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the International character of the prob
lem and In the desire of reaching some wise and practical solution of It. The British government has published a resume of the steps taken jointly by the French ambassador ,ln London and the special envoys b the United States, with whom our ambassador In London actively co-operated in the presentation of this subject to her majesty's government. This will be laid before congress. Our special envoys have not made their final report, as further negotiations between the rep resentatives of this government and the governments of other countries are pend- , ms anu in uuiiLtHiipiuiiuu. .iney ubiicvo ' that the doubts which have been raised in certain quarters respecting tne possi bility of maintaining the stability of the . parity between the metals and kindred questions' may yet be solved by further negotiations. ' ' Meanwhile, it gives me satisfaction to state that the special envoys have al ready" demonstrated their ability and flt ness to deal with the subject( and It Is to result in an International agreement which will bring about recognition of both gold and silver as money upon such terms and with such safeguards as will ecure the use of both metals upon a basis which shall work no injuries to ny class of citizens. RECIPROCITY. Negotiations Pending Willi Earo- neaii and American Governments. In order to execute s early as possible "' the provisions of the third and fourth sec tions of the revenue, act approved July ' U. 1897, I appointed the Hon. John A. Kasson, of Iowa, a special commissioner ' plenipotentiary, to undertake the requi site negotiations with foreign countries desiring, to avail themselves of these pro i yjsions. The negotiajions-are now proseed ' lrig with several governments, both Buro j , pear and American.' It is believed that ferred by that 'act; same grievances of uur -own hhu ui uiuer uuuuuica 111 uui : mutual trade relations may be either re moved or lurgely alleviated, and that the volume of our commercial exchanges may , be enlarged with advantage to both con tracting parties. , 7 THE MERCHANT MARINE.., 1 Government Should Foster This Lllilft-uiMliiliK Industry. Most desirable froui every standpoint of - national Interest and patriotism Is the effort to extend our foreign commerce. To this end our merchant marine should be Improved and enlarged. We should do our full share of' the carrying trade of the world. We do not do-It now. We should not be laggard any longer. The lnferl- . ority of our merchant marine Is justly hu miliating to the national pride. The gov ernment, by every proper constitutional means, should aid in making our ships familiar visitors at every commercial port ,, of the world, thus opening i"up new ana .J;' valuable markets to the surplus products ' Of the' farm and factory. : ', SEALIXO QUESTION. Negotiations In Progress for Preser- vntl .... Af tlij. 1 1 .T-ll The efforts which have been made dur ing the two previous administrations by my predecessors to secure better protec- tion to the fur seals in the North Pa cific ocean and Behring sea were renewed at an early date bv this administration. and have been pursued with earnestness. Upon my invitation, the governments of Russia and Japan sent delegates to Wash ington, and an international conference was held during the months of October and November last, wherein it was unani mously agreed that under the existing regulations! this species of. useful animals was threatened with extinction and that ' , an International agreement of ' all Inter- ' adequate protection. The government of Great Britain did not see proper to be represented at this . ' SViishingtoh as. delegates the expert com- , missioners' of Great Britain and Canada, who had durlmt the oast two years visited the Pribyloff islands, and who met in con ference similar commissioners on the part f theI7nlfed State. The result of this portant facts connected with the condi tion of the seal herd, heretofore In dis- pute, which should place beyond contro versy the duty of the governments con cerned to adopt measures without delay -, for the preservation and restoration of the herds. Negotiations to this end are now in progress, the result of which I hope to be able to report to congress at an (early day. . Recent Events Strengthen the Presi dent's Views.. ,-. International arbitration 'cannot be omitted from the list of subjects claiming our consideration. . Events have recently served to strengthen the general views on this question expressed in my Inaugural .' (ddress. .The best sentiment of the civil ized world is moving toward the settle- without resorting to the horrors of war. - Treaties embodying these numane prin ciples ,pn broad lines without In any, way Imperiling our Interests or our honor shall have my constant encouragement. THE PARIS EXPOSITION. '. ation by Congress. . The acceptance by this government of . tne inviiuiiuri UL me lepuuuu ui r ranee . to Dartlcipate In the universal exposition of 1900 at Paris was immediately followed by the appointment of a special commls- Intisi tn mnr9Mit th TTnlterl Ktntpa In ; "the proposed exposition with special ref erence to the securing of space for an ad- , equate exhibit on behalf of the United States.'" ';' ' ' ' The special commissioner delayed his departure for Paris long enough to ascer- f lailf me iiruuauie ueiimnu lur spucu uy ' American exhibitors. His inquiries der veloped an almost unprecedented interest In the proposed exposition, and .the Infor mation .thus, secured enabled him to-lusti- fy an application for a much larger al- authorltles. The result was particularly gramying in view i?l me lact inai mo ' United States was one of the last coun tries to accept the Invitation of France. The reception accorded our special com missioner was most cardial, and he was eiven every reasonable assurance that the United States would receive a consid eration commensurate with the propor- .11UUS UI UUI CJII11U11. . . asto the magnitude of the commit exDO- . sition and the demand for space for Amen- . 1411 ri ixiiiuilh Buuuiiea new HiKuiiieiiiH ur a liberal and judicious appropriation by congress to the end that an exhibit fairly representative of the industries and re sources of our country may be made In an exposition which will illustrate the world's progress during the 19th century. The exposition is Intended to be the most important and comprehensive of the long which our own at Chicago was a brilliant example, and it is desirable that the hlbit of American genius and skill, and ' their unrivaled achievements in every uif.ii.fi, mi muuoiii , , ': It ' THE .NAVAL ESTABLISHMENT. Armor for New Warships and More Drydocks Needed. The present immediate effective force of the navy consists of four battle-ships of the first class: two of the second class Md 48 other vessels, . ranging from armored cruisers "to torpedo-boats. There are under construction five battle-ships of the first class, 16 torpedo-boats and one submarine, boat. No provision has yet been made for the armor of three of the five battle-ships, as it has been impossible to obtain it at the price fixed by congress. It is of great importance that congress provide this armor, as until then the ships are of no fighting value. The pres ent naval force, especially in view of Its Increase by ships now under construc tion, while not as large as that of a few other powers, Is a formidable force; its vessels are the very best of each type; and with the increase that should be made to It from time to time in the future and careful attention to keeping it in a high state of efficiency and repair, it is well adapted to the necessities of the country. The great Increase of the navy which has taken place In recent years was justi fied by the requirements of the naval de fense and has received public approba tion. The time has now arrived, how ever, when this Increase to which the country Is committed should for a time take the form of increased facilities com mensurate with the Increase of our naval vessels, It Is an unfortunate fact that there Is only one dock on the Pacific coast capable of docking our largest ships, and only one on the Atlantic coast,' and. the latter has for the last six or seven months been under repair and therefore incapablo of use. Immediate steps should be taken to provide three or four docks of this capacity on the Atlantic coast, at least one on the Pacific coast, and a float ing dock on the Gulf. This Is the recom mendation of a very competent board ap pointed to investigate the subject. There should also be ample provision made for powder and projectiles and other munitions of war and for an increased number of officers and enlisted men. Some additions are also necessary to our navy yards for the repair and care of the larger number of vessels. As there are now on the stocks five battle-ships of the largest class, which cannot be completed for a year or two. I concur with the recom mendation of the secretary of the navy for an appropriation authorizing the con struction of one battle-ship for the Pa cific coast, where there is at present enly one In commission and one under con struction, while on the Atlantic there are three In commission and four under con struction, and also several torpedo-boats authorized in connection with our general system of.coast defense. ' NEEDS OF ALASKA. Existing; Conditions Demand Change 'in the Laws. The territory' of Alaska requires the prompt and arly attention of congress. The conditions' now existing demand a material change in the laws relating to the territory. The great influx of popula tion during the past summer and fall and the prospect of a still larger immigra tion in the spring will not permit us to longer neglect the extension of civil au thority within the territory or postpone the establishment of a more .thorough government. A general system of public surveys has not yet been extended to Alaska. -and all entries thus far made in that district are upon special .surveys. The act of congress extending fo Alaska the mining laws of the United States con tained the reservation that it should not be construed tov put in force the general land laws of the country. By an act approved March 3, 1891, au thority was given for entry of Sands for townsite purposes, and also for the pur chase of not exceeding 1-80 acres then or thereafter occupied for purposes of trad9 and manufacture. The pur pose ' of congress, as thus v -far. expressed, has been that only such rights should apply to the territory as should be specifically named. It will be seen how much remains to be done for that vast, remote, and yet promising por tion of our country. ! Special authority was given to the pres ident by the act approved July 24, 1897, to divide that territory , into two , land dis tricts, and to designate the boundaries thereof, and to appoint registers and re ceivers of said land offices, and the presi dent was also authorized to appoint a surveyor-general for the entire district. Pursuant to this authority, a surveyor general and receiver have been appoint ed, with offices at Sitka. If In the ensu ing year the conditions justify it, the addi tional land district authorized by 'iaw will be established with an office at some point In the Yukon valley. No appropria tion, however, was made for this pur pose, and that is now necessary to be done. The Military Post. I concur with the secretary of war in his suggestions as to the necessity for a military force In the territory of Alaska' for the protection of persons and prop erty. ' Already a sma'l force consisting of 25 men and two officers, under com mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Randall, of the Eighth rinfantry. has been sent to St Michaels to establish a military post. As it is1 to the interest of the government to encourage the development of the coun try and . its duty to follow up its citizens there with the benefits of legal machin ery, I earnestly urge upon congress the establishment of a system of government of such flexibility as will enable It to ad just itself in the future to the needs at tendant upon a greater population. , Relief for Starving Klonilikers. The startling though possibly . exag gerated reports from the Yukon river country of the probable shortage of food for the large number of people who are wintering there without the means of leav ing the country, are confirmed in such measure as to justify bringing the matter to the attention of congress. Access to that country this winter can be had only by the passes from Jlyea and vicinity, which is a most difficult and perhaps im-r possible task. However, should these re ports of the suffering of our fellow-citizens be further verified, every effort at any cost should be made to carry them relief. INDIAN AFFAIRS. New Regulations for Five Civilized Tribes Are Imperative. 4 For a number of years it has been ap parent that the condition of the five civil ized tribes in the Indian territory under treaty provisions, with the United States, with the right of self-government and the exclusion of all white persons from within their borders, have undergone so complete a change as to render the contin uance of the system thus Inaugurated practically impossible. The total number of the five civilized tribes, as shown by the last census, is 45,484, and this number has not materially increased, while the white population is estimated at from 200,000 to 250,000, which, by permission of the Indian government, has settled In the territory. The present area of the Indian territory Is 25,564,546 acres, much of which Is very fertile land. The United States citizens residing, in the territory, most of whom have gone there by invitation or with the consent of the tribal authorities, have made permanent homes for them selves. Numerous towns have been built, in which from 1000 to 50OO white people now reside. . Valuable residence and business houses have been erected In many of them and large business enterprises are carried on in which . vast sums of money are em ployed, and yet these people, who have Invested their capital In the development of the productive resources of the coun try, are without title to the land they oc cupy and have no voice whatever in the government of the nations or tribes. Thousands of their children who were born in the territory are of school age, but the doors of the schools of the sec tions are shut against them and what education they get Is by private contribu tion. No provision for the protection of the life or property of these white citi zens Is, made by the tribal governments and courts. The secretary of the interior reports that leading Indians have ab sorbed great tracts of land to the exclu sion of the common people, and govern ment by an Indian aristocracy has been practically established, to the detriment of the people. It has been found impos sible for the United States to keep its citizens out of the territory, and the con ditions contained In the treaties with the nations have for the most part become Impossible of execution. Friends of the Indians have long believed that the best Interests of the Indians of the five civil ized tribes would be found in American citizenship with all the rights and privi leges which belong, to that condition. . The Dawes Commission.': By section 16 of the act of March '3, 1893, the president was authorized to ap point three commissioners to enter into negotiations with the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muskogee (or Creek) and SetnU nole nations, commonly known as the live civilized tribes in the Indian territory. Briefly, the purpose of the, negotiations was the extinguishment of the tribal title to any land within that territory,' now held by any and all such nations or tribes, either by cession of the same or some part thereof to the United States, or: by allotment or by division of the same-in severalty among the Indians of such na tions or tribes respectively as may be en titled to the , same, or by such, other, method as may be agreed upon hetween the several nations and tribes aforesaid or each of them with the United States',: with a view to such an adjustment upon' jthe basis of justice and equity as majv wtth" the consent of the said nations of Indians so far -as. may be ;neeessary,.irequisitevaMf suitable, enable-the ultimate creatie'nof: a state or states of the Union which shall embrace the lands within said Indian ter ritory. The commission met much.oppor, sition from the beginning. : The Indians were very slow to act; and those in.xon trol manifested a decided disinclination to meet with favor the propositions subr mitted to them. More than three years ago the commission affected an agreement with the Choctaw nation alone. The Chickasaws have refused to agree to its terms, and, as they have a common, inter est with the Choctaws in the lands of said nations, ' the agreement w(th the latter nation could not have been made with out the consent of the former. April 23, 1897, the commission effected an agree ment with both tribes the Choctaws and Chickasaws. This agreement, it is under stood, has been ratified by the constituted authorities of the respective tribes or na tions or parties thereto, and only requires ratification by congress to make it bind ing.' , . ' On" the 27th' of September,. 1897, an agreement was effected with the Creek nation, but it Is understood that the na tional council refused to ratify the same. Negotiations are yet to be had with the Cherokees, the most populous of the five civilized tribes, and with the Seminoles, the smallest in point of numbers and ter ritory. Tne provision of the Indian appropria tion act approved June 10, U96, makes it the duty of the commission to investigate and determine the rights of applicants for citizenship in the' five civilized tribes. The commission is at present engaged .irj this wbr among the tribes, and has made arrangements for taking the census of these people up to and including the 50th of the present month, ..... -: Should the agreement between the Choc? taws and Chickasaws be ratified by con gress and should the other tribes ; fail- to make an agreement with the commission, then bme legislation must be had by con gress, which, while just and honorable to? the Indiana, shall be equitable, to" the white people who' have settled upon ; these lands by Invitation of the tribal nations. Hon. Henry L. Dawes, chairman j of ''the commission, in a letter to the -secretary o the interior under date of October 114,89 says; i ' ' ' "Individual ownership is not .In1 ther (the .commission's)' opinion absolutely qfy sentlal to any permanent improvement in' conditlons. 'and the lack of It Is the ,roo,t of nearly all the evils which havft so,-, grievously afflicted these people. --Allow ment by agreement is the only possible method, 'Unless the United States coiiiitg; are clothed with the authority to apportion the lands among the citizen Indians for whose use it was originally granted." I concur with the secretary of the inV terlor that there can be no cure for the evils engendered by the perversion of these, great trusts except by their resumption by. the government which created them. ;. f QUARANTINE LAWS. Appointment of 11 Bacteriological Commission Also Recommended. ' . The recent prevalence of the yellow fever In a number of cities and towns through out the South has resulted in much dis turbance of commerce and demonstrated the necessity of such. amendments to our quarantine laws as will make the regula tions of the national quarantine authori ties paramount. The secretary of the treasury, in that portion of his report relating to the operail tion of the marine hospital service, calls attention to the defects in the present quarantine laws, and recommends amend ments thereto whiQh will give. the treasn ury department the requisite authority to prevent the invasion of epidemic diseases from foreign countries and In times of emergency, like that of the past summer, w'lll add to the efficiency of, the sanitary measures for the protection of the "people and at the same time prevent unnecessary restrictions of commerce. ; 1 concur In his recommendation. ? In further effect to. prevent Ihe Invasion of the United States by yellow fever; the importance of the discovery of 'the exat cause of the" disease, 'which up to tWe present time has been undetermined, hife been obvious, and to this end a systematic bacteriological investigation should ; made. I therefore recommend that con gress authorize the appointment of ji commission by the president to consist at four expert bacteriologists, to be selected from the, medical corps of the marine ho 4 pital service, one- to be appointed fro civil life, one from the medical corps, ox the army and one from the havy. , THE BOND-AIDED ROADS. To Protect the Government's Inters ! est in the Kansas Pacific. I V The Union Pacific railway, main lineT was sold under decree of the United, states court lor the district, of Nebraska on November 1 and 2, this year. Th amount due the government consisted o$ the principal of the subsidy bonds. $27. 236,512, and the accrued interest -thereon $31,211,711 75, making the total Indebtedness! $58,448,223 75. - . The bid at the sale covered the first!' mortgage lien and the entire mortgage11 claim of the government (less interest). The sale of the subsidized portion of the; Kansas Pacific line, upon which the gov-tj ernment holds a second-mortgage'- Hen, has been postponed at the Instance of the government to December 16, 1897. The debt of this division of the Union Pa cific railroad to the government, Novem ber SL 1897, was the principal of the sub sidy bonds, $6,303,000,' and the unpaid and accrued interest, $6,626,690 33, making a total Of $12,929,690 33. The saie of this road was originally advertised for November 4. For the purpose of securing the most public notice of the event, it was post poned until December 16, and a second advertisement of the sale was made. By the decree of the court, the upset price at the sale of the Kansas Pacific must yield to the government the sum , of $2,500,000 over all prior Hens and charges. It no other or better bid Is made, this am is all that the government will re ceive on its claim of nearly $13,000,000. The government has no Information as to whether there will be other bidders or another bid than the maximum amount herein stated..- The question presented, therefore, Is , whether the government shall, under the authority given It by the act. of March 23, 1894, purchase or redeem the road in the event that a bid is not made by private parties covering the en tire government claim. To enable the government to bid at the sale will require a deposit of $900,000, as follows: In the government cause, $500,000, and in each of the first mortgage causes, $200,000, and in- the latter, the deposit must be in cash. Payments at the sale are to be as follows: Upon acceptance of the bid a sum which, with the amount already deposited, shall equal 15 per cent of the bid, the balance in installments of 25 per cent, 30, 40 and 50 days after the confirmation of the sale. The lien on the Kansas rnclflc, prior to that of the government on July 30, 1897, principal and interest, amounted to $7,421,088 11. The government, therefore, should it become the .highest bidder, will have to pay the amount of the first-mort-tage lien. I believe that under the act of 1887 it has authority to. do this, and In the absence of any action by con gress -I, shall direct the secretary of tho treasury to make the necessary deposit, as required by the court's decree, to qualify as a bidder and to bid at the sale a sum which will at least equal the prin cipal of the debt due to the government, but suggest, in order to remove all, con troversy, that an amendment to the law be immediately passed explicitly giving such powers and appropriating in general terms whatever sum is sufficient therefor. In so impbrtant a matter as the govern ment 'becoming the probable owner of the railroad property which it perfuree must conduct and operate, I feel constrained to lay before congress these facts for its cpnsideratlon and taction before the con summatio)of the sale. It Is clear to my mind that the government should not permit the property to be sold at a price which will yield less than one-half the principal of Its debt and less than one fifth of Its debt, principal and Interest. The government, rather than accept less than its claim, should become a bidder and thereby the owner of the property, and I submit this to congress for action. CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY. Recommends That Congress Con tlnne to Develop It. The congressional library, provided for by the act of congress approved April 17, 1896, has been completed and opened to the public. It should be a matter of con gratulation that through the foresight and munificence of congress the nation pos sesses this noble treasure-house of knowl edge. . It Is earnestly to be hoped that, having done so much toward the cause of education, congress will continue to de velop the' library in every phase of re search, to the end that it may not only be one of the most magnificent, but among the richest and. most beautiful libraries In the world. THE CIVIL SERVICE. Room for 'Farther Improvement,' Which Will Be DIude. : The Important branch of our. govern ment known as the civil service, the prac tical improvement of which has long been a subject of earnest discussion, has of late years received Increased legislative and executive approval. During the past few months, the service has been placed on a still firmer basis of business meth ods and personal merit. While the right of our veteran soldiers to reinstatement In. deserving, cases has been asserted, dis missals for merely political reasons have been carefully guarded against, the exam inations -for admittance to the serv.ee enlarged and at the same time rendered less technical, and more practical, and a distinct advance, has been made by giving a hearing before dismissal upon all cas.es where-incompetency is charged or. a de mand is made for removal of officials in any. of the departments. . . This order has been madeito give the ac cused his right , to. be heard wittout in any way impairing the power of removal," which. should always be exercised In cases of : Inefficiency or incompetency, and which is one of the safeguards of the civil ser vice reform system, preventing stagna tion and: deadwood and keeping every employe keenly alive to the fact that se curity of tenure depends liot on' favor, but on his own tested and carefully watched record of service. Much, of course still . remains to be accomplished before the system can be made reasonably perfect for bur needs. There are places how In; the classified service which ought to be exempted and others unclassified may properly be included. I shall not hes itate to exempt cases which I think have been improperly included in the classified serviceor Include those which, In my judg ment, will best promote- the public ser vice. The system has the approval of the people and It will be my endeavor to up hold and extend It. VI am forced by the length of this mes sage to omit many Important references to affairs of the government with which congress will have to deal at the present session. , They are fully discussed in the departmental reports, to all of which I invite your earnest attention. ' ' The estimates of the expenses of the government by the several departments should have your careful scrutiny. Whii'e congress may find it an easy task to re duce the expenses of the government. It should not encourage their Increase. These expenses will, in my judgment, ad mit of a decrease in many branches of the government without injury to the pub lic service. It Is a commanding duty to keep the appropriations within the re ceipts 6f the government and thus prevent a deficit; .. . WILLIAM McKINLEY. Executive Mansion, Dec. 6, 1897. i ' . Prof, Walter T. Scheele, a scientist of Rah way, N. J., lias sounded what he claims 4s the death "Unell of the mos quito, and It. is to be hoped for the sake of a long suffering people that hl3. claim Is correct. Living as he does In. fJew Jersey, famed fn the funny paperi: as the home of "the;, largest and mosb warlike members of the mosquito tribe, he, has had ample opportunity to study the insects, and at the same, time p'en-i fs of. Incentive, in the shape of attacks from the pests, to work toward their destruction, Jt Is well known that mos quitoes breed on the surface of the wa ter in swampy, places, and the profes sor's Idea Is to kill the eggs while still on the water and before they are hatch ed. To do this he throws; into the wa ter a small quaptity of permanganate of, potash,' and when this dissolves It instantly destroys the life In all the, eggs lying on the doctored water. H has made experiments In his laboratory and found that with one small pinch of permanganate he can kill all the mosquitoes in a 1,000-gallon tank of water.: On this basis, he says, two or three ounces will .be sufficient to treat a ten-acre area. If the professor knows what he is talking : about, the exter mination of the annoying Insects should vot be a very difficult matter. A model busband lets his wife have her own way, even when he knows it Is not good for her. LOST IN A LIVE CRATER. The Horrible Experience of Doctot Guppy in Manna Loa. Talk about solitary confineent behind prison bars and its horrors! What of a twenty-three days' solitary vigil on a lonelymountain top, 13,000 feet above sea level, with the yawning, seething crater of one of the world's greatest volcanoes at your feet? That was the experience of Dr. H..p.' Guppy, the noted English scientist, nd if any living nian has formed an idea of what the sulphurous hades of tne orthodox looks like, feels like and is like, jt should be this same Dr. Guppy, for he spent twenty-three days right down in the very crater of that famous old belcher of lire, smoke and lava Mauna Loa, Hawaii. ' He began the descent into the crater on the n.iorning of Aug. 2. Everywhere the lava crust cracks crisply underfoot, and this very cracking seems to warn one not to proceed farther. In many places large lava bubbles blister the surface, and to step on one of these and have it break beneath the foot is enough to unnerve the bravest men. is, feel the crust suddenly , sink beneath one in the bed of a crater is not one of the most pleasing sensations in the world. Each day was one of peril; but aside from the every-day experiences of life in a crater, Doctor Guppy had wo ex traordinary ' adventures, neither of which he will soon forget. On Aug. 7 a section of rock 1,200 feet by? 300 feet In area started from the cliff at the top of the crater and came tumbling down. It came with a crash which under or dinary circumstances would have been terrinc, but in the solitude and awe some surroundings of Mauna Loa's crater was something quite beyond de scription. The resounds within the, crater were as though all the pent-up forces in the earth had found voice and were calling back and forth for help. The landslide continued for seven hours, during which time Doctor Gup py could do naught else but stand and contemplate, the possibilities of what would happen next. And the possibili ties of events out of the ordinary hap pening within a volcano's crater are al most anything an imaginative , mind can conceive. Great rocks fallng from great heights would strike the floor of the crater and rebound again and again in their seeming desire to break through to the regions below. If ever a man had an opportunity to judge of what the awful crisis of the last day will be, Doctor Guppy experienced it them. The other occasion on which the scientist had a chance to contemplate the uncertainty of things In general and craters In particular was the day he was lost in the crater. This was short ly after the landslide, and his nerves had scarcely recovered their usual composure. He had started early in the morning to make an exploration of an unvisited portion of the floor of the crater. He had gone about three miles from his camping place when the steam and vapor began to settle thick ly all 'over the crater. His landmarks were, soon shut out from view and he started to return to his little camp. The vapor clouds settled In more and more thickly until the mist became so heavy he could not discern .objects ahead of him. . . t If ever he felt the want of compan' ionship it was then. He had become confijsed in his efforts to reach camp, and until he could again see his land marks could not for the life of him tell which way to go, even if it were safe to venture further. The most vivig im agination could scarcely . conceive .what a man's thoughts would be under such circumstances.- .Alone and at a spot where no man would venture to rescue; surrounded with a vapor bear- ing in It a .tinge of poison; the oppres sive silence broken only by the escap ing steam, generated not at the will of man, but from the unsolved mysteries of the very bowels of the earth, he waited for six long hours. VAt last the clouds began to lift and a little later Doctor Guppy could get his bearings and return to his headquar ters. Science on Brains. . The following extract is from Have lock Ellis' book, "Man and Woman:" "Again, until quite recent times it has over and over again been emphat ically stated by brain anatomists that the frontal region is relatively larger in men, the parietal in women. This con clusion is now beginning to be regard ed as the reverse of the truth, but we have to recognize that it was Inevita ble! It was firmly believed that the frontal region is the seat of all the highest and . most abstract intellecual processes, and if on examining a dozen or two brains an anatomist found him self landed In the conclusion that the frontal region is relatively larger In women the probability is that he would feel that he had reached a conclusion that, was absurd. ( It may, indeed, be said, that it is only since it has become known that the frontal region of the brain is of greater relative extent in the ape than it is in man and has no special connection with the higher in tellectual processes that it has become possible to recognize the fact that that region is relatively more extensive in women." At the Side Door. Smith Look at that grum policeman over there on the corner! Did you ever see him smile? Brown No. They say he is very cau tious and never does it when any one is around. ' Literary Theories. "Napoleon's autograph is about as bad as Shakspeare's.". "Yes; I'll wager that Bacon wrote both of them." Detroit Free Press. About the only difference between a saloon and a cafe is the prices charged for drinks. ; A TEXAS HERMIT. Th? Peculiar Life Led by Jacob Tom- " linson. Old Jacob Tomliuson, the hermit of Mission Valley, Texas, is looking for a wife. He has inserted the following In several country newspapers: ' "Wanted To form the acquaintance, of a young lady; object, matrimony. I am 78 years of age and will give the young lady who meets my approval $5,000 casli on our wedding day. She must be a brunette, handsome and not over 19 years of age. All applications must be accompanied by photograph. Address Jacob Tomlinsoh, San An tonio, Texas." . Tomlinson is ft peculiar character. He has one of the most beautiful homes in Mission' Valley, a rich section of country northwest of San Antonio. He made his first appearance in Missouri Valley fifty years ago and settled upon 160 acres of land. ; He built a comfort able log cabin home and li ved all alone. He had a number of single-handed en counters with Indians, and the slaugh ter which he invariably, made' on those occasions gave him a reputation for bravery in that neighborhood. He has continued to live the life of a .recluse ever since. . ' 'i'- ; . TTp mnlcpa rtppnainnnl : visits to San Antonio for his mail tind supplies, but this is the farthest he- has been from home since he, began h;is;he.rniit life, in the early days he was a hunter and trapper and made considerable money out of the sale of furs and hides. When the wild game became' scarce he de voted himself to stock raising and agri culture. He laid up money each ye:(, and added to hls'landed possessions ut til he now has a farm Of 6,000 acrei one-nair or wnicn is unaer cmnvatios Several years ago he built a net! , house. It is situated on a hill in thw center of his tract of land and is unique In construction and arrangement. It is built with bamboo rods, intertwined so as to make many kinds of pretty fig ures. These .rods are nailed to the framework of the house. The roof is thatched" with reeds. It has seven ' large rooms, all handsomely furnished. The floors are of hard wood, stain, d and covered with furs and rugs of great vale. ' ' " One of the rooms is used as aJibrary, and is filled with several hundred vol umes of choice books and-the latest magazines. "Uncle" Jacob ls!a great ; reader and spends much of his time In his library. He always has. performed ' all of his household duties,, even cook ing his own meals. , There, are few persons who ever crossed tire threshold of his home. He keeps a numDer or men employed on his farm, but they occupy houses at tlie farther end of the large tract of land and are never per mitted to visit their employer's home. "Uncle" Jacob uas never told the secret of his early life. It is believed that-he came from the New England States. Chicago Chronicle. -; ' ; , Tn Mine Swindle. ' , Probably one. of the -greatest steals on record In the mining history of the Black. Hills is that ef the Harvey Peak Tin Mining and 'Manufacturing Com pany. For an investment oi some two and one' half .millions of dollars which were furnished by .English capitalists, there remains to show for. the Invest ment only some out-of-date machinery, several large buildings and, sope land. A few years ago tin bearing ore was discovered near Harvey Peak, Some of the most influential business men In the hills, together with capitalists from New York, plotted a scheme which was worked, which sunii thousands of En gllsh mbney and gave the Black Hilla country a ten-years' setback. ' A large mill was first built, . then filled with ex pensive machinery for the purpose of ' mining tin. It was commonly said that there was enough tin in the mine to 11 V 1 1 I. v1 11.11 1 I II. ' U W one run was made by, the mill, when it was closed down. Enough tin was milled to rope In the buyers, and the transaction was made. The mine has ' been shut down ever since. There was an attempt made to .reorganize the com pany and begin operations again, but the general report is that the deal has fallen through. . There was at; time when Eastern capital was anxious to make investments in Black Hills min ing property, when almost any, amount of money could be obtained, simply up Dn.a fair representation of the resources of the mine. Since this Harvey Peak swindle, however, the Eastern men have withdrawn their money, and as a consequence many valuable claims' have remained undeveloped. The Black Hills is just emerging from the shame of this deal. During the "past tew months more Eastern capital' has come this way and found investments than for any like period for some time." Con- 1 fidence Is gradually being restored and capital is once more turning toward the hills. Minneapolis Times. ; 1 Important if True. - "Yes," said the poet, "the greater a man becomes, the more pleasure he de rives from visits to the scenes oi; his childhood." , ' '.'.' "Humph!" retorted the cynic, "do you know why? , He just wants to hear the old folks around there say they always ' knew he had something more than com mon stuff In him." . . . . ; Her Hope. "Dear me," exclaimed Maud, who had been reading a fashion paper. : "Last year's engagement ring has gone wholly, out of style." , ''What has taken Its place?" inquired Mamie. '; " -'' ' ' "I don't know. . But I hope it's a bi cycle." Washington Star. ' "Etymological. "Baw jove, I have heard that you said I was a monomaniac." , "Me? Never. A monomaniac Is a man of one idea. If you are anything you must be a nonomaniac." Indlanap Ub Journal.