with the growing demand of the locality, at the old stand, near Atwator Mill, 3d Ward, where he hi a gen eral BKfiirtuient of Groceries, Provision, Wooden Ware, Vegetables, Fruit, Butter, Egg, Lord, FAMILY SUPPLIES, &.C., For nle ehenp. Patronnge i solicited. Terms Cuf h . N. SCHMELCER, East Sngsnaw.Nor. 4, 19G5. 327-y p NEW GOODS, 7 NEW GOODS, . -.-.-xT-'J''- ':':'-' ' E. P.: & H. L. Penfield's, Irving Block, Genesee Street. FAIL ANDWiNTEn , ' DRESS GOODS, HALMOIIAL SKIRTS ; , KNIT GOODS, WOOLKN HOSIERY & GLOVES, Woolen Yarn, all Colors. ! . . pLANKETS, -. - -DAGS, .' FLANNELS, Carpets, i X rug goto. " " ' Wall Paper, PAPER HANGINGS, &c, &c., &c, AIo Agents for the Celebrated : '- i . . . ' FLORENCE SEWING MACHINE. STATIONERY! r i NEW STATIONERY ' STORf, HUM BLOCK, .'.it',.:', i .1. ., i Opposite Bancroft House, WASmNOTOir STREET. PAPERS OF AIL KINDS. BLANK BOOKS, Letter Presses, : ; ; Office Stationery, Note Paper all Styles, Legal, Cap and Lotter papers, Envelopes, i . ' ' . i . Pens, Inks and ALL GOODS Ul THE LIRE. Best Assortment of Toy Books, in the. City. . , - v. :( .-. , Visiting: Cards, all styles, cut to any; size desired and -printed to order. . , 1 , PHOTOGRAPHIC ALBUMS : A Choice AMsurtmciit. ' Chess Men, Checkers, Domi i noes. Playing Cards, Au thor's, Poets and Shoul der Strap Games. GOLD lliisTS, Best quality - and . latest - - styles. - - r- Ulanks of . all, kinds on hand or printed to order. O. FRED. LEWIS. " East gaglnaw Jan. 15, ISW.v: A. B. SPINNEY. -( Ilesannp-thie rhysi'dnn nnd Surgron'. OflTn-e over LiMtor' store, Nutiinnil B'wk, corner d . . Oncfue end Cnw.ntrcct, Eiirt S:ininnw, Mich. Office hour, 8 to IU A. M.and7 to 6 P.M. Beidiu-e. corner of C'heri j aul WcLstcr St. II. R. PROCTOn. lea!er in Fine Watches and Jfwolr.T, Silver and I'lated Ware. AgMit for Burt' (J round I'eh lle and Periwjplo" Oliises. Oppusita Buncroft House. Eiu-t Soginaw. BLISS, JANES & CO., Pealerftln Or Goods, Urocorio. Provisions Boot 4 Shoes, etc., Commercial Block. Ii. C. STORRS A CO., ; Jiealersln Oroceries, i'roviionj, Fruit, Vegota LU Produce, Family Supplies, Stone and Wooden Ware, Crockery, (lln, Paint, Oils, .Carbon Oil, Flour, Foed, eto. Coiiunorcial Ji lock. . " '. J3. J. MERSnON. ' Will attend prompt )f to the"Pur.-hae, Inpct g. and Shipiornt f Lumber from any point oaVSinw riverJ Post office addrr EAST SAGINAW. pv'ED A. KCEHLER. r gc II c I ni vviivi w.. ' niVarTllk till. teel, TueeUst."ee n j, A t B, CBOUSE, r hole.ale d Retail lca.'" id Jry ood, Sro. . eorie, rrarlieas, Criei, CP. oots and Shoes, Va.kee K-ioM, Vn. ' Et Store. ttst &inw- ZuTDttRBECBlWITH A JAS. B.COOK. 'Attorneys a4Cunellors nt Law t Solictor " ' ' ;in Chancery, Office orer WiUtuA Co.V cjorc, ! ' OVater Street, . BAY CITY, MIL ii " aTu. MERSHON, -1 afc4rerf pump log, .faucet a, e. fca. i o ..Blocks furnwhed t sny extent desired, on fxt terms. Vfljc U htw Planing MJ, .'I LI i i-fV ' ; V T. V. CARLL3LK 4 CO.. ' tsnners, Wholc.ale and R4ait denteralfl Ifules, Xaibr u4 FUdjng, eorner Wat adT " col &r4, EaM, ktsglnnw, MiW;tK CaU ' " for R idea aad TeUs ..': REAL ESTATE OFFICE, WILLI Alt N. LITTLE, , Jliehange Block, Et Rgiaw, Mkfcigaa, corner , (3enee and Water Streets. CHANGE! iRsmovcd to Everett Block. OUR NEW AND ELEGANT STOCK OF DRY GOODS, CARPETS, dress goods, ladies; furnishing goods JFTJJEIS, ETC. The choicest' nsortment ever offered in this market IS THERE, STEVENS, POOL & CO. EastSagiuaw, February, 1SC6. OEOROE MORRIS. CARPENTER AND BUILDER. . v. ;lhon Williams Street, Wait of Giant BloA Rail Sinnw. DeiiuiMt fur . buildings and Joiner work of all kind, furtiitihed. ' BUiW, DULLARD & CO. WHOLESALE GROCERS, Bart Blwk, Water Street, Et Sginaw. .A rery large itock of everything in the line. QILLETT A GAMBLE, Attorney Sl Counsellor at Law, Offioe. Front Room. Firt Floor, orerC. K. Rob- A Ct's Banlr. ' ..... EAST DAlllfl w, wit ii OUR STORE rvcrctt Clock, CSrncc Street, r rivE rxior.a eottn of the couf.r, IS FULL OF CHOICE' GOODS. Weofiar es'pMlel Jucemcnt to the Ladies tn snA.wi-s. WORSTED QOODb. TRIMMINGS; SUPPLIES. ".ii-i ...' v. " . i ( SiJLpjplleSaTr' MOSHER & MICK LEY, NEW-BRICK BLOCK. Next to Tost Ofllce, ieiieee : . ' Mreet. if. . ' i L EAST SA GIN A IV. , Have Just opened a new and fresh stock of Family Orooorice, CONSISTING OF FLOUR, ' .FEED, CORN, i MEAL, OAT', BUTTER. EtJO; LARD, PORK, BEEF. . HAM, 1 shoulders FRUITS,. VEGETABLES, CANXEi FRUITSS RELISHES, and everything in the line of FAMILY SUPPLIES. Past favors thankfully acknowledged A con tinuance and incroa of patronago olicited T. R. MOSHER, -( O. P. MICK LEY. Enst 8ginaw, March 15, 8C5. ) 293-ly TICKETS! S?SBr" t 5uy Tickets y y ' v . Aixioiri'Ts kast, GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY, -AT wHinraifiip; Bliss Block, opposite Bancroft House, Washing- . .. ton Street. r .. ' A. FEROUsON, Ticket Agent. J-AZSTTJA..g' 1888. New and Farorie-Pasenger and Express Freight Line. " And a rare variety. of . ' CIUtSCKT II. GAGE. W. A. 1KWIS. GAGE & LEWIS, Attorneys & Solicitors. OFFICE IN BLISS BLOCK, CAST AC3IAW MICH. GOODING & HAWKINS, FORWARDING, COMMISSION, AND GENERAL STEAMBOAT AGENTS. East Saginaw, -Michigan. p. W. r.OODINO, . W.IAWKINi GOODS, Of every style and quality, also a full line of Domestics'! We have aim a Complete Assortment and Choicest variety of - (. CARPETS In the Vallev. AIo a fine Stork of TABL1C AND FIJOR OILCLOTHS, DRUtJtJ FT?,iiATTJNU Ac. . Also a Splendid ortnint of - L.VDIES' and CniLDRUK'S FURS. U06IERT, HOOP SKIRTS. NOTIONS, Ac., it. a all of which will be sold at Wholo3ale and Retail, , AT The Very Lowest Prices! PTCountry Dealers and others will find it te their advantage to give ns a csll. STEVENS, V00h & CO, 1 irritniT and mimvaitki:i; XJ RAILROAD, in Connertlon with the No and Poftrrful Upper Cabin tcanitihlps Detroit ' anil Mirwaukce.". ! During this month trains will leave Holly, as follows t c.oixr. WEST, Mixed at 1 A. for Orand Haven. u Mixed at 12 M. rnr St. Johns. Mini at 1:03 V M. fur Lansing A Milwaukee. Miss i at 8:03 P. M for Fentonville. tioixu i:at. Mixed st 6:20 A. M for Detroit. Aceom: al1:20 P. M. fr DeUoit Mll at 3:00 V. M for ImnAt. Mixed at fi:30 P. M. for Detroit. i "RE ?R E.S II M E NTS at Detroit. Coso and flrflnd Haven., and upon Company's Ferry Bteauier Wtndwr," on Detroit River. ', Comfortable Hotel above Depot at Grand Haven trj"l'h Telegraph Line is open for Public Business. Sleeping t ars on night trniu. COVNIICTIONH, AT DETROIT Jreat Western Railway for all point ht, Michigan Central, Michigan outtu rn smi rni iruim u. K. AT MILWAUKEE With the M'wunVippl l..rm.M. Kitrine. Chicn?o. Watertnwn ami llor loon Kiiilroads, for alltoints XVrttand Northwet. r27"Piicnffer f'irOret Western llailwev to on the Railway Ferry Steamer, at I) AMU I im k, leHTMg lM k at b:43 an l .l(l:i: A .11 , ami 6 00 P. M. The Company's Tlina Tabb-s can be bad at any of the Station D. k M. OftVe. I SCO. 11103. BELL, Oen'l f op t ir, .f THE TREATY OF SAGINAW. Indian and Pioneer Incidents of Saoinaw Vallev. i BY HON. C. P. AVERY OF FLINT. BCATES, BATES & TOWSLEE, COUNSELLORS AT LAW, 84 Denrbnm lit., hathtr't Work, IIok. Waltkr B. Fcatks, lafeChirf Janice S. C. Or.o. C Batib. -J ) t-lttt Ktin lliurD Tomu f,l,tAC0, linking finished my service In the srmy, 1 fcnve .resumed the prwtice f the Law, as a member of the above firm. r . WALTER p. WATE!. u, 'fPul.lilu'd by .milslin, titn advaru Mtet-t of tlv Itutircr, 1H rectory of Be glaaw ttllry, wmiu to lit) publw.lul ly Tlumia k UululUu.) , . Tit rarious Indian nations within the Uhitwl JStatea Laving been- always treated as indepehdQni ' powerB,' although living within ouf borders 'and after tho Revolutionary War, as well as after the. War of ,112, as helpless, and their tenure as frail as tenants at sull'erance, no negotaition or agreement with thom, as a nation would have been deemed valid unless entered into by the 1'resideut and approved by the Senate of the United States tho troaty-niaking and the troatyiratifying powers. Tho action of the President and Seuato was an indisponsable pre-requihite to any valid disposition of their, possessory rights, and as a jwwer delegated by the States, under the national Con stition it took precedence of 'all action on their part. . .Although living within ourbrders,; and 'answerable to our criminal law4 for all viola tkftis of the peace, and for crimes, we have always grantea them the right of internal or domestic pol- iyr ana ai no nine wuen moj nave uvea in uanas, accoraing t,o the custom of their fathers, have we sought to throw over them our civil ode. Where individuals of those races have separated themselves from thoir, tribal associations and have lived isolated, they havo been generally troated as citizens and made amenable to our civil code regulating the rights of property, real and per sonal, its descent and distribution. ". As a fact, in the history of nations, it is certainly anomalous and singular that there should havo been and now are distinct and independent governments within the limits of our national sovereignty instances of an tmptrium in imperio. , iut such has been at all times the fact from the early history of the' lleptiblic down to the. present timo a course of action and a treatment of that unfortunate and now fast disappearing race of people, inaugurated and insisted upon byjhe great and good Washington with his reOned and high 6cns of national . ... ,7 . .;. . . .. i l '.'it t ' I ly this view which he and successive administrators of our national, affair took of their condition, we recognized the posses sory rights of the Indians. They woro subantial rights, which could only be parted with at treaties fairly made, atpublio and open1 councils of 'tho natives, whero the General Obvernment should bo represented ty its agent', and everything done fairly, fraoly and without the least taint of authority or duress. . . Thjs was the theory of thoso councils, and the wise and humane intention of Washington and of the Governnicnt." If violated iu any instance to the injury of tho weaker party there were doubtless exceptional instances ' of fcucli violation-it sliould bo attributed to corrupt individual action and not to the axpessed and well known instructions of the propor department of bur Government. ' .' Tho first treaty of 'importanco which was made for tho ex tinguishment of tho Indian title to tho soil of what now compri ses 0 &tat of, MiuLiflrau. wau. L uae ntMrwl into liy William Hull, then Governor of Michigan, ns a territory, and ex-ojpa9 Superintendent of Indian Affairs, with the natives at Detroit, in 1807, when a tract of land in tiie south-eastern part of the State was ceded by them to our Government. Detroit and a bolt of land adjacent to it, lying along the river and hike, tlx miles in width, were not affected by this grant, we having before that succeeded tdHfho possessory rights of Great liritian to the District of Detroit, so called, which the hai held for a series of years, co-extensivo with the' claims of her prede cessor, l'rnnce ; uud which by the Treaty of Grevnville, made by General Wayne, on behalf of our Government, iu 1795, had been ro-assiirod to aud made jierfect in us. With that exception, the title to the south-easterly part of our State was obtained from the natives by tho troaty of lb07. , Tho northerly line of this grant included only small portions of what nro now the counties of Lapeer aud Genesee, and was a little north of their southern boundaries, thus leaving the Sagi- natv Kiver and its principal affluents, the Flint, the Cass, &c, entirely unaffected by the provisions of that treaty. . ; i This portion of the Stato remained in Indian possession, with the rights of the natives intact and unaffected, until the Treaty Of 8nguiawJ.ofJgl9.; : a - ! In that treaty we aro particularly interested, for the cession of mnus men mauo ,oy iue -nauves, wun me . reservations inerein provided for, include tho rich and nourishing volloys of tho Sag inaw and its tributaries.' ' ' ' General Cass was commissioned to act as tho agent of the General Government in securing to it this important addition to our territory. ' , ; He was . then" in tho vigor of. his manhood, with a laudablo ambition to achieve a national reputation and to identify himself by his exertions with, the acquisition of such a valuable body of land, and feeling that the influx of emigration, then beginning to bp 'felt. a( Dotroit and its vicinity, required a -ider domain for it to' spread over, and with the greater security it would give to lifo&nd proporty of settlers upon'tho domain which had been accquired by the previous treaty, he felf tho importanco of. tho cntorpriso into which he was about to embark, anal that if sue cessful it would bo an achievemcat upon which any statesman might well ground a claim for tho gratitude of tliose then Jiving at and near Detroit, and m ight Lo excused if he looked, to such achievement as the ground work of .future national hotiors. ., Ho appeared upon tho Saginaw, upon the site of what is now Saginaw City, on the 10th of September, A. D. 1819, with his staff of interpreters and assistants '. ' f , . : They made tho journey, tho- whole! distance upon .horseback, from Detroit by way of Flint,' and thence down tho river by the way of what was until lately tho Indian Reservation of Fe-won-ny-go-wing, which was at that timo the tribal home of the Chief No-orne and jhis successor in the Chieftanship, Tone-dok-a-ne. . Before starting from Dotroit the General had directed Mr.' Louis Campau, who had been since. 1810 an established Indian Trader at that point upon tho Saginaw, to build the Council IIouso and make tho necessary arrangements for the reception of the Commissioner and his company. , No other man ojtild have been ao appropriately selected to meet the Commissioner's expec tations and aid him in the details of the enterprise. Mr. Campau yet survives, an aged gontlcmali tilt witli an accurate memory, a fine representation of the better, class of early French pioneers, a I1erl public spirited and worthy citizen. ' Two government vessels, laden with stores for the subsistence f those upon tho treaty ' ground, were sent around by lakes St. Clair and Hnron. On one of theso was a company of United States soldier, commanded by Captain Cast, a brother of lb Gqneral, who had . boon, ordered to .the, treaty; ground for the protection of tliosa in attendance, . . : ; j . ' ' ' By the time tho Commissioner, with his staff of Interpreters, ' secretaries and assistants had arrived, Mr;, Campau and his employees had constructed the Council House. ,;Tt was spacious and commodious, extending several hundred teet along the bank of the river, a few rods bock from the tdioro, and of the jeqm&jte width to accommodate the large number of natives, ,wbo were expected to be present. Situated iioarly midway ; betwen tha present site of the . Webster House and the river, on! the slight ridga or socond rise from the shore, its position was commanding and pleasant, ' - V . ' - 1 Trees conveniently situated, furnishod the columns of the Council Hall, and boughs interlaced above made the rqof. The sides and ends were open.' It was of an order1 of architecture not recognized by Huskin, Downing, Upjohn or any professional .writer upon that branch of science. ! . It was doubtless tnoro nearly assimilated to that Temple described by the Great Poet, tfryant of nature in tho opening of hU Foreht Hymn, one of the finest of all his fine poems: . . !, ... : r,,' " Jbe Umves were Ood'e first, temples; ere man learned -To hew tb shaft and lay the architrave k ' .' ' ".. And sjirend the roof above tbaui, ere he framed ' Tlie lofty vault to gather and roil bact (. ' j , . ;') lh sound of anthems." A platform made of 'og, faced or evened by the axe, elevated about a foot abovp the ground,- and broad enough to accommo date upon rustic, Wncbos,'; Commissioner Cass and the other officials occupied the central portion of the Council Room. ' Huge logs in their native roughness had been rolled in upon the other space to be used as seats by the native lords of the soil when in solemn council. Tho bordering woods;were dotted with temporary wigwams, hastily and rudely constructed by the natives for the accommodation of themselves and families during the pendency of the negotiation. .!..'.: Among other preparations, temporary but convenient additions to his trading house had, been made by Mr. Campau, sufficiently spacious to make a good sized dining room for the large number of officials present, and comfortable quarters for the Commissioner. The. number of Indians present at the time of his arrival was not as largo as was expected.. Messengers or runners had been sent among tho different bands, some living quite remote from the place of .holding the Council, to notify them of the proposed treaty, and otherq were sent out for, like pnrposo after tho fact became apparent that some localities wero .not properly repre sented. " , " ' ' : ;" ' v ; ;i.-'n . The number present upon the treaty ground oa the. day. when tho third, which was tho fullest Council that was held, has been variously estimated from one thousand five hundred to four thou sand. They were mainly Chippo was,' but not all. 'Thore were present some Ottawas of pure aud -mixed blood, and although in otir State papers the parties to the treaty are spoken of as the United States on the ono side and the Chippewa nation on the other, there aro the names of Chiefs and hcadmen affixed to the treaty who were of Ottawa descent. There were but three regular Councils or audiences held during tli Ua or twolvo day thut tho nt?rfOtintlonswero'Tn'nai,Ig' ' Ax such formal Councils the chiefn, warrior), head-men and bravea, only were called and admitted into tho Council Hall, although the sides being open and the opportunity for hearing and seeing unimpeded; the Indian women and their children gathered in timid groups closo by. They were silent but by no means dis interested spectators of the solemn negotiations proceedings ithin, which involved no less than a full and final surronder of the burial places of their fathers, the ancient hunting grounds of their peoplo, the fair and beautiful heritage of forest and ; corn ground, lake and river. . . ' At the first Council General Cass made known to the natives through Henry Conner and Whitmoro Knaggy, experienced and highly respected Indian Traders, and as. interpreters most com petent, the object of his journey from Detroit and the general purposes of our Government. He ondeavorod to impress upon them tho paternal regard which thoir Great Father at Washing ton had for their welfare, and tho hope that tho peaceful rotations which had existed between them since the close of the war should bo rendered perpetual. ' He reminded them' of their condition as a people, the swelling of tho wave of civilisation toward their hunting grounds, the growing scarcity, of game, tho importance and necessity of turning their attoution more to agriculture, and relinquishing tho more uncertain mode of living by tho chase, and the better condition they would ultimately be in by confining themselves to reservations ample for the purposes of agriculture, to bo provided for thorn by the proposed treaty and the session of tho residue of tho territority then occupied by thoso who wero there represented, upon such terms and guarantees as their con dition required, including therein stipulated annuities. He was answered by thoir chief speakers with a gravity and eloquence peculiar to Indian Councils; ' . i Three Chiefs of high ropute acted as speakers for the Indians, who survived for some years rtfter thd treaty, and were known to some 'of- the earlier, settlers in tho region"; Their names were oftontimes pronouncbd by bur early traders and pioneers differ ently, and are found in documents with- different' orthography i but as they appear at tho foot of the treaty they aro Mish-o-no- na-non-e-iquet, : O-go-maw-ke-ko-to, and also at the first Council At the subsequent Councils the latter was not present, except at the last, and then merely to affix, his token to the treaty after it liad been engrossed for execution. ' Ho had put himself out of conuinop at liie cioso oi uie uret uay oyuriuKingi auu remuiuuu in a state quitb unpresentable as a speaker for the residue of the time. .i :. ! .; ' y" t He.was an Indian of violent temper, and in. (be excitement of liquor was reckless in the coinimcsiont of outrage. , Subsequent to the treaty, after many acts of 'Violence, he was arrested and died in prison at Detroit ' , , : He was less dangerous in his wigwam quietly drunk than in the Council Room tolerably sober. . . The chief speaker, O-ge-maw-ke-ke to, opposed the proposition made by Commissioner Cans -with itndignation. His speech as remembered by persons still ' surviving,"v ho were interested listeners, was a model of Indian eloquence. v Ha was then quito young, not over twenty-five years f age, above the average height, and in his bearing, graceful and handsome; although iri tho later years of his life he was ofton seen intoxicated, he never fully lost A look of conscious dignity which belonged to his nature as one of the Original lords of the soil. - , . In true eloquence he wns probably hardly Surpassed by the .-cneca Chief, Sa-go-ye-wat-ha (Red Jacket), His band laid at the Forks of the Tittebowassee, and like the famous Seneca Chio he wort upon his breast a su Derb Governm xadjaL He addressod tlio CommmisH?oiisrs. ,i " You do, not know our . . . . ill-,. wishes. , Our people wonder what has brought you so fat fvtau ycur homes." ) ' , ' ' : ' - ' :- ..; ; . i b-.i ' " Your young men have invited us to come fand light Council firal ,.We are here to smoke tho pipe :wf peaco, but not , to sell our lands. Our American ' Father wants theinJ.': Our English Father treats us bettor.' Jit has never asked for thctu. Your people trespass upon our hunting grounds.; You flock 'to -our shores. rOur waters grow warm: Our lacd melts like a cake of ice. Our possessions grow smaller and smaller. "'True warm wave of the white man rolls in upon us and melts us away. Our women reprouch usl" Our children want homes. 1 .Shall we sell froni under them the apot where they spread their blankets? . We have not called you here.' Wo smoke with you the pipe'of peace." . ' 1 ;-' "' 1 '' ' To this the Commissioner replied with earnestness, reprot tug the speaker for arrogant assumption that their Great Father at Washington had just closed a war in which he had whipped their Father, the 'English King and the Indians too, that their lands were forfeited in fact by tho rules of war, but that he did not propose to take them without rendering back an equivalent, not withstanding their late acts of hostility, that' their Women 'and children should Lave reserved to them ample' tribal reserves on which they could live, unmolested by their, white noighbors, where they could 'spread their blankets and be aided and, in structed iri agriculture. , , .. ..- ., The Council for the day closed. , Tho Commissltnor with his staff of. earnest and devoted assistunts, composod of gentlemen distinguished at Indian Councils, Vhitmore Ivnaggs, known to the natives as Oke-dagbcn-don, and beloved by. them ; Henry Conner, know to them as Wah-be-shen-dip, meaning literally whitehead, significant of the color of his hair; Col. Beaufaiet, G. Godfroy, sub agent,. John Harson and other gentlemen of deserved influence with tho Chippewas, all retired to their lodg ings disappointed and anxious, while tho Chiefs and head-men of the natives retired to their wigwams in sullen dignity, unap proachable and unappcased . Certainly a very unpropitious bponing of the great and important undertaking and trust which General Cass had in hand. vr- . ', .'v'. i'-..t," The juncture was a critical one, and for a full appreciation of it a brief allusion to the relative status of the two who .were about to become contracting parties to the . treaty,!, bufcjwhose minds had not yet met, becomes pardonable if not necessary. Tho proposition for a session of the Indian title cam from us not then., Their, possessory control by our uniform, recognition and action was as yet perfect 'For'.any lawless or vindictive act upon the treaty ground there would have been ' immunity from immediate . punishment, and ' probably ultimate wure,,:--The whites comparatively, wero few in number. The military com pany on board of the schooner, anchored in the stream, was quite inadequate to successful resistance against an organized 'and general outbreak. . ' ' Sufficient time had not elapsed to wash but thcb'.tter memories of border feuds, of fancied Or roal wrorig. Foot-prints were yet ft oU Upon. tU -We. ilU;-lndod only' Mi bummer a paarad since that;wUr had' closed, which had' laid' low" many Chippowa warriors. Our Coinmissibncf and his staff of assistants had placed themselves voluntarily within their htrong hold utku the Saginaw, to which no palo faco 4iad penetrutcd throughout that formidable struggle, unless as pinioubd und care-depressed captives, with the exception of tho sjuglo, memorable instance of tho daring trader, Smith, to rescue from captivity tho children of tho Boycr family, who had been taken captives with their father from their homes upon Clinton river, near Mount Clemen.. Hero within a half dozen summers previous, they had drilled in martial exercise, trained themselves to warlike feats, aud pre pared for those deadly incursions into our frontier settlement), and for those more formidable engagements where disciplined valor was called upon to breast their wild charge. Alter the bloody raid to this valley they looked ns to a fastnesf, and to it returned with their captives and streaming trophies. , Aud hero too had been for generations their siiaplo altar in the Unpruncd forests, their festivals, called by lis without refer ence to their true significance their dances, where thanks went up to the Groat Spirit for tho yearly return of the successive blessings of a fruitful season, following lo it sourco, with tlirevt pUrposo and thankful hearts, the warm ray which gave to them thd trickling sap, which reddened tho berry, which' embrowned the tassel of tho corn and perfected their slender harvest Ne-omo, tho chief of Ono of the largest bands of the Chippewa, occupied and assumed to control the most southerly portion of thoir then national domain. The Flint river, with its northerly affluents was by the lino of the troaty of 1 807, left a little north of tho border in full Indian possession. It tvas called by the natives Fe-Wcrrt-liuk-euing, meaning literally tho river of tho Flint,' and by the early French traders, La I'ieno, as was tho principal fording or crossing plaee of that river,' called by; thom Grand Travers, a finv ro Is below tho Flint City bridge...,. By tho ChippJfwas th1, site f . thui city was called Mus-cu-ta-wa-ingh, meaning the open, plain .burnt over. ' : ...... i . ., .''. That river, after leaving tho northerly part of Laytvr Comity, beats Southerly to the Grand Traverse (City of. Flint), and then turves northerly to meet the Saginaw; Iho croscent; whirls it tbM describes, lying iipdri the southern border or nearly so, tff fht was 'tho home possessions, intact and unnffecUti )rfi previous treaties of thoso "bands of Chippewas whoso chiefs rtiid ktiad'meit met General Cass in Council at Saginaw. ' ' ' Well beaten trails Upon the Flint and it tributaries, reaching to their head waters and upon all the affluent of iUa $nginaw, all converging to the main river as the centre, 'fortiiihg'a net work of communication which might not inaptly l.'o compared to an Open fan, with the handle rosting upon' the treaty ground, gave tho Chippewas, upon the banks of tlntso rtrVtiru, unob structed access as well as by canoes upon tho rivers," to the Cutis' missioncr in Council. Tho advancing wavo of white bettlemKfc had ' already approached, and in some instances had wi?7t'out authority, encroached upon the southerly border o'th :ir i'otwork of trails upon the Flint. . , r . . In point of location geographically, Ne om ntid his powerful band stool at the door, the vety threshold of the large body of land which bur Government, through its faithful and earnest Commissioner wanted. - To any one stauding at Detroit and looking northerly to the beautiful belt of land lying westerly of the river St. Clair and Iike Huron, it was plain that the old Chief Ne-ome stood, unless well disposed toward the treaty, indeed a lion irt tho path. Ne-onie wats honest and simple-minded, evincing but little of the craft and cunning of his race, sincere in hU. nature, by no means astute, firm in his friendships, eay to be persuaded by any benefactor who should appeal to bis Indian senso of grati tude, harmless and kind. To It CinlinueJ.) '