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CONCRETE FENCE POSTS Concrete baa taken the place of wood in so many instances that one is no longer surprised at its adoption for any purpose. The latest use to which it is being put and with great success is its substitution for wood as fence posts. Nearly all the farm ers in the Middle West are adopting the concrete fence post on account of its permanent qualities, neat appear ance and low cost. Many of the rail roads are fencing their right-of-ways with it and the use of it has grown to such an extent that the govern ment has cone to the trouble and ex pense of getting out a bulletin of sev eral pages recommending its use to farmers, giving full and explicit de tails as to how to make the concrete post, what materials to use, the prop er method of re-enforcing and how to make the forms. The principal agri cultural colleges of the country, after thoroughly testing it, advise its use and the lowa State College of Agri culture at Ames, lowa, perhaps the leading agricultural college in the country, gives the concrete fence post its unqualiUed endorsement and is preparing 529 concrete fence posts to enclose a new farm purchased by the college. There is no question but that with in a few years wooden posts will have been supplanted by concrete for the reason that a concrete fence post can be made at a cost not to exceed that or a wooden post and when a farm is once fenced with concrete fence posts the problem of fencing on that par ticular farm is over for all time. The government bulletins show that when a wooden post has been in stalled for two or three years its strength has depreciated fully 50 per cent while a concrete fence post con tinues to get stronger for a period of seven years until it is so hard that it is absolutely impervious to the ele ments and it becomes a permanent portion of the farm, adding not only to its attractiveness but to its value. The average life of a wooden post is from three to six years and the ex pense of re-placing them is as flxed and certain as taxes and in many in stances the cost of repairs each year amounts to as much as the taxes on the place. In many of the prairie states there is no native wood out of which to make posts though there are a few being manufactured from osage hedge. It is only in a few localities, how ever, that this material can be obtain .cd and besides it is very expensive. The most of the posts used in those states are shipped from a loug dis tance, and by the time the farmer has placed them in the ground the cost to him is excessive. When a person takes into consideration the millions of posts in use in those states and the fact that from 15 to 30 per cent have to be replaced each year it is no wonder that the farmer is look ing for something permanent. Another advantage of using the concrete fence post is that it makes it possible for the farmer to burn over his fence row each fall, thereby destroying the home and breeding ground of the numerous crop-detroy ing bug and insects, in testing such places. From numerous tests made by government experimental stations it has been proved that the clearing out of such places makes the adjoin ing tracts free from these pests. As stated above, the first cost of the THE WASHINGTON FARMER I YOU CANNOT AFFORD TO PUMP and carry water and saw wood by hand power. Elbow grease is all right in its A place but should be devoted to better purpose. The distilate engine is the most 9 economical motive power. vL THE BULL-DOG ENGlNE—Standard of Quality ■BH is built in special combinations for every purpose. Not the Cheapest—But the highest M^L ■ quality at a reasonable price. VU H P BULL-DOG ENGINE With Drag Saw Attachment so that engine can be used for and Pump Jack, ?70.00. pumping or cutting wood, $85.00. Prices F. O. B. Tacoma. Freight allowed to Seattle or Portland WE ALSO FURNISH SMALL ELECTRIC LIGHTING OUTFITS IN COMBINATION. Nickerson-MacFarlane Machinery Co. 15 B r a nch s£^ !l' MvL adp7b^" h' concrete post is no more than the wooden post, and in many states where wood has to be shipped from a distance the cost is less. The only materials that go into a concrete post are sand and gravel or if sand and gravel cannot be obtained, crushed rock, wires for re-enforcing and cement. Sand and gravel can be found in almost all localities and the cost is very small. The government advises the use of old bale or barbed wire for re-enforcing, claiming that it is better than new wire or rods. The cost of cement varies in different places, but as the proportion used is one of cement to about five or six of sand and gravel, this cost does not exceed 10 cents a post. Labor is of no consequence for the post can be made on the farm at spare time when the help is not busy with something else. The form in which they are made can be constructed out of any old boards handy and takes but a few minutes to build. They are exceed ingly simple in construction and any one able to use a saw and -hammer can make a satisfactory mould. One of the greatest difficulties here tofore has been in arriving at a satis factory method of securing the wire *o the post. A unmber of different methods have been tried, such as placing a strip of wood in the post and attaching the wire to the wood. The objection to this is that the weather causes the wood to swell or shrink and decay and the government advises strongly against its use. Another method tried has been im bedding staples in the post while it is green but the staples rust or break off rendering the post useless. Fastening the wires to the post by means of tie wires going around the post is not satisfactory because of the difficulty of securely fastening them and the fact that under pressure they will move up and down on the post. A Seattle man, William K. Kirk wood, has recently patented an im provement consisting of a diagonal receiving slot on the face of the post, leading into a transverse slot running through the post which seems to have solved the difficulty. By his method the wires are self-fastening and can be removed at will. No staple or tie wire is required and It has met with universal approval. The fea ture that most commends this post is its simplicity and the fact that any farmer or farmer's boy can make a successful and practical post without any outlay for special moulds, yet can produce a post which requires no staples, fasteners or accessories what ever for holding up the wires. THE AGRICULTURAL FAIRS Southwest Washington — Centralia-Ohehalis, G. R. Walker, Secretary, Aug. 24-29. Vancouver, B. C—H. 8. Roleton, Secretary. Sept. 3-12. Vancouver, Wash.—Geo. P. Larseu, Secretary, Sept. 7-12. Why Spend Your Money for Wood Ililillllil Posts and Re-Fence Every BRHB Five to Seven Years? D| ■;'-^ SB The first cost is the same whether you use concrete SH9 ; '>* I or wood posts. A few years afterward your wood posts HH gH begin to rot and within from five to seven years you ■H sBI must re-fence at a cost the same as at first. 11l H The Kirkwood Re-Inforced SII^JB Concrete Fence Post H§f I ■ Will Last Forever ■I S9 The new method of fastening is simple, easy to work |^H SB «nd absolutely sure. It allows perfect adjustment of Hi l^fl wires and if necessary, the wires can easily be removed. SM^jj L^*wß This post will settle the fence question for you. It W/M (^T^ fifi will cost no more than wood and when your fence is put Wt |B UP with KIRKWOOD RE-INFORCED CONCRETE FENCE ■■ *$£ MH POSTS it is up to stay. You can make them on your I »$& I own farm. No forms or accessories to buy. jflß We want to tell you more about the KIRKWOOD. We know that it will mean a big saving for you. Drop ■Pis JH us a card and we will send the circulars that will tell ?>''^H you more. Write today. |B^ pat BB We desire agents in every community in the United I i C 9m' I States to handle this post. No capital required. Write BBi^ 9M I today for the agency proposition. ES'/d/Jffli Kirkwood Re-Inforced Concrete Fence MAkI^MM Post Company, Inc. WKMKBKIEKM 204 BURKE BLDG . Seattle, wash. Interstate Fair, Spokane, Wash.—Robert H. Cosgrove, Mgr., Sept. 12-20. Walla Walla, Wash.—Robert H. Johuson, Secretary, Sept. 14-19. Washington State Fair, North Yakima, Wash., —Sept. 21-27. Helena, Mont.—A. J. Breitenstein, Secretary, Sept. 21-27. Victoria, B. C—Geo. Sangster, Mgr., Sept. 21-27. Nelson, B. C. -Geo. Horstead, Mgr., Sept. 24-26. Oregon State Fair—Salem, Ore., Frank Mere dith, secretary, Sept. 28-Oct. 8. New Westminster, B. C.—D. E. Mac-Keuzie, Sept. 28-Oct. 3. Salt Lake City, Utah—Horace S. En3ign, Sec retary, Oct. 5-12. Olympic Peninsula Fair-Port Townseiid, Wn. Arcb C. Tweedie, Secretary, Sept. 10-12.