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PRACTICAL FRUIT NOTES. The growing of fruit and marketing it may properly be considered two dis tinct lines of business. It frequently happens that a grower produces the highest quality and grade of fruit, and yet because of faulty methods of mar keting or handling he makes a failure, financially, of his efforts. The success ful marketing of fruit requires a very close and constant study of the mar kets —closer than the average fruit grower is likely to give—and the ex erefse of the best business ability. Grading and Packing. The markets are seldom glutted with strictly first-class fruit, if properly packed, but it frequently happens that the poorer grades are a burden at any price. The demands of the various markets, however, vary as to require ments in grade and style of packing; so it is essential that the shipper be lamiliar with the standards of the market to which he is shipping. For instance, a market where a large por tion of fruit goes to canneries would not be so critical in detail in grading, packing, and style of package as would another market where a fancy dessert trade governs the demand. The neces sity of knowing the demands of the market for which the fruit is intended and then honestly catering to it, are the points to be emphasized in this connection. Honest grading and packing are es sential points. It sometimes happens that the grower's standards of grade and quality are below those of the market, and while he thinks he is packing fruit requisite for the grade intended he is disappointed in the re turns from his commission house, even though the returns were honestly made. A personal inspection of the markets and a conference with the commission merchant himself would often make pleasanter relations be tween the two. The grower would then see for himself just what the market demands. The Grower and the Commission Man. The commission house, an essential adjunct to commercial fruit growing, ir; often bitterly assailed by the grow er. Some of this criticism is just, but much of it unjust. Each grower should select some honest house to deal with in each market to which he ships, and then stick to it. Growers often ship first to one house, then to another, and so on, not dealing with any one long enough to make a reputation either for himself or for his fruit. A good reputation with the commission merchant who handles his fruit is often of immense advantage to the grower. A common occurence will il lustrate the fact. Upon making a ship ment the grower notifies his agent of what the shipment consists. Knowing that the packing and grading are thoroughly honest, the commission merchant can safely sell the fruit with out the necessity of examining it, and often does dispose of such lots before they are received, and at a good price. If, however, he knows nothing of the shipper's methods or, as may be the case, he knows that his grading is ir regular and packing faulty, he (the commission merchant) must see the fruit before he can sell it, and being thus delayed, this fruit must take its chances when the demand has been partially supplied and prices have been correspondingly lowered. Some growers practice dividing their shipments, even in the same market, between several commission houses. This is unwise, as it brings fruit of the same class into competition with it self. It may be of no advantage to consign the different grades to differ ent houses in the same market, but the most sagacious growers refrain, as a rule, from dividing their shipments if the whole consignment is sent to the same market. To successfully handle fruit the best of business abili ty and keen foresight need to be ex ercised, and where these qualities are displayed the growers generally find fruit growing profitable. Hygiene of the Fruit Plantation. A healthy condition of the fruit plantation is an all important consid eration, and no pains should be spared to keep the plants strong and thrifty. Many of the factors which influence the vigor of plants are directly within the control of the grower. Some of them have already been referred to in other connections. The first two essentials are good, strong, healthy plants when they are set out and a suitable place in which to grow them. If either one of these two points is disregarded, little or nothing can be done to offset or reme dy the initial difficulty; but with these two conditions properly met, the health of a plantation is largely a matter of good judgment on the part of the grow er in his management of it. Through the judicious fertilizing, pruning, cul tivating, spraying, etc., will do much toward keeping the plants in the most favorable condition for fruit produc tion. Adverse climatic influences will sometimes defeat the most intelligent efforts, but by careful attention to all the details that go to make up progres sive fruit-plantation management the grower is able to minimize the effect of adverse influences which otherwise tend to weaken or impair the vigor of his plants. The Spraying Problem. Spraying is a comparatively recent development as a generally important operation in the growing of fruit. The general distribution of the potato bee tle in the early seventies made the use of arsenic in some form familiar in controlling this pest. It was also used in combatting the cotton worm at a relatively early date, but it was not un til within the past fifteen years or so that the spraying of plants and fruit trees began to recive any special atten tion. In recent years, however, great progress has been made in this direc tion. Much yet remains to be learned, but the general principles are now well established. Advancement in the future will lie along the lines of better insecticides and fungicides, and im provement means of applying them. The Philosophy of Spraying. An operation can always be more in telligently performed if the reasons for doing it are thoroughly understood. This is emphatically true of spraying. If the operator does not know what he is spraying for and why he is doing it, it is merely an accident if his efforts avail anything. It is not necessary that he know the name of every dis ease or the complete life history of every insect, but it is essential for him to know their vulnerable points and the treatment that will reach them. Spraying tor fungous diseases is largely a preventive measure, not a curative one; hence their coming must be anticipated. This likewise applies to some of the insect pests. Spraying Should therefore be looked upon as an insurance of the crop. Such ef forts will not give the same proportion ate returns every year, but the appear ance of destructive diseases and in- THE RANCH. sects of some kind may be expected every season and it is not often that they fail to come, so that efforts put forth in anticipation are seldom lost. The effect of spraying is, in a meas ure, cumulative. The benefits are not all manifest during the season that the application is made. Especially is this true of plants which form their fruit buds the previous season, which is the case with most of the fruits. An ap ple tree, for instance, which is serious ly attacked by insects or loses its foli age from disease, it not likely to prop erly mature its fruit buds for the next season's crop, whereas a tree that is perfectly healthy will, under normal conditions, perfect its fruit buds for the succeeding season. Thoroughness is an absolute essen tial. Negligence in this direction is the cause of a large proportion of the failures to obtain good results from spraying. To spray a plant thoroughly, it is not necessary to drench it until the mixture drips from the leaves, but the aim should be to completely moist en the entire surface of foliage and branches. Other common causes of failure are applying the wrong remedy, or the right remedy at the wrong time. A frequent mistake is the use of in secticides where fungicides ought to be used, and vice versa. Then the opera tor, having failed to distinguish, the proper remedy, wonders why his spray ing is so unsuccessful. These points will be referred to elsewhere more in detail. Logical Place of Spraying in Fruit- Plantation-Management. Spraying is co-ordinate with tillage, pruning, fertilizing, and the other fundamental operations of fruit rais ing, but as it is really an insurance of the crop its logical order follows after the other operations have received at tention from the grower. That is to say, spraying will in no way take the place of tillage, fertilizing, etc., but when these matters have all been prop erly attended to, and the devastation of insect enemies and fungous diseases are the remaining factors which are likely to prevent the development of the fruit, then spraying remains as the one other essential thing to be regard ed. A plantation that is suffering from lack of tillage, poverty of soil, or va rious other essentials, can not be made profitable merely 'by spraying. Special emphasis is laid on this point because many who are struggling with neg lected and unprofitable fruit planta tions, not appreciating the proper place of spraying in fruit raising, have conceived the notion that if they only resort to spraying their plantations will at once become fruitful. Spraying, then, is of value in fruit growing only no far as it decreases the devastations due to insects and fungous diseases. Spraying in Relation to Insects. The limitations of the present dis cussion will permit only a general ref erence to this feature of fruit grow ing. To be effective, a proper remedy must be applied at the proper time. As a rule insects do the greatest amount of damage during their larval or immature stage, and generally it is necessary to spray before the appear ance of this form, but in a few cases their coming must be anticipated and some means of control resorted to be fore the insects appear. For insects which eat the foliage or other portions of the host plant some poison, as paris green, should usually be applied. Sucking insects, such as plant lice, require an insecticide that kills by coming in contect with them. Kerosene in some form is widely used tor this purpose. Some insects cannot be reached by sprays of any kind, and such means of combating them must be adopted in these cases as will reach an assailable point in the life cycle of the insect. Sometimes hand-picking is the best method of CGfiTfoC^'tA others, the de struction of the "infested plants is the only satisfactory resort. In all cases of doubt the advice of some entomolo- PAST EXPERIENCE IS THE BEST GUIDE FOR THE FUTURE. And we predict success in the future to the farmers of the Wenatchee Valley. because of the wonderful record they have made in the past. Send for our story of "What One Man Did." ARTHUR GUNN, Real Estate and Financial Agent. Sole agent Wenatchee Development Co., Wenatchee, Wash. Farms for Sale Improved and unimproved.' 1!^ Send for printed list and description. Address THE SYNDICATE COMPANY 211-212-213 California Building, Tacoma, Wash. SELL YOUR FARM YOURSELF. The names I have on my list are those of people who are actually in terested in securing a home or busi ness in the State of Washington. Each one of them have paid me for such in formation as I could give. 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