OCR Interpretation


The ranch. (Seattle, Wash.) 1902-1914, June 15, 1909, Image 10

Image and text provided by Washington State Library; Olympia, WA

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn98047754/1909-06-15/ed-1/seq-10/

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Inspection of the Milk Supply
■mm Its Object, Method and Effect ■■■■
This is one of the important topics
that cluster around the care and han
dling of milk. The following paper
was read at the Association of State
and National Dairy and Food Depart
ments at the meeting at Mackinac,
Mich., by E. H. Webster, then chief of
Hip dairy division of the Department
of Agriculture:
The purpose of milk inspection is to
protect, the public against impure
milk. There are four general sources
of lmpur« milk which come under the
observation of the inspector, namely,
miiK from diseased animals, milk han
dled by attendants affected by com
municable diseases, the milking and
handling of milk in unsanitary sur
roundings, and without proper means
of handling and distribution.
In order to detect these various de
fects found in the milk on the market,
four general classes of inspection are
necessary: Veterinary, medical, san
itary and laboratory.
Veterinary inspection covers the
health of the animals; it may or may
not include the use of the tuberculin
test, but should in all cases exclude
all animals from the herd affected
with any disease that may be detected
on a physical examination. The best
interests of the consumer will be at
tained when the tuberculin test is ap
plied to all herds of dairy cattle fur
nishing milk for market purposes.
This, however, is a question that will
need much agitation and much edu
cation on the part of the producer
and consumer before any rigid laws
or ordinances can be effectively car
ried out with this purpose in view.
Medical Examination: Inspection
should be made where necessary of
the family and attendants handling
milk up to thfi time it is delivered to
the consumer. The report of health
officers by psyaicians, where conta
gious or infectious diseases prevail,
should be made part of the records of
the inspection service, and the milk
from these places should be cut off
until a clean health certificate is fur
nished by t.ie attending hpysician.
Sanitary inspection includes a care
ful review of the cleanliness of the
barns, the dairy houses, the animals,
of all utensils and methods of proced
ure, and is perhaps of greatest impor
tance when compared with the other
inspections made. It should go with
out, saying that troubles found through
veterinary and medical inspection
snould at oneo cause the milk supply
to be cut off from the general market
The question of sanitation is one of
degree to a large extent. The rigid
ity with which regulations in regard
to sanitation must be enforced will de
?>end largely upon the ideals and wis
dom of the authorities and the amount
of educational work which has been
done among the producers of milk.
Flagrant cases should, of course, he
cut off from general supply. There
are a large number of men producing
milk who fail in various ways to com
ply with strict sanitary ideas and yet
ineir milk is of sufficient high quality
to be admitted.
Laboratory inspection should cover
the chemical and bacteriological anal
yses of samples taken either at the
farm or in the city from distributing
plants or from wagons encaged in the
process of distribution. Such inspec
tion is an index and check on the
work of the other inspectors engaged
in this service. Tt is a mistake to de
pend too much upon the bacteriologi
<'nl count as to the general condition
°f the milk supply. There are so
*o many complicating conditions that
enter that at best the bacteriological
count serves only as an index or warn
ing that milk having such high counts
niay be dangerous and that there must
be closer inspection of the premises
and methods of distribution in such
CcifiOS.
Tho methods of inspection are: Ist.
Education; 2<l. PuMletty; and, 3d.
Police Authority.
The prentpst of these is education in
Itl vnlup for improvement of thp milk
supply. Tlip nvpra^p producer of milk
'loos not realize tho importance of his
responsibility in the production of
pure milk. Tho inspector must be nblp
to tench him the importance of this
and rlo it in a way to encourage him
to take greater pains in all the work
Tiie JRL>anclv>
he does connected with the production
of milk.
The publication of results of inspec
tion has a strong moral effect in many
ways, and helps in raising the stand
ard. Few men like to stand at the
bottom of the list—if such publicity
is given to report of inspectors, an in
centive will be given to those who
have low standards to come up higher
on the list.
Police authority should be sparingly
used and only in cases where educa
tion and publicity do not have the de
sired effect. The man who is, by
nature, filthy in his habits, must be
made clean or put out of business.
Police inspection should be exerted to
make him clean up his premises,
which he may do while the inspector
is on the place, but in order to insure
that he remains clean, a continual in
spection would be required. This
would be out of the question. No
amount of inspection that can be af
forded will insure good results from
such a place. This shows the inade
quacy of police power in regulating
sanitary conditions. So far as the
common adulterations of milk are con
cerned, such as watering, skimming,
and use of preservatives, the police
authority is very effective in checking
sucr misdemeanors. But the source
of greatest danger in milk is not from
watering or skimming, but from un
sanitary surroundings in the produc
tion of the milk. A change in these
conditions means the general eleva
tion of the whole mass of producers
of milk and a higher understanding of
their duties and a new conception of
cleanliness. The results obtained
from such inspection will be that a
World's Champion Cow, 35.55 lbs. Butter in 7 days
Grace Fayne Znd's Homestead, Pure Bred Holstein
Since this record was made the cow died.
small percentage will reach satisfac
tory conditions, a much larger percent
age will fail in one or more points,
and another small percentage will fail
in many or all points.
The only logical conclusion that can
be drawn from these results is, that
the milk which is satisfactory from
all points of inspection should be ad
mitted for sale in its natural state;
that milk which shows that the pro
ducer has failed in many or all points
should be prohibited from city sale.
The great amount of milk which is
in many ways high grade and yet may
have some objectionable features con
nected with its production so that it
would not be safe to sell it in its nat
ural condition, should he pasteurized
under the supervision of the city of
ficials. The great fault in the gen
eral supply of milk will be found in
this class, and it will be probably
many years before a sufficiently high
standard of education and efficiency
is brought about so that the large bulk
of milk will be satisfactory in all con
ditions and may be used in .its natural
condition of raw milk with perfect
safety.
It is not the purpose of this paper
to discuss the pros and cons of pas
teurization. It is sufficient to say that
if the milk is suspicious in any way
because of the slightest neglect on
the part of the producer it is the log
ical conclusion that such milk should
be pasteurized so as to remove all sus
picions from its use. The fact that
such milk is pasteurized does not in
any way remove the necessity of strict
supprvision, as above outlined. Pas
teurization will not make bad milk
good, neither is it a panacea for the
ills of the city milk trade. It is to be
Mtd under strict control of the offi
cials as an additional safeguard to the
consumer coming from sources of sup
ply which are not entirely satisfac
tory.
Another Infringer Nailed
Sharples Separator Co.
John Deere Plow Co. and Deere & Webber Co.
Send For Infringement Of
DE LAVAL DISC
Cream Separator Patents
For the information and caution of all whom it may con
cern announcement is made that TUP] DE LAVAL SEPARA
TOR CO. has brought suit in the UNITED STATES CIRCUIT
COURT against the SHARPLES SEPARATOR CO. for in
fringement of LETTERS PATENT NO. 743,428 by the manu
facture and sale of cream separators containing DISC bowl
construction covered by the claims of said letters patent.
And that similar suits have been or will be filed as quickly
as possible against the JOHN DEERE PLOW CO. and the
DEERE & WEBBER CO., who are jobbing such infringing
SHARPLES separators to dealers in the Western States.
Attention is pertinently called in this connection to the re
cent hypocritical advertising tirade of the SHARPLES concern
against DISC separators. We have known for some time that
they were getting ready to bring out a DISC machine and thus
moving up in line with more modern DE LAVAL imitators
and would-be competitors. We have but now, however, been
able to obtain one of these new DISC machines and the neces
sary evidence of infringement. The facts speak for themselves
and require no further comment.
In addition to the above suits the DE LAVAL COMPANY
now has infringement suits pending against the STANDARD,
IOWA, PEERLESS and CLEVELAND Separator Companies
and the Win. Galloway Co., all covering the manufacture or
sale of INFRINGING DISC SEPARATORS, which infringe
ment applies equally to machines being made by different ones
of these manufacturers and sold under their own and various
other names by several "mail order" and other concerns, as
well as to EVERY USER of any such infringing separator
bought of ANY of these parties.
To avoid any possible misunderstanding and dispel the
pretense of some of these concerns that their machines are
similar to the DE LAVAL it is proper that we should add that
none of the patents sued upon involves the DE LAVAL
"SPLIT-WING" FEEDING DEVICE or its combination with
the IMPROVED DISC construction utilized in the up-to-date
DE LAVAL separators and that none of the machines is in any
degree equal in efficiency, all-around practicability and dura
bility to the IMPROVED DE LAVAL machines of today.
We have for years patiently stood the appropriation by
would-be competitors of abandoned, discarded or patent ex
pired DE LAVAL inventions and types of separator construc
tion, but have now determined to put a stop to the more brazen
utilization of LIVE patents.
There are STILL OTHER infringers of DE LAVAL pat
ents who will be held accountable in due course.
DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO.
108 so. Los ANocLrs »t. o—- °"— 10T FIRIT BTR"T
LOS ANGELES General Offices. PORTLAND. ORE.
42 C. MADISON STREET fAI r\DITIV/I CT 1018 WESTERN AYE.
CHICAGO lUIUKUJViOI. SEATTLE
168-167 BROADWAY - Fr»n«.U«.« BOX '082
NEW YORK aanrrancitco VANCOUVER. B. C
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