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DAIRY AND CREAMERY By Prof. A. B. Nystrom, Dairy Instructor State College, Pullman, Wash. (For any information regarding this department, write the above.) COST TO RAISE A CALF TO TWO AND ONE-HALF YEARS OF AGE On the average dairy farm where the work of feeding and caring for the stock and operating the farm is done by two or more men it is a diffi cult matter to determine exactly what it costs to raise a calf. It we were to consider carefully every item of ex pense we would find that our heifers are costing us more than we sup posed. Too often we feel that any labor done in connection with the feeding and caring for calves should not be charged against the calf be catise the services are rendered out side of working hours and are a sort of a recreation. To be sure the own er of good stock takes pleasure in be ing with his calves morning and even ing and watching them grow, still If he were to hire the work done he would find it.necessary to pay regular wages and he should therefore figure his own time as a part of the cost of raising a calf. The following estimate represents the average from four counties in the state, namely: Walla Walla, Whit man, Pierce and Yakima. It is as sumed that if one man devoted all his time to calve 3he could take care of 75, and if this man were to furnish bis own board and room he should receive $75 per month for the work. 5 days, no cost. 10 days, 10 lbs. whole milk at 2c a lb. no skim $ 2.00 7 days, 7 lbs. whole milk at 2c a lb., 7 lbs. skim ie 1.10 100 days, 18 lbs. skim at jc lb., no whole milk 4.50 100 days, 2 lbs. grain at $25 a ton 2.50 250 days, 4 lbs. grain at $25 a ton 12.50 110 days, 2 lbs. hay at $8 a ton 45 240 days, 4 lbs. hay at $8 a ton -- 4.00 Total feed cost for one year --. — $27.05 Labor, one man 75 calves, $75 per month .^12.00 Total for the year - 39.05 FROM ONE TO TWO YEARS 365 days, hay 6 lbs. a day, $8 a ton $ 8.75 365 days, grain 5 lbs. a day, $25 a ton 21.81 Labor - ------ 100° $40.56 From two to two and one-half years (same) 20.28 Adding cost for first year 390J> Total cost from time of birth to 2>£ years of age, at which time she ought to begin to produce. _ $99.89 The cost from one to two and one half years can greatly be reduced by supplying a good cheap pasture there by eliminating all or a part of the grain. For the best development of the heifer, however, she should be well fed from the start aud should never be allowed to stop growing until full grown. BUTTERMKERS SCORING CONTEST Prom the results of the Orst scoring of butter made by Washington but ter makers it would seem that critical butter eaters of this state will not need to look out of the state for a good article. Nor does it seem that we would be compelled to take the "back seat" for any state in this im portant industry. Three scoring contests are to be held this year, the MOOOd MM at the Statu FMr and the last one during the annual meeting of the association. The first contest was held at the THE WASHINGTON FARMER Ellensburg Produce Company's store in Seattle on May 28tb. There were 14 entries of butter, some of which were brought by the buttermakers themselves who held a short meeting after the scoring. The principal defects were high acidity and curdy flavor, no ranoidity or decidedly objectionable flavors be ing found in any samples. Some of the butter showed signs of having been over-worked, or worked at too high a temperature but as a lot it was exceptionally good in every re spect. The highest score was 96 and* the lowest 92. The following are the three highest scores: Winlock Creamery Co., Winlock, 96. 1. Benedicktsen, Spanaway, 95%. H. J. Keithahn, Tenino, 95}^. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Requirements of a Good Dairy Barn (Question: Will you kindly furnish me with such information as you have to impart relative to the build ing of a good dairy barn for about 20 to 30 cows. Have an ideal location on side hill with lower side to the south. A. M. D., Loomis, Wash. Answer: We do not consider a dairy barn built into the side-hill an ideal dairy barn; but if it is most convenient to build it into the side hill, especial care will have to be giv- FIRST YEAR en to having the floor well drained and the stable well lighted. You should put in a cement floor, and this should be layed on at least eight j inches of cobblestones or cinders so as to allow for perfect drainage, and thereby avoiding udder troubles which are caused by damp, cold floors. It is well to stand the cows in two rows with tbeir heads toward the middle of the barn, dividing up the floor space about in this way: Five feet from inside wall to the gut ter ; gutter one and one-half feet wide, six to elgbt inches deep, floor sloping to the rear two inches to keep the cows from standing in the gutter, and to allow the liquid manure to drain off; stall lour and one-half feet deep, with a depression one inch deep ! and a foot wide just in front of the manger to keep the cow from slipping on to her knees when reaching for food; six inches of upright cement four inohes wide with bolts put in it Krai! \lh\ l"i C ' ***" — tffiiM Professor HH Blanchard Says: .■' fii^H "The first requisite of a iIMHHI good silo is good lumber." Irßrtll' Js^li What the Professor says is true with emphasis on Btililflliiw FIRST which implies that there are other requisites. WO^Bh^^l V We agree with the Professor and insist that good IWj&if&Hg&fQ lumber" comes first and foremost in the construction of a mamß2jfmsiw silo. This is why we are very careful to select the very |/*jt!S|gHtt(^ choicest logs we can find for silo purposes and after vefizL^^Ur^sk sawing these into staves, they are air-dried for six months ||S[jt=^E§ip^ j or more. If you know anything about lumber, you will ll^^r -^%g^» know what this means. In the final manufacturing operations, this silo stock is carefully graded, according to our own strict grading rules after which it is care- - • fully milled into fine silo stock. -<3^feyerhaeiiseß> . Our Silo Stock is Air-Dried v Irrespective of the guy lines and other hardware trimmings, The Weyerhaueser Silo is just so much air-dried lumber of a superior grade— clear, one-piece fir staves —which can only be secured by purchasing the WEYERHAEUSER SILO, complete in one shipment. • The second important requisite of a good, air-tight silo is a conven ient, labor-saving, time-saving door that does not stick and is not lost around the farm. THE WEYERHAEUSER DOOR is just this and the small amount that it adds to the purchase price is very small indeed. The third requisite is a reasonable price for this choice grade of AIR-DRIED lumber, Our well-known superior advantages and facilities permit us to make lower prices than any other concern in the Northwest. If you can use a two-piece stave —either in the clear high-grade fir described above or in our "select" we can name you still lower prices. In fact these prices are so low that any farmer feeding ten or more cows positively cannot afford to be without a silo. The splines are guaranteed to make the stave as rigid as any one-piece stave. The scientifically designed and guaranteed anchorage system, the tested steel hoops and lugs, the malleable compound pressure latches and the easy swinging doors, the safe tread ladders—extremely valuable as they must be to you—add but very little to the price of the silo as fully nine-tenths of the cost of the Weyerhaueser Silo is in the exceptionally fine quality of lumber and the AIR-DRYING process—absolutely essential to a good silo and the first requisite, as a silo made from inferior lumber will not last any length of time. SOME OF OUR REPRESENTATIVES ARE: For Whatcom and San Juan Counties: Royal Dairy Co., Bellingham, Wash. For Jefferson and Clallam Counties: Glendale Creamery Co., Port Townsend, Wn. . For Skagit County: Clear Lake Lumber Co., Mt. Vernon, Wash. ■; .x='%": For Western Oregon and Northern California: Booth-Kelly Lumber Co., Eugene, Ore. . . Write them for prices based on carload freight rates, if you live in these coun ties. Mr. Robert Burt is our field representative. Address 1009 Western Aye., Seattle. Weyerhaeuser Lumber Company, Everett, Wash^ MADDHUf PADDAPF SOLVES THE FEED PROBLEM IYIAKKUW UADDAuL wiite to c. c. martin, bangor.wash.