Newspaper Page Text
GRANVILLE LOWTHER, Editor, North Yakima, Wash.
Any information regarding this department answered free by the editor.
PEAR OR CHERRY SLUG
I am in receipt of a letter from
James Morrison, Watson, Oregon, in
which he says:
"Last year my pear and cherry
trees were so badly infected with
slugs that two sets of foliage were
completely devoured by them. What
shall I do to control the pest?
"Will kerosene emulsioD and ar
senateof lead be of benefit combined?
"About the time the cherries are
ripe are when the slugs are the worst.
Is it dangerous to use the poison at
this time? There seems to be two
generations of the slugs. They dis
appear altogether for a short time
soon after the cherries have ripened,
then they reappear again in increased
numbers. Give their life history and
how they propagate, also what is con
sidered the best practice in control
Answer: 1. Arsenate of lead will
kill the slug. White Hellebore,
one pound to 50 pounds of water, will
kill. Black leaf one part to 800 parts
water will do the work; or common
road dust, fine ashes, or lime,
sprinkled upon them will kill them.
2. Ido not think it dangerous to
use the poison at this time, but it
will in some degree mar the beauty of
the cherry when placed in boxes for
3. In giving its life history, it
may be said that "it is the larva of a
fly which hatches in May or June and
begins feeding at once on the upper
surface of the leaf consuming all but
the main skeleton of the leaf."
"They have a dirty, greenish, slimy
appearance with heads considerably
larger than the body."
"They moult five times and in
July drop to the ground which they
enter to a depth of about three inches
and pupate. During the hot weather
they will complete their transforma
tion in 12 to 15 days. There are two
broods and possibly a portion of a
third each season."
'Some of the pupae winter in the
ground and emerge as flies in the
spring and begin laying their eggs in
the young leaves of pear and cherry.
The eggs are laid between the upper
and lower surface of the leaf."
WHAT THE PLANT NEEDS
Ist. There must be a supply of
nutritive or plastic materials, at the
expense of which growth can take
place. These materials supply the
potential energy of the plant; or at
least furnish the medium through
which the energy operates.
2nd. There must be a supply of
water sufficient to set up a certain
amount of hydrostatic pressure in the
cells; for only turgid cells can grow.
3rd. The supply of water must be
associated with the formation of
osmotic substances in the cell or it
cannot be made to enter it.
4th. The cell must have a certain
temperature for the activity of the
protoplasts is only possible within
certain limits wjiich differ in case of
sth. There must be a supply of
oxygen to the growing cells; for the
THE WASHINGTON FARMER
protoplasts are dependent upon this
gas for its vital functions, and par
ticularly for the liberation of energy
which is demanded in the construc
OVER PRODUCTION OF APPLES
In the long run of life there will be
no over-production of apples. It has
never occurred that when a period of
years, like a generation for instance,
and a world market is considered that
any food product has been overdone.
There are fluctuations of course,
growing out of the opinions of per
sons as to the needed supply and
other factors; but the tendency is
always to equilibrium. In recent
years many orchards are being set
by land companies who find it more
profitable to set the land to trees,
and sell it for much larger price than
it would bring if not in orchard.
Many of these orchards are being set
on land not adapted to fruits, and in
climates subject to frosts, winds, etc.
In time these orchards in competi
tion with the more favored places
will be abandoned. Then too, many
persons have been attracted to the
orchard business who are not adapted
to it; will not study it scientiticially;
will not properly manage their or
chards, nor meet the requirements of
the best markets in picking and pack
ing. These will be gradually weeded
out and only those who do the work
in the best way will remain. 1 am
expecting that when the orchards
that are now being set come into
bearing, that for a time prices will
be low. This will make the business
unprofitable to all except those who
grow tne best varieties in the best
way. For these, there will always
be a fair profit, and when the others
are out of the business they will reap
large profits; for the best things are
never overdone and the best fruits
will always bring large prices in the
COVER CROP OR CLEAN ORCHARD
What clean cultivation does for an
orchard. We will grant the claims of
those who say tbut clean cultivation
forms a dust mulch on the top of the
ground and conserves moisture. This
is probably the best method of culti
vation where the rain fall is not suffi
cient without this method or some
other system of mulching.
We will grant that in a deep porous
soil, where the tree roots can easily
penetrate to considerable depth, and
where there is plenty of moisture in
the subsoil, clean cultivation is good
and an orchard cultivated in this way
looks well. We will grant that where
irrigation is practiced and there is
plenty of water with which to ir
rigate, that the process of irrigation
is easier than wbere there is some
kind of cover crop to obstruct the
flow of the water. But when all
these propositions are granted there
is a most stubborn fact which should
be considered and which until recent
ly was not generally known, and that
is, the feeding roots of ttie tree are
near the surface. Whatever other
roots exist, such as the braeiug roots,
that hold the tree to the ground [and
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1000 lbs. per acre once in each four years will cost about $I.oo(per acre per year.
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