Newspaper Page Text
IMPROVING THE GRADE HERDS.
(Address by D. Drummond Myrtle be
fore the Ontario Farmers Institute.)
In traveling through the country,
we notice that if there is any one
branch of agriculture that rtands in
need of improvement, it is the live
stock branch, and especially cattle.
In nine cases out of ten, when look
ing at a herd of cattle it is impossible
to tell what ideal the farmer had in
view when breeding them, unless it
was to produce an animal. The breeds
are so mixed that in most cases they
are worse thaa twenty years ago, as
they have moje variations, but it is
now easier to breed up on account of
each new cross making the whole
more pliable 01 susceptible to improve
ments. Is there anything we can say
to help the farmer to improve the
stock he has? There is always the
common answer, "better feed and bet
ter blood," a good solution of the prob
lem if he knows how to use them to
better his stock. These two factors
must always go together, but after
them comes that great problem of se
lection, which is in fact the only law
of breeeding that is entirely under our
control. The other laws such as "like
producing like" and "reversion or
breeding back" are largely beyond the
farmer's control, but he must use
them as much as possible to help him
in his selection. We often hear in
structions as to how to select animals
for particular functions so that for the
present it is necessary only to discuss
the question of how to select them
for breeding purposes to get the great
There is an old saying among breed
ers that the best results are generally
produced by breeding from a dam that
produces offspring like the sire, and I
believe that is the fundamental basis
from which we can exepect to receive
the greatest benefit from better blood
in the grade herds of this country,
whether they are dairy or beef.
Find out by weighing and testing
milk what our cows are doing, then in
crease the food and give better care,
and weigh and test again, then you
will find the cows that are most sus
ceptible to improvement and that re
spond most readily to better care.
Now comes the time of better
blood. Get a bull belonging to some
of the recognized pure breeds with a
long line of high producing ancestry
as possible, and see as many of them
as are within reach. Find out if pos
sible if the dam and the grand-dam
have good shaped udders, for it ap
pears that dairy qualities although en
tirely a female function, are transmit
ted largely through the sire; that is
why a good sire is so valuable in im
proving dairy herds. Now we expect
our bull is better than our cows, as he
i? pure bred of a deep milking strain,
but of what use is he if he does not
transmit the power he has inherited
from his ancestors to do something.
If the bull has the power of transmit
ting the good qualities of his ances
tors, it does not look as if it made
much difference which cow was the
dam of the calf we wished to raise.
It' the bull is better than the cows, it
is his qualities we want; if they blend
with those of the cows so much the
better. The best calf to raise is the
one that shows most largely the qual
ities of the sire. By observing close
ly we will find that it is generally the
calves of the cows which showed the
greatest improvement from better food
and better care that are best to
keep. Those cows are the least liable
to transmit their own qualities, they
are the most pliable as their charac
teristics are the least firmly fixed.
I would raise as many heifer calves
as possible with the expectation of dis
carding many of them when two or
three years old, or even before that
age, if we notice any tendency to re
vert back to the original scrub. We
must not stop, as there is no such
thing as standing still in stock breed
ing. We have either to keep on im
proving or they will go back in spite
of us, because the tendency in our do
mestic animals is always towards de
terioration, and we must put forth our
best efforts towards improvement.
Now, what can we do to counteract
this tendency toward reverting back?
We can reduce it to a minimum by in
breeding, either by breeding those heif
ers to their sire or to another that
very closely resembles him. When we
get past that point, we want to breed
or blend the qualities of both sire and
dam, for now the tendency toward re
version to the original will have al
most disappeared. This is because the
animals become in a few generations
to all intents and purposes almost
During this time we must never lose
sight of the better feed and care, as
these do a great deal towards improve
ment of the herd. This is particularly
so of the development during early age
of the heifers, especially until they
have produced their second calf. If
then they do not come up to the stand
ard of a good cow discard them.
Q. In building up a herd of dairy
cows is it not important to select a
A. T. G. Raynor, Rose Hall: I be
lieve it is. After determining the
breed, stick to the use of the best
pure bred sires of that breed obtain
able, but have them carry their pedi
grees on their backs.
Q. Is there no middle course in
breeding for dairy and beef, and may
we not produce an animal doing fairly
well in both?
A. Yes, I believe it is possible, but
the best results in either beef or milk
are not obtainable in the combination
Q. Oar cattle are not as large as
they were thirty years ago, and do not
seem to have the same constitution.
What is the cause?
A. T. H. Mason, Staffordville:
Many leading authorities claim that
the use of immature sires, which is
now the prevailing practice, is the
most prominent cause.
Q. Do you think you can produce
or raise a good dairy cow from a
cross with a Shorthorn and one of the
A. R. H. Field, Addison: Not the
highest type of dairy cow.
One of the handsomest catalogs re
ceived this year by The Ranch is that
of Lilly, Bogardus & Co. It is not only
a complete price list of seeds, poultry
and bee supplies, garden implements,
etc., but contains a good deal of care
fully prepared special information re
garding varieties of grasses and for
age plants especially adapted to the
Northwest. The book is embellished
by many fine engravings, including
quite a number of half-tones. Anyone
can secure a copy by sending name
and address to Lilly, Bogardus &Co.,
C. L. Whitney, the well known nur
seryman of Walla Walla, has received
NgS^*~ — ssgss^ START IN THE NEW YEAR WITH
/y\/J mL»*x **\, A- bank account. We pay 2 per cent.
Ar£^% J^k^ r^L >*~& *° * Per ron *- on deposits. Make your
Iff; i AV^yW^.^P remittances by mail and they will rc
lll^/c:^??^l!f\s^r^^\&.r' ceive prompt and careful aitention.
ul (Jfk^Y^WTlTr^t^ The high class of '"" securities la
ill U'^M^llii % sures absolute safety.
WWCi M Northwest Trust &
•m^^^^o Safe Deposit Co.
:t^^^§S^^^^r <=;' 90-94 Columlila St., Seattle.
\ ;V-SCHOOL-^^DAY- -AND v--< NIGHT; THE♦YEARv^ARQIJND- • •
THE ENTIRE TOP FLOOR COLLINS BLK. SECOND AND JAMES. PHONE MAjN 416.
an order from the noted Lord Aber
deen ranch in British Columbia for
10,000 apple trees. Mr. Whitney sent
the same ranch 500 trees last year.
The place consists of about 30,000
acres and is located at Vernon, B. C.
"It will interest all fruitgrowers to
know," said Mr. Whitney, "that the
management of the Lord Aherdeen
ranch sold one entire crop of apples in
Hong Kong at $3.50 a box, thus show
ing the possibilities of our western
apple growers in the oriental trade.
Last year the orchard paid $14,000
over all expenses. The 30,000 acre
ranch is divided into departments for
the maintenance of horses, sheep, cat
tle and the culture of fruit. The or
chard pays best of all. Each division
is kept separate. Frank Rayburn.
formerly manager of the Blalock fruit
farm here, is now foreman of the hor
ticultural department on the ranch."
Advertisements under this beading lc a
word each insertion. Cash must accompany
Butter-maker wishes employment. Refer
ences furnished. Clarence Brewer, Satsop,
FOR BALE —Fine and complete chene out
fit, used only one month and Alpha I>e
Las-Hi Helt Separator, 12OU pounds ca
pacity, all in first class order. A bar
gain to cash buyer. Address. Kockwood
Creamery Co.. North Ynkima. Wash.
FOR SALE —Male Jersey calf, dropped De
cember 10. 1002. sire. Barton Prince,
No r>74.'!t; A. J. C. C. : Dam. Seattle Mol
lie. No. 1<;4."» I. C. J. C. C. Price $25.00.
22 llnller Hldg.. Seattle. Wash.
FOR SALE —One pedegree red Polled
bull calf, 8 months old. Apply C. T. Gib
bons, Cowlchan Station, Vancouver Island.
FOR SALE—One three-year-old cow, bred,
one two-year-old coy. both bred to pure-bred
bull, a grandson of Brown Bessie ; a good
size bull calf, 9 months old. All the above
are pure-bred registered Jerseys. The moth
er of these three animals has a test of
BMs per cent. L. R. Roper, University Sta
PATRONIZE HOME INDUSTRIES
Especially when you can buy cheap
er than from eastern concerns. Our
big illustrated mail order catalogue
PUGET SOUND SUPPLY CO., Seattle.
We do not send a receipt for sub
scription remittances received. It
would cost us a good deal of money
for postage, and take up a great deal
of extra time. It is not necessary, as
the tag on the lable shows the date to
which the subscription is paid.
The legislative committee of the
Lewis and Clark fair will ask Congress
for an appropriation of $2,000,000
PASmEXPERIENCE IS THE BEST
GUIDE FOR THE FUTURE.
And we predict success in the future
to the farmers of the
because of the wonderful record they
have made in the past. Send for our
story of "What One Man Did."
Real Estate and Financial Agent. Sole
agent Wenatchee Development Co.,
Farms for Sale
Improved and unimproved. Sent! for printed
list and description. Address
THE SYNDICATE COMPANY
211-212-213 California Building, Tacoma, Wash.
British Columbia Farms
If you are thinking of going to the Pacific
Coaßt try British Columbia. No extremes
of temperature. No cyclones. No dust
storms. No cloud bursts. No dronghts. No
blizzards. Fertile land, and the heaviest
crops per acre in Canada. We make this
statement without fear of contradiction.
The land is cheap and the markets and
prices for farm produce the best on the
Pacific Coast. Write for Farm Pamphlet
to the Settlers' Association, Box 329, Van
couver, B. C. When writing please refei
to this paper.
We are Seattle Agents for Eastman
Kodaks, Century, Poco and Premo
C. W. PARKER & CO.,
We are manufacturer! of and Dealers In
111 MAX HAIR GOODS
Gentlemen's Wins and Toupee* made to
(iidel-; perfeel lit and design.
BRATTLE HAIB AND MANACUBK <'<».
KMI7 First Avenue, Seattle.
If you want to
Advertise in newspapers
anywhere at anytime
call on or write
E. C. Dake's Advertising Agency
64-05 Merchants Exchange
Saw Francisco - Cal.