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THE DAIRY Fighting the Chehalis Condensery. The milk condensery at Chehalis is haivng a rough road these days and prospects appear good for its shut ting down for an indefinite period. The trouble centers around the de cision arrived at by the company to pay but 90 cents per hundred pounds during the current month, while the price in May was $1.10 and higher in previous months. The dairymen wanted the company to pay $1.10 this month but the latter refused, saying it would shut down the factory before acceding to the demands. This con densery is a new one and the manage ment claims it has not yet been in operation long enough to have created a market for its product large enough to warrant the payment of the higher figure for milk. The claim is also made that there are now several con denseries supplying the market and that this fact is responsible for a sort of glutting of the market, taking down the price. The management also promises to pay a higher figure next month, but must retrench somewhat the present month. It is moreover claimed that the promised number of cows has not materialized and as a re sult the factory is not receiving its full amount of milk. These state ments were presented to a meeting of the condensery patrons at Chehalis last week in a letter from the super intendent. Some of the patrons were in favor of accepting the terms of the condensery and helping it build up a good business and securing more cows, but the majority would not hear of it. A committee was appointed to confer with the officials of the com pany, but is was able to accomplish nothing. A resolution was then drawn up. saying the patrons would stop fur nishing milk to the condensery on the loth inst. for a period of thirty days unless the former price of $1.10 was restored. This resolution was voted down and finally it was decided to put in a pasteurizing plant at Chehalis and bring the cream to it, then send it to the Hazelwood Company at Port land. This decision was not arrived at before several propositions had been passed up, such as having a co operative creamery, a cheese factory, a combination creamery and cheese factory or a skimming station. So far as reports go it is evident the propo sition to establish a pasteurizing plant will finally carry and the condensery will shut down for an indefinite period. With the "pasteurizing plant it will be necessary for the owners of cows to purchase hand separators. The experiment may be a success, but the expense to which each patron will be in meeting the new conditions will hardly cover the difference in price received for the cream sent to the pasteurizer and that offered by the condensery for only one month, i. c., 00 cents per hundred pounds. Low Temperature for Keeping Butter. At the conference of dairy experts and instructors of Canada there were, among other very practical ideas brought out, an interesting talk by .1. J. Ruddick, chief of the dairy divis ion of the agricultural department. Among other topics he spoke of re frigeration and the need of low tem perature in storing and transporting butter. He said, in part: "We are beginning to learn, ••al though it seems to be a slow process, that it is important that butter should be kept at as low a temperature as possible from the time it is made. Canadians have been losing a good deal of ground in the markets of Qreal Britain through negligence on this point. In that respect we are a long way behind our friends in New Zealand. All refrigerator steamers sailing from New Zealand carry froz en meat. It is a matter of necessity tat the temperature in the chamber be kept very low. As a matter of fact they are carrying frozen meat at a temperature from zero to 10° F. But ter, when it is shipped from New Zea land to England, is placed in the chamber along with the frozen meat. The steamer is one large refrigerator, and the cargo is mainly frozen meat. The refrigeration on them was pro vided, in the first place, for the. frozen meat trade. As the butter trade has grown, the same boats have been used for the purpose, and so they have the best possible service for sending but ter to England. One great point is, that as the butter must be put in the same chamber with the frozen meat, it is not accepted for carriage unless it is below the freezing point of water. If butter comes along to be loaded, and the thermometr shows it to be above 32°, the engineer will send it back to store. To take warm butter aboard and store it in the refrigera tor chamber would have the effect of spoiling the frozen meat, which is a very valuable cargo. Butter to be ex ported from New Zealand is put in store and frozen, and kept at a tem perature of 10° at least four full days before going aboard the steamer. So the butter is kept at a low temperature from the third or fourth day after it is made until it reaches England. This is one reason why New Zealand has been making such great progress in securing the trade of Great Britain for her butter. They are getting a good price, almost equal to Danish. In New Zealand they have artificial refrigeration in nearly every cream ery. The butter is shipped once or twice a week to cold storage, and kept there at a temperature not above 10°. It reaches the ocean steamers at a temperature not higher than 32°, no matter how far it has to be carried. It can be carried for a day's journey down the coast without refrigeration, and yet without the temperature ris ing above freezing point. Using Hand Separators. A correspondent who is debating the question of installing a hand separator says: Is it really possible to skim closely with hand separators? Some of my neighbors say that they have taken samples of their skim milk to the creamery and had it tested and the creamery people told them that they were losing all the way from one-half to one pound of butter per hundred pounds of milk. Now, if that is the case, it seems to me there is something wrong, for the old system of setting milk in shallow pans will give as good results as that." There is certainly something wrong if the loss is as great as our corre spondent claims is the case with his neighbors. Ninety-nine chances to one, however, the trouble is not with the machines but with the people who operate them. Hand separators when properly run will skim milk just as close as large factory machines. There should be less than one-tenth of one per cent of butter fat left in the skim milk instead of one per cent as indi cated by our correspondent. There is absolutely no excuse for such con dition of affairs and these results need not deter any one from purchas ing a hand separator. The very fact that the.number of hand separators used in the state of lowa alone have grown from 900 to nearly 17,000 dur ing the last six years is in itself evi dence that the machines are all right and are giving satisfaction. Some of the creameries insist on having the farmers furnish cream carrying 50 per cent butter fat; this is done to save express charges but it should be remembered that it is much more difficult to produce cream as rich as that and still do good skim ming. Possibly that is one trouble with the men referred to above. Re member that a separator is a delicate ly adjusted piece of machinery and hence needs of the best care in every respect. Slovenly work cannot pro- THE RANCH. duce high class results. In the first place, the machine must be set per fectly level and securely bolted to a strong floor, but it is preferable to set the machine on a stone or cement foundation. This done, see to it that the milk is not allowed to get cold before skimming. As near as pos sible, skim as soon as the milk is drawn from the cow. The tempera ture should at least not fall much below 80 degrees F. Bear in mind what the directions furnished with the machine say in regard to speed and uniformity of turning the handle. Many people who are not accustomed to the machine start it with a jerk and keep up that jerky motion during the entire separation. Keep the same pressure on the handle at all times; do not relax the pressure when the handle bar is down for that is where the jerky motion originates. Until one becomes thoroughly accustomed to the speed, a watch should be used by which to time the revolutions. Any of the standard machines will do good work and it is safe to say that any man who will closely follow the directions given by the makers of his machine will get good results, but bear in mind that guess work counts for little in running a modern cream separator; care and intelligence must be used. Salt Spring Island Creamery. As our creamery, which is located at Ganges Harbor, is considered to be the finest in the province of British Columbia, if not on the continent I believe it deserves mentioning in The Ranch. It is built of stone, and faces the harbor with a considerable drain age towards the sea. The water is supplied from a spring situated in the mountains behind the building and is conducted to the creamery in pipes. As we only started late in February we do not consider ourselves half under way yet; but we made 1,200 pounds of butter the last and pre ceeding weeks. I do not know of any other creamery that buys feed and retails it to its patrons, but if the other creameries knew how it en courages the keeping of dairy herds they would feel inclined to follow suit. We took over the Victoria creamery when it was burnt out and do not quite seem yet to have settled down now that it is working in Vic toria once more; but we are such a lotus-eating island full, that we have quite surprised ourselves at the suc cessful energy of the Harbor, with the cream cans hurrying to and fro. Cows are "away up" and churns may be bought very cheap. It has been a God send to the Island farmer's wife. —One of the Lotus-Eaters. Calves and Skim Milk. The Utah station has recently pub lished the result of some interesting experiments in feeding skim milk to calves and pigs. The results prove that skim milk, when fed in combina tion with grain, makes a valuable food for hogs at any time, but par ticularly during the early stages. The calves were taken from the cows at 12 hours old. For the first 7 or 10 days they were fed the whole milk from the cow, some being fed twice and some three times a day. The milk was fed warm from the cow, and the amount given was from 16 to 18 pounds per day. When the calves were fed on whole milk, it was gradually increased as they got older, till 20 to 22 pounds were fed per day, at a month old, when the calves were disposed of. Those calves which received skim milk were fed as follows: For the first 7 to 10 days, the calf got the whole milk fresh from the cow; then skim milk was gradually substituted, till at the end of one week the calf got half skim and half whole milk. At the end of the next week the ration was three-fourths skim milk. By the time the calf was 4 to 5% weeks old, n* r t? A/IDI^DF??T^ a . Cream ft rj* ;- Separator . %M y though not the oldest, is the m !is|Vmost popular separator in the A * * I- i world to-day. • »< AM why? Simply because it is do- 'sbJkn If? ing better work and giving great* Q % , ci satisfaction than any other /or -J) * can. That's why so many farm- < B», \r ers have discarded all others. Tf y It will fay you to get the best. f d Send for our free books on the \ P , "Empire Way" of dairying. 1 V 5i There's good sense in them. ;» " ) Empire Cream Separator Co. ■ • Bloomfieid, New Jersey, . ; f Portland, Ore. v BEE KEEPERS' SUPPLIES THE VERY FINEST MANUFACTURED BY G. B. LEWIS CO., Watertown, Wis., U. A. NORTHWEST AGENTS: LILLY, BOGARDUS & CO., • Seattle, Wash. ; —; : — i\ Dpp r\ I KEEPERS \ I Write us your wants I I and we will tell you what I ■ your supplies will cost ■ jjjt^^ freight paid to your stat- dm* l 9 JUlu,Jßooardus*(d^K Want You to Know that J. S. KEMP TWENTIETH CENTURY MANURE SPREADER la the Beat Has many new and valuable feature* contained In no other. Your name and ad dress on a postal will fetch Manure Spread er booklet by return mall. Want you to know about It, that's all. POISON IMPLEMENT & HARDWARE CO. Selling Ae«nt« for Oregon and Wa«hlnjrton HRATTMS. WASH Write your farming experiences for publication in The Ranch. ■■ ■■■:.'-.