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horticulture another, De Vries, secured a pressure of five atmospheres. Oue atmosphere is equal to a pressure of IT) pounds to the square inch, while three atmos pheres are equal to 45 pouuds to the square inch and five atmospheres equnl to 75 pouuds. This pressure is equal to a force pump that would raise a column of water to a height of 100 to 170 feet. This is Nature's way of forcing the food material in the soil to the tops of the tallest trees. At the same time that this force pump is raising the water ladened with fertility from the soil, the evaporation of the water in the leaves sets up a suction that draws the water to the leaves. Some one has said that a force pump at the roots and a suction pump at the, leaves unite their forces to carry on the circulation of the sap during the growing season. This all stops when the leaves are oft' the trees and the sap remains quiescent. When 1 study the mechanism of a tree I am lost in wonder and astonishment and adore the Infinite Intelligence back of it. FALSE IDEAS OF THE CODLING MOTH. The other day 1 read in a fruit paper, edited by a very well informed man, that the codling moth lays its eggs in the blossom end of the apple. 1 am surprised at such a statement for the simple reason that it is not true. It is true that most of the first brood—Bo per cent according to Prof. Card—enter the apples at the blossom end, but why? Not because the eggs are laid in the blossom ends of the apples but for another reason. The codling moth is a very shy insect, is THE HIGH COST OF LIVING can be materially reduced by planting an assortment of trees and berries for home use. Why buy your fruit and ber ries when you can raise them yourself and enjoy the luxury of having them freshly picked. There is hardly a farm garden or city lot where space cannot be found for these, greatly enhanc ing the value of the property and adding to the enjoyment of life. Our large catalog is free for the asking. It's a beauty and should be in every home. Toppenish, Wash. More Salesmen Wanted. The R;ancK»^ Grain Threshing Machinery The Successful Grain Threshing Machine is one that satisfies both buyer and seller. You are looking for the separator that will thresh your grain economic ally and Save All the Grain. The FARQUHAR THRESHER meets all requirements. The most up-to date thresher manufactured. Sizes from 22 inch Cylinder to 36 inch, with all late attachments for successful threshing. Thresh your grain when you want to. SOLD UNDER ABSOLUTE WARRANTY. $275 Buys a Complete THRESHER. Write us today for catalogue and price lid. OUR SPECIALTY—The Small Thresher. . FOOTT-TITUS MACHINERY HOUSE 182 UNION AVENUE. PORTLAND, OREGON. rarely ever seen in the day time and if by chance it is disturbed, it flits to a hiding place as quickly as possible. It does most of its flying at night and lays its eggs at night also. In some way, which we may not be able to explain, this shyness of the parent is transmitted to the young larva and it too is very shy and as soon as it emerges from the egg, seeks a hiding place. No hiding place is so good as the blossom end of the apple and four-fifths of the young worms enter there. This led to the conclusion so common that the eggs are laid there, but careful examination has oomplete ly established the faot that the most of the eggs of the first brood are laid on the leaves. We know this for the simple reason that we tind them there. The idea once prevailed that the moth laid its eggs in the blossom end of the apple at blooming time but at blooming time there are no moths. On our ranch the apple trees are in bloom the latter part of April and the moths begin to fly the latter part of May. There will be some variation in these dates according to whether the season is early or late. When the second brood appears, the majority of the worms enter the sides of the apples The eggs are laid on the apples frequently during this second stage, but during the first laying sea son the apples are so small that the most of the eggs are laid on the leaves near by the apples. What guides the moth to lay its eggs near the young apples we do not know, so we call it instinct. At the time of the second brood, both the apples and the leaves are so large that the young worms can find biding places without going to the calix end of the apple. Another false idea secured a good deal of attention, and that was that the codling moth would fly to a light and also would go to a solution con taining apple juice and in this way could be caught. Many people be lieved that they destroyed many of the moths by open lights and caught them in pans containing apple juice and water. 1 once tried the apple juice and water solution and thought I caagbt some codling moths but later found that I had not caught one. There are many moths about the size of the codling moth and 1 made the mistake of confounding them. How did 1 Hud out my mis take? I took the paupae of the cod ling moth, put them in a bottle and hatched them out and studied them at first ham! and found out that I did not accurately know the codling moth. The fact is that the codling moth will not fly to a light but will fly from it, nor will it seek out a solution of apple juice. It is doubtful if the moth itself eats any thing during its short life — if it does it is not yet proven. It is the larvae of the codling moth that works such havoc to our apples. What is the best form of poison with which to spray for the destruc tion of the codling moth? We must have some preparation containing arsenic. We have used Paris green, arsenate of soda and arsenate of lead. After thorough trial, we have settled down to the use of arsenate of lead. The reasons for this are that it sticks better than any of the others, it will not burn the foliage and it remains in solution better than any of the other preparations containing arsenic. We tiave thoroughly tried the one spraying for the control of the cod ling moth and have found it inadequ ate. We now spray three times. We aim to do our tirst spraying before the calix cup opens up, then again three to four weeks later, just as the tirst brood makes its appearance and then for the third time about when the second brood is appearing. This third spraying will be the latter part of July. BORDEAUX MIXTURE BEST ROR FUNGUS John Elliott, Fort Worden, Wash., under date of June 6th writes: "I am inclosing some tips of some of my young apple trees. Would you please let me know what is tbe matter with them? I sprayed them twioe during tbe winter, November and March, with the lime-sulphur spray. There were aphis on them, that is the reason I sprayed." The tips inclosed are affected with leaf mold or fungus. There are so many of the fungi that it is difficult to designate each particular kind. This is not necessary for the treat ment is very much tbe same in each case. The best of all remedies with which to combat the fungi is tbe Bor deaux mixture. My opinion is that if the Bordeaux mixture had been used instead of the lime-sulphui wash, the result would have been better. There is this difficulty, how ever, to contend with: The person using the Bordeaux mixture must learn to make it, for it will not re main the same in strength if kept lung. In fact it ought to be used the same day. if a person is spraying for the codling moth, he may use two pounds of sulphate of copper (blue stone) to each 50 gallons of water and that will kill many of the spores of 5 the different fungi. It must be re membered that the fungi are very bad in all the Sound couutry aud the fruit grower must learn how to combat them. The lime-sulphur wash is a fungicide and some recommend it in preference to the Bordeaux, but 1 do not. PEAR BLIGHT. A Mr. Chase, Foster, Wash., called on me yesterday and brought with him some twigs from his apple trees affected just the same as those sent by Mr. Elliot. He feared that the trouble might be what is called "tire blight" or pear blight. But 1 showed him how he might know the pear blight from the ordinary attacks of the fungi. The pear blight is a bac terial disease and works in the sap. If we have an attack such as Mr. Chase had and we cut into the limb and it is sound and healthy we may Get the roofing" that lasts, for every building" on the farm — Genasco the Trinidad-Lake-Asphalt Roofing And get the Kant-leak Kleet— the ap proved roof-fastening. Write for de scriptive Genasco book and samples. The Barber Asphalt Paving Company Largest producers of asphalt, and largest manufacturers of ready routing in the world. Philadelphia New York San Francisco Chicago $3.50 Recipe For Weak Kidneys, Free Relieves Urinary and Kidney Troubles, Backache, Straining 1, Swelling, Etc. 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Ah yon will see when you get it this recipe contain* only pure, harmless remedies, but it has great healing and pain conquering power It will quickly show its power once you noe it. so I think yon bad better ie« what it li without delay. I will Mnd you a copy (re»— yo« hb ut it and «mr« yowli at boa«.