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The ranch. (Seattle, Wash.) 1902-1914, October 15, 1905, Image 12

Image and text provided by Washington State Library; Olympia, WA

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn98047754/1905-10-15/ed-1/seq-12/

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The Fall Web-Worm Tree Pest.
(E. A. Popenoe.)
Shade trees on lawn, park and street
are subject to attack by dark caterpil
lars about an inch and a quarter long,
covered with long, white hairs, and
spinning, for the protection of the col
ony in which they live, a dirty, white,
silken web, covering, when fully de
veloped, the entire terminal portion
of the branch infested. This insect is
the fall web-worm, known for many
years as a tree pest in lawn and
orchard, but more abundant and at
tracting more attention than usual last
year and this.
Observations by the Kansas experi
ment station establish the tact that in
the southern region the insect is two
brooded, and hence more troublesome
than in states farther north, where but
a single brood is matured in a season.
Its life history is in brief as follows:
The parent insect is a white moth
about an inch in extent of wings. It
appears in April and May from pupae
which have passed the winter under
rubbish and in loose soil at the foot
of the trees in which the caterpillars
of the preceding autumn had fed.
These moths, which are night fliers,
fly, after mating, to the trees and lay
eggs in clusters on leaves mostly in
open spaces and at the tips of the
branches. The young caterpillars are
social and remain for most of their
growth in the colonies hatching to
gether. On hatching they at once be
gin to spin webs for protection, and
as the worms grow and extend their
feeding grounds the webs are extended
to correspond, until they attain the
size of a foot or considerably more in
dimensions, depending upon the size
of the colony. The first attacks mere
ly shred the leaves, but later the en
tire leaf is eaten, and while at the
time of the attack of the more abund
ant fall brood the tree is so far ma
tured that no great injury to its vigor
results, the presence of the worm is
very disagreeable, especially when, as
nearly full grown, they begin to crawl
more widely, scattering over trunk
and neighboring porches, fences and
walks. The mature caterpillars de
scend the tree and hide under matted
leaves or other rubbish, or in hollows
and crevices, or in the loose soil to
the depth of an inch or thereabouts.
Here they enter the dormant pupa
stage, in which they remain until the
latter part of July or the first part of
August, when they change into moths.
These soon after lay eggs, as did the
earlier brood, and unless the first
brood of caterpillars was greatly re
duced by disease or parasites, the
August brood is vastly more numerous
and proportionately destructive. In
one summer colony over six hundred
moths matured. Others are almost
entirely destroyed by parasites, of
which there are two forms. Two
winged flies, much like house flies in
general appearance, are abundantly
bred from some colonies. Four-winged
flies, known by the general name of
braconids or ichneumon flies, are, how
ever, more widely effective, and are
frequently reared in great numbers.
The late generation of caterpillars
have habits like the earlier except
that, entering their dormant state
later in the season, they remain there
in until the next spring, when they
hatch into moths by which the eggs
for the early colonies are deposited.
Most common shade and orchard
trees are subject to the attacks of
these pests. They are specially fond
of elm, box-elder, hickory, ash, apple
and plum trees, but scattered colonies
occur in various other trees.
Owing to their hatching in dense
colonies it is comparatively easy to
check their multiplication and prevent
the appearance of the disgusting webs
by destroying the caterpillars when
young. They are mostly to be sought
for at the tips of the branches toward
the open, and when discovered they
may be removed for destruction or
destroyed where they occur. In the
latter case a kerosene torch will cook
them, with little injury to the branch,
or a spray of arsenical poison may be
applied. These methods should be re
peated if necessary, and may also be
employed in the destruction of the
colonies after they have grown larger,
but with correspondingly greater ex
pense and trouble. The paupae may
be found sometimes many together in
attractive situations about the trees
subject to attack, and their collection
may be made so effective as to greatly
lessen the annoyance incident to the
presence of the following brood.
Bands about the trees are absolutely
of no avail against the attacks of this
insect, as the female is amply winged
and uniformly reaches by flying the
leaves on which she deposits her eggs.
Saving or Buying Seeds.
Our most progressive and most suc
cessful gardeners depend for the bulk
of the seeds they sow more on pur
chase from a reliable seed firm than
on their own efforts in growing and
saving seeds. Professional seed grow
ers, who, in growing seeds on contract
for seedsmen, make a specialty of per
haps a single one, or at most a few
kinds of the standard seeds, can do
much better in the production of a
strictly A No. 1 seed of their kind
than a gardener who attempts to raise
a miscellaneous lot of everything in
small quantities, writes T. Griener in
the Practical Farmer. I have always
found it most satisfactory to buy the
great majority of the standard kinds,
as, for instance, carrot, beet, onion,
cabbage, cauliflower, radish, kohl-rabi,
etc.; and in the case of beans, melons,
cucumbers, etc. This same course
seems almost unavoidable where more
than one variety of each of these are
grown in close proximity. We cannot
afford to run the risk of using seed li
able to produce mongrels. Yet when
we make a specialty of a single vari
ety of beans, of sweet corn, of squash,
of cucumber, of melon, of pepper, of
tomato, etc., we not only are in the
situation to save our own seed, but
we should do that. In such a case we
can be assured that the seed we save
is pure, provided, of course, that we
started with pure seed. Furthermore,
we have it in our hands to make such
a selection that that particular vari
ety or strain will be kept at its very
best, and in fact improved by selec
tion, from year to year. A Canadian
gardener, in an eastern agricultural
weekly, gives some instructions on
how to save tomatoes for seed. He
says: "Select the earliest fruit. Se
lect large fruit. Select fruit of good
shape and smooth, from healthy and
productive vines. Do not pick the
fruit until very ripe, not until five or
six days.after all signs of green have
gone." All this hardly touches the
real essence, the vital points of the
question. I prefer to save what seed
I desire to use another year of the
standard early and the standard main
crop tomatoes. I plant Maule's Ear
liest or Earliana all in a patch by
themselves, and I do the same thing
with the standard main crop, whether
this is Imperial, Stone, Matchless or
any one of the number of good sorts
for that purpose. When selecting
specimens for seed I do not look for
the earliest, nor the smoothest, nor
best-shaped specimen. I try to find the
best plants, plants which are healthy
and which set and ripen fruit earliest,
and the fruit of which averages best
in shape, size, color, smoothness, sol
idity and quality. I would rather use
a defective or late specimen of that
vine for stock seed than an exception
ally early and fine specimen from a
plant the fruit of which is a shy
bearer. In saving seed from peppers
and eggplants I would rather try to
pick for the plant that gives the best
average than for the best specimens.
From the plants thus selected we are
quite safe, at least for a time, to use
every mature specimen for seed. This
same principle holds good, I believe,
with melons and all other vine plants,
and even with potatoes. The late Prof.
Goff found that he could largely in
crease the yield of any variety of po
tatoes by using the potatoes from the
most productive hills in a patch for
seed. Even the smallest tuber from
the most productive hill gave a larger
yield than did the largest tuber taken
from the least productive hill in the
same patch where all the hills had
the same chance.
The advice to let the tomatoes get
fully matured before gathering them
for seed is good enough. Yet the
aforesaid Prof. Goff also discovered
that tomato seed taken from an imma
ture specimen, although it had less
vitality than seed taken from a fully
matured specimen, gave ripe tomatoes
earlier than the other. It may be well
enough to save and plant a few seeds
taken from still somewhat green speci
mens so as to get tomatoes ripe as
early as possible the next season. But
for the bulk of the crop, and for fu-
Ranches Wanted and For Sale
WANTED —Five or ten acres within
convenient distance of Seattle, suit
able for chicken ranch. Address with
price, The Ranch. Seattle.
FOR SALE —One and one-half acres,
with 4-room houso, within 150 feet
of Interurban road, 9% miles from Seat
tle, seven-cent fare. Suitable for poul
try or truck farming. Address XX,
The Ranch, Seattle.
in the
"The Newly Opened Irrigated Fruit and
Garden Lands."
Cascade Orchards has been on the
market less than three months and 45
per cent, is already sold. These lands
have awakened a splendid interest
among the people of Leavenworth and
Chelnn county, as well as throughout
the state. We attribute our success in
this sale to the superior property we are
offering and our very moderate price and
terms, as compared with other irrigated
lands of like value.
Do you prefer a dry winter, with
plenty of snow, fine sleighing, with no
extreme cold and no winds and storms,
to the wet and damp winters of the
coast? Cascade Orchards offers you a
climate that is almost ideal. The av
erage winter day is from 25 to 35 above
zero. The summer days, although warm
in the sun to give color to the fruit,
are pleasant in the shade and are al
ways followed by cool nights.
To those who don't know abcrut Cas
cade Orchards, it is a beautiful valley
on the Wenatchee River, one mile from
Leavenworth, on the Great Northern
Railroad. The irrigation canal is now
completed and the 5 and 10-acre tracts
are selling fast. Cascade Orchards will
raise the finest winter apples in Wash
ington, and ten acres will make a family
prosperous. Investigate this proposi
tion; it will be worth your time, and to
become a resident in Cascade Orchards
will bring you into the best fruit sec
tion of the state. Prices for only a
short time longer, $110.00 per acre, with
perpetual water rights, on easy terms.
H. C. PETERS, Owner,
622 Alaska Building, Seattle, Wash.
Local Representative, Leavenworth, Wn.
ture propagation, I would always pre
fer well-ripened specimens taken from
the best plant or plants in the field.
As to the curing of the seeds, the
same writer says: "To save the seed
properly, it should be washed free
from all the pulp and thoroughly dried.
Too much of the seed should not be
put together when fresh, or it is apt
to heat and be spoiled." I usually lay
the selected specimens up to get ful
ly or "dead" ripe; then cut them open,
«prp CERTIFICATES, now earning 8%, and participating fur
rtn ther in increased values of SEATTLE income property.
CENT Better than Mortgages and surer. Seattle's population has
doubled in 5 years, property values quadrupled. Invest any
|| TT amount, $100 up, cash or installment. Write for particulars.
I Mention this paper.
—«.—*«■ .-I.— ■■■II also —: ; :
We have a large list of person
ally inspected farms, and will be
pleased to mail to you list of same
upon request. Don't fail to write
us today for any information de
Successors to O. W. BROWN
Phone Main 2406 Ofc/\ 1 1 1*1!*, WASH.
«^ ' 'r''-l«Mfc-i J ., ■ * I We Have a Line of
Bfega S^F^l i| Portable Engines that an- es-
I v V SaHH^laS* fi^l^U II Pecially adapted for Farm use.
j , £. . ■1m 13E-J ■ 'I -Appreciating that an engine of
j;'-■'■ ' ■ iP^^SIA^HB dJ^E'l \ \ ' '"■'''' Sl" ' lnllsl be subject to
"y v ■ -.-F^BBP'™* 13 ''^■r* v tl rouWh usage these engines ar&
■ ■','- W^Gmt^^SKtf^W^ I^W^v I made '" stand the wear and
'v f ia^^Taß^feTV^^H^Pl ar<l tne "1()St complete in
I fc^HHfe'^ mT M^%l Jb^V^Xm/ ySL hi\ e<l"ipment of any farm engine
K'«P* -s*l W Khu? ak. I 'mi the market. These engines
L-frfHES? JUff jR '"' s:ll|i ' •iii'l'l'- and well built
' 'yBBKy- HBiji r^HV [ and kiiom [i. i<>r themselves
iVIBiEiEU- JHwSfc^ tK^SBRS^HTMi '" sa\'HS °f time and labor.
'6^'*^wl K«v ilt "' l'"or sale by
/ _^^^^ * -♦-^„, 309 Occidental At., Seattle.
' * ■ I Gasoline and Oil Engines
i *i^ «Z^^7«**fv(B§**Ssp!?P*r^^ I Wind Mills, Tanks,
jjgßyjk^^V : . ._,* x??^ rm *- Farm Implements
If you wish to buy or sell farm
lands, write us. We will give per
sonal attention to handling same.
--■ LIOTT.
605 Colman Bldg., Seattle, Wash.
If your place la for Ml*, why not let u»
know? Commission S per cent, after your
property is »old. Bend full particulars te
F. S. DeWolfe, Pros.; L. S. Booth, Mgr.;
C. F. Whittlesey and A. E. Hanford,
Examining Counsel.
Abstracts of Title
Certificates of Titles. Titles Examined
and Titles Insured.
Booth-Whittlesey-Hanford Abstract Co.
Haller Bill., Seattle. Both Phones, 194.
Paid-up Capital Stock, $100,000.
Rubber Stamps
Stencils, Enamel and Aluminum Letters,
Badges, Numbering Machines, Notary
and Corporate Seals, etc. Send, for
catalog No. 25, just out. Absolutely
eastern prices. Phoenix Commercial
Stamp Works, 906 First Aye., Seattle.
Gasoline Engines
Irrigation Pumping Plants
H. B. PERINE 528 f15tfa 8°-
scrape out all the seeds into a jar or
crock, or other earthen vessel, and
leave them standing for three to five
days, or until the pulp has become well
fermented so that the seeds come all
free from it. The pulp should be
thoroughly stirred once or twice a day,
which hastens the fermenting process
and makes thorough work of it. By
means of a fine sieve the liquid may
then be strained off, the seeds may
then be placed in a pail or other dish,

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