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The ranch. (Seattle, Wash.) 1902-1914, December 01, 1908, Image 9

Image and text provided by Washington State Library; Olympia, WA

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn98047754/1908-12-01/ed-1/seq-9/

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DAT DV DJDP^VEtTMI^NT
THE SOURCE OF FAT IN MILK.
(Prof. W. A. Henry, in Breeders'
Gazette.)
Studies on this subject at the New
York State Experiment Station, under
Jordan, stand in a class by themselves,
because of their ingenuity of concep
tion and care and faithfulness in exe
cution, and the light they throw upon
the uses of food hy the animal and
its change into animal product. Jor
dan undertook to settle the question
once for all whether 01 no the fat
which a cow puts into hei milk comes
from fat in the food she eats, from
the carbohydrates or from the pro-
tein.
It was particuarly appropriate that
this work should be undertaken at
the New York Station, for a number
of years before its previous director,
Collier, brought forth once more the
old contention that since there was
ample fat in the food which a cow ate
to furnish all the fat found in her
milk, it was but reasonable to suppose
that the fat in the food was transfer
red from food, through digestion and
assimilation, to the milk gland, and
there passed on to become a constit
uent of the milk. Jordan was one of
those who doubted this and set about
to find the truth. He chose to feed
a cow for some time on a ration that
contained no fat, or but very little, at
most.
How could such a ration be got to
gether? All feeding stuffs, or rather
all that can be used with the cow, car
ry more or less fat. To get practically
fat-free feeding stuffs for his cow, Jor
dan sent 1,000 pounds of chopped hay
and 1,500 pounds of cornmeal and
ground oats to the Cleveland Linseed
Oil Co. for treatment. This company
manufactures linseed oil by the extrac
tion process from the flaxseed, and so
had the apparatus and methods ready
for taking oil out of various substances
in a large way. A light benzol was
used by the company, and this took
out the fat from the feeding stuffs,
which were then returned to the New
York Station.
A Jersey cow, young and vigorous,
was chosen for the experiment. She
was thin in flesh and about four
months advanced in the period of lac
tation. At first this cow was given a
normal ration, consisting of untreated
timothy hay, cornmeal, ground oats
and wheat gluten. Her production
with this ration was recorded. Then
her food ration was changed and she
received the same kinds of feed, but
with the fat taken out of them. Wheat,
gluten is fat-free naturally.
Now if the cow must get her milk
fat directly from the feed she eats
then something out of the usual should
happen with the cow so nourished.
Never before had a cow been fed a
ration with practically no fat in it.
What did happen was the usual —this
cow went right on making normal
milk. Indeed, she even gained in
weight during the trial. When the
summaries were taken, Jordan found
The question of operating your
dairy is the same, no matter where
you dispose of your product. The
cost of feed and labor and your own
time and interest on your investment
figure up to the same amount regard
less of where you sell your milk or
cream or butter. The only way,
therefore, for you to increase your
profits is to dispose of your product
where you will get larger prices. If
you will drop us a line today we will
show you where you can make more
money out of your dairy, because we
will pa better prices for your cream
than you can get anywhere else.
T. S. TOWNSEND CREAMERY CO.
Portland, Oregon.
The R^ancfv*
that during the trial the cow had pro
duced 62.9 pounds of fat in her milk.
During this period she had taken in
with all her food only 11.6 pounds of
fat, of which she digested only 5.7
pounds. During this time she gained
47 pounds in weight. She was in bet
ter condition than when the experi
ment started, and some of this bet
terment must naturally have been fat
added to the body. Thus, after more
than half a century of battling among
the scientists it has been settled be
yond peradventure that the cow need
not have fat in her food with which
to put fat into her milk.
From whence then comes the fat in
the milk of the cow? Animal physi
ologists place the protein of feeding
stuffs first in importance. Physiolog
ical chemists generally started on their
The illustration given above is that
of Figgis 76106, one of the leaders
among the Jerseys, and is from the
Vashon Island News. This cow has a
butter record of 19 lbs. in seven days,
confirmed, at 11 years. Scored 92
path by Liebig and Boussingault have
given the protein in the food first
place, and this properly. Some of these
would have the fat in the milk and
the body as well derived wholly from
this source. Jordan determined the total
amount of protein that went into the
body proper and what portion came
out in the solid excrement —such por
tion having never really been in the
body. Of that which entered the body
proper he determined how much was
passed off as waste through the tirine
and what apeared in the casein and
albumen of the milk, which is the
protein portion of that fluid. The re
sults of the studies in this line show
beyond question that only an inconsid
erable part of the fat in the milk at
most could have come from the pro
tein in the food.
By elimination we have left then
the carbohydrates as the main source
of the fat in the milk of the cow un
der study. The carbohydrates in the
foods used consisted of starchy mat
ter and woody fiber principally. Nat
urally we do not think of these as ca
pable of producing fat, and yet there
is no question of the truthfulness oJ
this proposition when we have exam
ined all the data of the experiments.
The cow is one of the animals that
does not care for and seems to be
unable to use any considerable amount
of fat in her food. Dogs and humans
are lover 3of fat. The cow does re
quire a very considerable amount of
protein in her food — much more than
she puts into her milk or is required
to maintain the protein waste of her
body. Protein seems to be the stimu
lant and maintainer of the animal or
ganism, furnishing a stimulus which
has to do with the conversion of
starchy matter, woody fiber and sugar
which plants contain into milk fat. It
seems to be left, however, for the
carbohydrates—the sugar, starch, and
the woody fiber of feeding stuffs—to
be utilized for supplying the heat and
energy of the body and for building
up the fat and sugar portions of the
milk.
Half a century ago those greatest of
all agricultural scientists, Lawes and
Gilbert of Rothamstead, England,
showed plainly, in opposition to the
general trend of the thought of that
day, that the pig could make fat out
counts by John O. Couch. No. 4 is
Register of Merit. First prize in show
ring at St. Louis Exposition, at the
age of 13 years. Owned by C. I. Hood,
Lowell, Mass. Jerseys are well adapt
ed to the Sound climate.
of sugar and starch. Jordan has shown
that the cow can make milk fat like
wise out of the carbohydrates. Not
content with the studies of a single
cow, Ihis patient investigator repeated
his work in a larger way, with three
cows, the results fully confirming the
earlier studies.
The Chehalis Bee-Nugget states that
R. L. Siler and J. T. Chilcoat recently
arrived from Jefferson, Ore., with a
carload of grade Jersey two-year-olds
and yearling heifers for the Big Bot
tom country. Mr. Siler has 15 two
•/ear-olds for his ranch at Vance, also
five two-year-olds for Harvey Landis
it Mossyrock. Mr. Chilcoat has 25
yearling heifers and a registered bull
calf. The people of the Big Bottom
have a creamery and are beginning to
engage in the butter business. Their
'and is too valuable for beef production
at current prices and as the demand
for butter at fair prices has never
equaled the supply on the Pacific Coast
it is a sure and profitable venture.
M. Mortensen has been elected act
ing head of the Dairy Department of
he lowa State College, which took
the lead in dairy instruction at an ear
ly date. Mr. Mortensen has for ten
years been in the employ of the Hazel
wood Creamery Company, of Portland,
Ore., and during the past four or five
years he has been general manager.
4e has served regularly as instructor
during the short course work in dai-
9
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__ ; ———-
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Bacon —I see some professor has
discovered that if you want to live
long you must drink sour milk.
Egbert—Well, it would seem long,
wouldn't It? —Yonkers Statesman.

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