Edited by Prof. W. W. McLaughlin, Logan, Utah.
(Concluded from last issue.)
Seventh —When you begin to experi
ment you will find that the saturating
capacity of soils, even in the same field,
varies greatly. When the soil is so full
of water that the air is shut off, no
new roots are formed, and no new
water is taken up, and as a result the
growth suffers. The soil requires air
and sun as well as moisture. .
Shallow soils with gravel or open
subsoils leach the moisture rapidly and
there is less danger of over-saturation,
but the continual pouring of water
through such soil will also carry away
the fertilizing elements which are in
solution and soon deplete the soil. Find
out how much water your soil will
hold in suspension and irrigate accord
ingly. The soil is a chemical labora
tory and you are the chemist. The soil
must have moisture, air and the heat
of the sun to keep the chemical action
at work making plant food. When you
have too much water in the soil there
is no air, hence no chemical action.
With too much air there is no moist
ure and no chemical action. With
proper moisture and cultivation the
chemical action is complete, the capil
lary attraction bringing up the moist
ure from the lower levels to the top
mulch. Here the sun and air manu
facture the fertilizing elements and the
next rain or irrigation washes them
down to be taken up by the roots. The
process repeats itself without end, so
long as we water and cultivate prop
Cultivation is more important than
irrigation, and in the arid regions one
is of little use without the other. Don't
overlook the fact that a weed is a
pump and that it draws water out of
the soil at a rapid rate. Of course it
is difficult to control exactly the
amount of moisture, but a great deal
can be done in this direction and will
repay any one who will take the
trouble to apply his water to crops
The most economical method of irri
gating land and at the same time one
that gives an almost complete control
of the water is the pipe system, de
livering water under pressure to each
tract of land. Pipe lines are used in
California for surface and subirriga
tion systems. In some cases as high
as 1,000 acres of land is watered with
a flow of one cubic foot per second.
In Washington, under the present open
ditch system of irrigation, 200 acres
with this amount of water would be
above the average.
Where water is spread over the land
in open ditches, the ditches should be
close together and large enough to
fIAT HOOPS-IRON DRAW-lUGS^ilr
OET BUSY and lot us hear from you
with an Inquiry, If not an order, for
some of our wood tanks. You need such
an article on that ranch of yours and
we make It our business to furnish the
Our tanks are guaranteed to give sat
isfaction and all we ask for Is a trial.
Let u« send you our list with dls
Grays Harbor Commercial Co.
1122 White Bldg.. SEATTLE. WASH.
/The • R>aiiciv> y
carry water in big heads. By using the
large heads you can irrigate the ground
more rapidly, thus saving in the quan
tity of water wasted by seepage, and
also have better control of the per
centage of moisture you wish to put
in the soil. Under long canals where
there are numerous users of water, or
where the water is divided into sev
eral heads, the waste is very large. The
soil is over-saturated and in many
cases the land is ruined.
The system of delivering water to
individual users in a constant flow of
small rivulets is a bad practice. The
time flow system would be much bet
ter, delivering the water in large heads
for short periods. Generally 60 to 70
per cent of the water diverted from
streams by open canals and distributed
by lateral ditches is lost before it is
stored up in the soil for use by the
vegetation. Water is too valuable to
allow this kind of waste.
In the Inland Empire we find the
amount of water used in different dis
tricts to run from one-half to four
feet the acre, but why the growers use
this amount of water few, if any, seem
to fully understand. The fact is most
people use three to four times as much
water as is necessary and do a good
deal of harm to their soil and also to
the crop by an unbusinesslike and
really ignorant use of a valuable quan
tity. The soil is a sponge, which will
only retain a certain amount of moist
ure. If more water is supplied it sim
ply leaches down and is lost or runs
away, carrying with it a fertilizing ele
ment of the soil which is in solution,
and only those which are in solution
are of any value to plant life. The
principal value of water is to make the
fertilizing element soluble.
Greater irrigation would work won
ders in a large portion of the arid belts.
The question of pumping water for ir
rigation is a problem of the present
time in irrigation development. The
opportunities for gravity irrigation are
largely exhausted. There has been in
the past, and is yet, a general yjreju
dice against pumping. The opposition
is due more to ignorance than anything
else. The use of cheap machinery is
also responsible for the general belief
that the pumping of water for irriga
tion is impracticable and too costly.
All over the arid region will be found
abandoned pumping plants, and when
you inquire the cause you get one an
swer. "It costs too much to pump the
water." The trouble is not with the
pumping system, but with the system
of pumping. The cost should not be
more than $2 an acre, but there are
scores of instances where it cost from
$12 to $14.
Water wheels, current motors, have
been in use in China for more than
3,000 years, and, in all that time there
has been no marked improvement in
their efficiency, though thousands of
types have been constructed and tried.
They are a crude and burdensome
means to get power, and under the most
favorable conditions they give only a
fraction of the power of steam. Taking
the facts into consideration, I may say
too that the windmill is an ingenious
contrivance, from an irrigation stand
point, to waste power and money as a
general rule. However, where the lift
is low, wind conditions favorable and
a natural, inexpensive reservoir avail
able, a small tract of land may be wa
tered, but in 99 cases out of 100 it is a
delusion and a waste of money.
An important legal decision was that
rendered recently in the United States
circuit court of appeals at San Fran
cisco, Cal., on a case emanating in this
state in regard to the constitutionality
of the reclamation law. Having locat
ed on land near Lake Keechelus be
fore it was surveyed, Chris Hanson
claimed homestead rights as against
withdrawal by the reclamation serv
ice; this claim the lower court sus
tained and the reclamation service ap
pealed the case, when Hanson chal
lenged the constitutionality of the act
J^M^M^i^W^p^W ot on increase ot quantity, but also im
&M?. l^%^" ' ' provement in quality, is the result of applying
m^^^^^^M Potash t0
;BBRwWw • POTATOES
lf£ *saC*- '^\ * The use of about 10 per cent, of Potash
HjiS^^r^P ilk'wki in your commercial fertilizer produces sturdy
,\ t'*" - vines and smooth, solid tubers that bring top
J^^B^^^ prices in the market.
/ POTASH IS PROFIT
§0* S'sf** Wi Valuable Literature, Pree, on fertilizing POTATOES
*|t i/W '% ', % and a" other cr°ps'
XJL a-* * ;ft§| GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau Street, New York
** A $m& Chlcato-Monxlnock Block. Atlanta, 0a.—1224 Candler Bldf.
SSZT anti!3&co. I^h..J
, ___ . . , —
MF*9b< The Columbia Book will tell you
m X how t*his Ram will •'.
I .|B irrigate your farm
kP|||mH The Columbia Hydraulic Ram has been
■f ■ IgfliK tried by farmers with large farms and
w|i V farmers with small farms, and lias been
_c ksrS***^ Hk. found reliable, economical and in every
Jj^^Mp wa.V satisfactory.
■ nß^*^BJLv ■ 'i(( IIS 'I:lVt' y°ur address and we 11
j-J^jaJtejjJf BL show you what it will do for you.
"pUP COLIMBIA STEEL CO.
WK^ 146 10th St. N. PORTLAND, ORE.
, I : : : ; :— '. ____
WOOD PIPE FOR IRRIGATION MAINS
DURABLE. NEVER ROTS. NEVER RUSTS. ECONOMICAL.
WASHINGTON PIPE AND FOINDRY CO.
With Magnifying Olmmmmm QwftfSS^^^'.'^i^a^dA
In Tho Telomcopo M^2S^**B^Z2»jiZ^ammo*^^^
Target distance over l"^^^^^sHHH|H||B^^^
of a FAEM LEVEL with TELEBCOPE at moder-^^^2^^^^^S^X^<'oii»i>l«-««'
ato cost has at last been solved. Voluntary letters M^^^^mj Onllit with
from every State in the Union show the complete mßHi^B^ full instruc
satiafaction it srives for all kinds of DItAINAUK «■ BSa tions, shipped
WORK, IKItIOATION, DITCHIWO, TICK- FBB^f anywhere
ICACING and every sort of farm work requiring Bf 0.0.D. 81S.00
a Level. GUARANTEED to be absolutely SIMPLE, fiMft and express
ACCURATE, DURABLE and dependable in every -.-si&j^PL^v " charges
respect. NOW is the time to send in your order. j^^Sp^BPSasMfik Subject to
BOSTROM- BRADY MFS. CO., Mf jHlKlk MSIT'"""
153 Madison Aye., • - ■ • Atlanta, «a. jW^,(^9^^^ms.
under which it was organized, and
which is now upheld. This outcome of
the case will give new impetus to
reclamation work, as it removes all
doubt as to its legality.
The Payette-Boise project in Idaho
is so far completed that the headgates
were formally opened on Washington's
birthday. The water will flow from
these headgates into huge reservoirs,
one —the Deer Flat reservoir—being
the largest In the world; thence it will
go to irrigate 200,000 acres of land
on the south section of the great proj
When a Kansas grocer bought five
sacks of potatoes of a commission
firm and found 65 pounds of dirt in
the sacks, the attorney general ruled
that the commission men can not be
arrested, but the farmer can, for adul
terating his potatoes.
has proven the best for
For details and quotations address
Pacific Coast Pipe Co.
rtoTcnv AM* orrici w. o. i«lu«d «t».
4«ia i«th *VC. N. w. SEATTLE, WASH.
Uk/*%&B DRILLING &
ff GoH PROSPECTING MACHINtS
t i-,ic->i anllei- Known deal money f4l ner»>
.OOMIS MACHINE CO., TIFFIN, OHIO
xml | txt