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The ranch., September 15, 1904, Special Fair Number, Page 18, Image 20
The ranch. (Seattle, Wash.) 1902-1914
Image provided by: Washington State Library; Olympia, WA
Newspaper Page Text
The Ripening of Cheese FROM AMERICAN CHKKSKMAKKR. Chemical analysis of many cheese in different stages of curing shows that the curing process consists principally in the change of a complex nitrogen ous compound into a succession of simpler ones. Formerly it was sup posed that paracasein was this com plex compound, but discovery of the paracasein salts gives a better basis of explanation. The formation of par acasein becomes, not the first step in the curing process, but a preliminary step, followed by the building up of the paracasein salt of lactic acid, the most complex body found in cheese. With this complex nitrogen compound the curing process may be properly said to begin; and while we cannot speak as positively on this point as on those which precede our investiga tions indicate that the first breaking down results from the action of pep — a ferment contained in rennet — upon this paracasein salt. The first action of rennet is to co agulate the milk and form paracasein. In this work its action is greatly has tened by the formation or the addi tion of a moderate amount of acid. This has been shown clearly by add ing increasing small amounts of acid to sweet milk and noting the time re quired for coagulation with rennet. Each increase in the amount of acid shortens the time, the first increase most rapidly. When the amount of acid is one-tenth of one per cent of the milk the coagulation is as rapid as is allowable in making good cheese. Any marked increase of acid beyond this proportion would tend to produce poor quality, as we have already shown. This emphasizes the impor tance of placing milk in the hands of the cheesemaker before any appreci able amount of acid has been formed. When rennet was added to pasteur ized milk, and cheesemaking and cur ing carried on under conditions which excluded the action of other ripening agencies, such as the natural ferments or enzymes in the milk when drawn and the bacteria normally present or added in "starters," the ripening pro cesses were carried on to a consider able extent if a small amount of com mercial acid was added. Many of the compounds formed under these condi tions were identical with those found upon analysis of normal cheese at dif ferent stages of ripeness; and the changes progressed in the same order. The process, however, is not complet ed under the action of rennet alone. While the curd ripens so that it would be digestible and nutritious it does not form those compounds which give "nuttiness" or normal cheese flavor— the pleasant smell and taste which we desire in the article on our tables. When a "starter" was used to give the necessary acidity to the milk, the ripening more nearly approached the normal and some "cheese flavor" de veloped. The biological factors—bac teriaintroduced in the "starter" sup plemented the purely digestive action of the rennet and gave, in some de gree, all the products found in a prop erly ripened cheese. The changes in these cheeses were made under normal conditions and were therefore less marked than those caused by the same agencies under ordinary conditions. The heating necessary to pasteurize milk greatly weakens its power of coagulation, which chemicals must be used to re store; and chloroform was added in some cases also to prevent the growth of bacteria introduced in the manipu lations of making. The effect of these additions would be to retard rather than to increase the amount of change. We are safe in saying that rennet performs a very important function in cheese ripening, but cannot alone complete the ripening process and de velop flavor. Commercial pepsin was used in par allel series of tests to compare its ef fect with that of rennet. The results were very similar and the conclusion is inevitable that it is the pepsin con tained in the rennet that causes the changes. That the paracasein monolactate is acted upon is shown by its decrease, as found by analysis, with the increase of the compounds indicating ripening of the cheese. Also in the absence of acid —a condition which was quite per fectly secured in some of the cheeses made —the paracasein could not be changed to its lactate salt; and in such cases little, if any, ripening took place, even although the cheese was kept under most favorable conditions. The importance of the acid both in influencing coagulation and in forming the soluble salt of paracasein has been shown. Back of the acid are the bac teria; for without their work in break ing down the milk sugar there could be no production of acid and no for mation of paracasein monolactate. We have also seen that the enzymes normally found in fresh milk—galac tase and its associates —are not capa- ble of carrying the ripening process to completion and experiments just discussed show that rennet or pepsin cannot give us a properly flavored cheese, although either carries the process of ripening well toward com pletion. Bacteria must come in here and carry the breaking down of products through to the formation of the com pounds giving flavor. What these changes and final compounds are we do not yet know, but considerable .progress in their investigation has been made. The chemical compounds arising in the decomposition of paracasein mo nolactate have been identified in many instances and their relation to one an other determined; but it is impossible to describe these in any other than chemical terms, for they are not ma terials found in free or pure state in nature, nor can they be compared in any way with familiar substances. However, the amount of these sub stances present at different times tells the rate of the cheese ripening; and their variations measure the effect of changes in conditions under which cheese curing is carried on. A western dealer has an order for 160,000 head of sheep for South Africa. Your face is your fortune. Guard it with Williams' Shaving Soap. Sold everywhere. Free trial sample for 2-cent stamp to pay postage. Write for booklet * * How to Shave." Thej. B. Williams Co., Glastonbury, Ct. Story Paper One Year-lOc If you like to read interesting stories, how to play new games, advice in poultry raising, etc., you will like The Telescope, a .sixtiMTi-iiaKi- monthly paper, chuck full of good things. As a trial we will send it to you for 12 months, if you will send us 10c. THE TELESCOPE, Room A 6, Hancock Bldg., Seattle. DAIRY FARM FOR SALE 550 acres, all under fence, with a ' barn 5Cx92 feet, 20 feet to plate; running stream of water; 30 milch cows will be leased with the farm for 3 or 5 years. The party leas ing will be required to hase at least 25 cows of his own to put on the farm; also the renter will have to erect a farm house, and remodel the barn to suit, which will be al lowed on the rent. Apply to or address: RORERT P. RIONEY, Lake View, Pierce County, Washington. THE KAN OH FREDERICK & NELSON, (INC.) COMPLETE HOUSEFURNISHERS, SEATTLE Special Mattress Bargain For Our Mail Order Department A Well Hade Silk Floss or &f1 23 Kapoc Mattress .... S m SmmmW %aw mwmmmmmmmwmmwmwmmwNmmmwmmmwmwmmmmw The silk fibre with which this mattress Is filled comes from the Orient and Is fast becoming popular because of being sanitary, resilient, light and very comfortable. The mattress which we are offering to out-of-town folks needs no renovation —shake it like you would a feather bed and it resumes its shape without further effort. This need be done very seldom, as this mattress retains Its shape very well indeed and has no tendency to mat. It is sold all over the Coast at from $16.50 to $19. Owing to an arrangement we have, whereby we receive large quantities of silk floss masmm OK at a decided saving, we are enabled to offer you this mattress for 9 A A lav This mattress is covered with high-grade satin finished tick and thoroughly well made throughout. "We will pack it In good shape, ready for shipment. The standard size Is 4 feet C inches, 6 feet 2 inches, but other sizes can be had If you wish. Write us. In ordering please be sure to specify size. FREDERICK & NELSON, Incorporated Complete Housefurnishers Seattle, Wash. .Note— management of The Ranch, as well as Frederick & Nelson, will consider it a great favor if parties will mention having seen this ad. in The Ranch. FRUIT GRADERS BANK AND OFFICE RAILING l^fe^J^^H^l^A^J WIRE AND IRON FENCING Barbed Wire, Wire and Lawn Fencing, Portland Wire & Iron Works 263 Flanders St., Near Third, Portland. Oil IA ENSILAGE CUTTERS II 111 EXHAUST OR BLOWER ELEVATOR ■ I I %LW AND METAL BUCKET CARRIERS Feed Cutters, Feed Mills fer hand or power, Steam Cook ers and Root Cutters a We handle the Best and can fit you out with Any Size Outfit Don't Forget the 20th Century Manure Spreaders 30, 40, and 50-boshel sizes. Your name and address on a postal will fetch by return mall our latest 225-page Catalogue, or if you will only ask It, will send Special Catalogue of Ensilage Cutters. We want you to know about lt. Poison Implement & Hardware Co. Seattle, Wash. SEPARATOR FOR SALE I will sell my No. 5 United States Cream Separator cheap. It Is ln good run ning order, but too small for my purpose. Write me for price and full Informa tion. K. E. PERSON, MOUNTAIN VIEW CREAMERY. SUNNYSIDE, WASHINGTON.