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WASHINGTON DAY. The annual National holiday as legalized by proclamation of the Governor was observed at the A.-V.-P. Exposition grounds as Washington Day with Bttlng ceremonies. Governor Hay was present with liis military staff in full uniform, and the Washington building was dedicated with due ceremony. The Governor then made ceremonial visits to the other state buildings. At noon free lunches were handed out to sev eral thousand people at the Washington building. Thousands of citizens enjoyed a social time on the grounds throughout the day, and admired their beautiful adornment and scenic settings us well as the splendid music and other attractions. The buildings were kept open until 7 o'clock. They are now well filled with attractive exhibits, many delayed and later shipments having now arrived. All in all, it was a very pleasant and instructive way to spend the Fourth of July holiday. INDEPENDENCE DAY. The National holiday has again passed by in the course of its annual recurrence in the regular series of events. So long has this occurred, and so far are we removed from the important events that gave it birth, that we now give little thought to cause or result. In earlier years the Declara tion of Independence was kept before the people by an annual reading at the gatherings for cele brating the holiday; of late the interposition of other important events has served to relax our vigilant observation of the practice. The Declaration of Independence has been often copied in print and is a familiar document with those who have made any progress in the study of civil government in our public schools. But of the original document there were no dupli cates made, and it is now seldom seen and by few. It was exhibited in Independence Hall, where it was signed; at Philadelphia during the Centennial Exposition in 1876, and there it was seen by the writer. Soon after this, owing to its frail condition, it was placed between two plates of glass in a drawer of a large steel case in the Department of State at Washington, in which it is now kept locked and sealed. The original copy of the United States Constitution is similarly pre served in the same safe manner. EDUCATING RURAL YOUTH. At the recent meeting of the National Educa tional Association at Denver, Colorado, James W. Robertson, president of McDonald college at Quebec, addressed the Rural and Agricultural Department. He is quoted as saying: "It is not a matter of a little education being dangerous; it's the vast remaining ignorance that hurts the farmer of today. He wants a little education for his son, but he doesn't want to pay. He doesn't want more education because he thinks his son will leave him. This is where he is wrong, be cause if the son knew more, the farmer's acres would be worth more." Dick J. Crosby, of the United States Depart ment of Agriculture, pleaded for a closer relation between the rural schools and the community. He wanted to shift the emphasis from the three R's to good cooking and the ability to make fences where required. Mr. Crosby is a graduate of the Michigan Agricultural College. These two speakers represent the two very dif ferent phases of the educational question. The former is an exponent of that phase that per tains to an endless acquisition of head knowledge that has to do with the literature and languages of the dead past. The other represents a more limited acquisition of information about the things of today, those that pertain to the actualities and necssities of daily life, and which may be util lized in providing for its comforts and needs, its sustenance and happiness. Industrial knowledge is a source of power. Its value has been so generally recognized that its influence has widely permeated the educational fabric, modifying and broadening its scope and making it more useful to American citizenship. It is extending to the primary school system, and is graduaaly transforming the basis of our grand system of public education. In this work our Agricultural Colleges have had an important share. For fifty years they have been in operation, and their influence and work has been continually enlarging and extending. As they acquire knowledge and experience in the work they are led to employ new and untried means of spreading practical instruction whereby real knowledge may be made more available. Truly the farmer is unwilling to pay for a mass of unavailable, unsalable education, but is not averse to the acquisition of that knowledge that he can take into the field, the home or his various associations. One feature of the educational question that is apparently ignored by the first speaker mentioned, is the limitation that lies on so many of the rising generation because of the necessity to live as well as to learn. In all our educational institutions are to be found many persons who have but lim ited means and can spend but a short time in the pursuit of knowledge. There are far more of this class who have attended our Agricultural Colleges two years and then entered on the duties of practical life than there are of those who have been able to acquire a full four year's course. The Agricultural Colleges can do not better pub lic service than to formulate two-year courses for the benefit of this extensive class of knowl edge seekers. Such courses exist in Wisconsin and some other states, and have fully demon started their value. The R>anclv k' . A Editorial AND BE A FRIEND TO MAN. Let me live in a house by the side of the road Whore the race of men go by— The men who are good and the men who are bad, As good and as bad as I. I would not sit in the scorner's seat, Or hurl the cynic's ban— Let me live in a house by the side of the road And be a friend to man. I see from my house by the side of the road, By the side of the highway of life, The men who press with the ardor of hope, The men who are faint with the strife, But I turn not away from their smiles nor their tears, Both parts of an infinite plan— Let me live in a house by the side of the road. And be a friend to man. —Sam Walter Foss. THE HAPPY HARVEST TIME. "Prosperity moves on crutches when crops go wrong."—National Crop Exposition motto. That great grain growing district of the Pacific Northwest known as the Inland Empire is enter ing on the glad harvest time. It is the season when Ceres reigns triumphant and dispenses with lavish hand to the votary at her shrine the frui tion of his fond hopes. And such a harvest! Grain offices throughout the grain producing portions of Washington are exhibiting samples of barley and wheat, both in the head and on the stalk, never before equaled in the history of farming. The excellent quality of the grain is not confined to any particular local ities, but is general over Eastern Washington and Oregon and Western Idaho. Four conditions have combined to produce this enormous grain crop; unusually large acreage, heavy stand due to cool weather this spring, large acreage of fall-sown grain producing heavier, and seasonable moisture with other climatic access ories. The abundant crop will be a revelation to the many visitors from the Eastern states as they pass by on their way to the A.-V.-P. Exposition, or stop on their way to investigate the possibili ties and opportunities of the Pacific Northwest. Many a visitor will tarry awhile and change the investigate to invest-in-a-home. Not all of these are farmers. The West has as devirsified a labor system as the East. All sorts of activities are seen in even the newest of the states. The man with any kind of a useful vocation can usually find a field in all localities in the United States which have been settled for half a dozen years, except in the crudest of min ing camps. But agriculture is still one^ of the country's most important interests. It is the interest on which prosperity of the West was originally based. Therefore a large portion of the new settlers which the region west of the Missis sippi is receiving in 1909 are tillers of the soil. The old era of free lands for the landless man has nearly ended in the United States. Uncle Sam is no longer rich enough to give us all a farm. Some land under the homestead act of 1862 is still taken up every year. But tne quarter sections which are desirable, and which are given away under that act for the cost of the surveying, are nearly all gone. They are chiefly confined to the arid region, and often require irrigation to make them productive. The irrigation act of 1902 is doing its work upon some of these lands, but, in general, it is done by the persons who acquire the land. Other tracts are being tested by arid farming methods. COMING, THE INCOME TAX. The passage, by a unanimous vote of the United States Senate, of a proposition to submit an amendment to the United States Constitution that will permit the levy of an income tax, marks a long step of progress by that slowly progressive body. For years it has been the contention of organized producers of wealth—the farmers and the laborers —that taxation should rest more fully than at present on other items than the means of sustenance and the homes of the people. There are others who enjoy the protection and benefits of government who should likewise share its burdens. This action on the part of the Senate is not altogether voluntary, but circumstances have conspired to compel attention to the income tax as a source of revenue. The recent panic—like its predecessors —resulted in a curtailment of the public revenues because of lessened importations of foreign goods on which duties are paid and decreased consumption of the home products sub ject to taxation for internal revenue. Another prominent factor has been the greatly increased application of the taxation-by-duties plan as lev ied by foreign countries against the products of the United States, and which is compelling many modifications and reductions on our part in our foreign commerce. The proposal by President Taft to levy a tax on corporations was a sensible move, but It was Incomplete. The corporations derive many bene fits from the administration of our governmental functions and should bear a corresponding part of its burdens, but "there are others," and some of these are neither producers of visible wealth nor engaged in commercial enterprises, although they divert large sums into their capacious cof fers Such persons can be reached by an income tax and should thus share in the public burden. I FIRE INSURANCE COST. According to the preliminary report of Insur ance Commissioner Schively Washington people paid out $13,389,498 insurance premiums during the year 1908 and in the same period the com panies paid losses in the state of but $4,629,838. These figures are made up from the annual reports submitted to the department by the companies doing business here. More than $514,000,000 of insurance was written during the year exclusive of accident, surety, fidelity and indemnity, liability and casualty, health, burglary, plate glass, live stock and steam boiler insurance. In other states it has also been found that In surance costs at the rate of 3:1 in many cases. To reduce this excessive cost co-operative insur ance has been extensively organized. Farmers have been prominent in developing this line of in surance, and the Grange has adopted it as one of the practical lines for its co-operative effort. Con cerning the progress of the work in this state the address of Master C. B. Kegley at the recent ses sion of the State Grange at Ellensburg, says: "The year 1908-9 has marked the most rapid progress of any in the history of our association. We are carrying more than double the policies and risks in force two years ago. During the past year no assessment has been levied and our treas ury shows a good balance yet, subject to drafts to pay losses. It has been the policy of the pres ent Board of Directors to conserve the interests of the association and while using every effort to increase the membership of the association, it has been ever mindful that the first duty is to the parent organization. Our Secretary, J. O. Wing, has proven his loyalty to the Grange, and his ability to co-operate with your officers in every undertaking. And in his work of building up the fire insurance he has been ever mindful of its in fluence on extension work and the strengthening of the order. In this way the fire insurance asso ciation has been made a great factor in Grange extension in this State. "Our fire insurance is not organized to make profit or to declare dividends, but to save money for the insured. We have the cheapest, safest and best insurance in the State. The cost per year for carrying $1000 insurance, for the past ten years has been below one dollar. The increase of busi ness now requires the Secretary to give practically all his time to the duties of his office." CHANGE NEEDED IN HIGHER EDUCATION. "The college muck-raker has said—and has proved his point—that college education today is chiefly noted for its ineffectiveness," said John H. T. Main, president of lowa College, at the National Educational Association meeting in Denver. "The college man is, under normal con ditions, the superior man, but he may be produced at too great expense when we consider all the time and labor spent upon him. Efficiency has a definite relation to cost of production. "To correct this condition there must be, first of all, a genuine desire for inner community life. There must be an institutional spirit developed by strong personalities and administrative and teaching positions. There must be organization of the elective system in such a way as to secure unity of spirit, particularly in lower classes. The college must at times work as a college on the intellectual and spiritual side, as well as on the side of athletics and general activities. In the modern college the problem is a difucult one, but if we determine to solve it we can do so." The Lewiston Evening Teller sees a different solution of this question. It points to the needs of the rural schools and says: "It is evident to those who have given much thought to the problem that with the settlement of the great public domain and the disappearance of the virgin lands, agriculture, in the next cen tury, must be approached from its scientific side and intensive cultivation be made the problem. Scientific agriculture is a broad subject. It ia not one occupation or branch, but many occupa tions and branches. Because of variety of soil and climatic conditions the instruction cannot be conducted in groups, but must be personal and individual. "The best point of attack in the solution of this problem is the country school, and the plan of making this attack is through the medium of the rural school teacher, and the emphasis in education now is being placed on the duty of the state in training the rural teacher to discharge the important task that the needs of the times has placed upon him. State aid, of course, can come through the normal schools in furnishing money for the training of rural school teachers, and in this phase of the problem there will need to be a rearrangement of the rural school system. "No educational work of the century is caus ing so much comment and has led to more uni versal adoption in the time it has been before the people. The activities of the whole education al world have largely centered on the working out of this problem, realizing that the nation and the state depend primarily on the progress and prosperity of this class of workers, and that edu cation therein becomes the foundation of all business prosperity for all other vocations." It would appear that a liberal legislature like the present one ought to be able to provide funds with which the horticultural inspectors can be paid for their needed services. It is a matter that involves the good name and welfare of the state.