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mJ" tWsir J ' ' , -': " ' ' '-io- L ' .... L . vmuuui & JTomUu Newspaper, JDcuote to Politics, fyomt 3ubnstri, News, Sicpricu Una aui (General 3n!i Iligcucc VOLUME XIII. 13 RATT1EBORO, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 17 1840. NUMBER T. PRESIDEMT'S MESSAGE. DECEMDEU 8, 1840. I'tllow Ctliuns of the Senate anil of the House of lltpreientatires I In resuming jour labors in t lie cmicc nf l lie people, it is a sulijrct of congratulation dial tticre has bern no period in our pai history, when sll Ihc elements of national prosperity have been so fully developed. Since your last session no afflict tug dispensation lias visited our country ; general good health lias prevailed ; abundance has crowned the toil of Ihc husbandman ; and labor in all its branches is receiving an ample reward, while edu cation, science, and the arts are rapidly enlarging ihc means of social happiness. Thu progress of our country in her career of greatness, not only in the vast extension of our territorial limits and I lie rapid increase or our population, but in resources and wealth, and in the happy condition of our peo ple, is without example in the history of nations. As the wisdom, strength, and beneficence of our free institutions are unfolded, every day adds fresh motives to contentment, and fresh incentives to patriotism. Our devout ami sincere acknowledgements arc due to the gracious Giver of alt good, for the num berless blessings which our beloved country enjoy5- Il is a source of high satisfaction to know that Ihc relations ol the United Slates with all other na tion, wilh a single exception, are of the most am icable character, Sincerely attached to the policy of peace, early adopted and steadily pursued by Ibis government, I have anxiously desired to cultivate and cherish Iricndship and commerce with every foreign Power. The spirit and habits of ihc Amer ican peopto arc farorable lo the maintenance of such international harmony. In adhering to this wise policy, a preliminary and paramount duly ob viously consists in the protection of our national in terests from encroachment and sacrifice, and our national honor from reproach. These must be maintained at any hazard. They admit of no com promise or ncglecl, and must be scrupulously and constantly guarded. In their vigilant vindication, collision and conflict wilh foreign Powers may sometimes become unavoidable. Such has been our scrupulous adherence to the dictates of justice, in nil our foreign intercourse, thai, though steadily and rapidly advancing in properity and power, we have given no just cause of complaint to any na tion, and have enjoyed the blessings of peace for more than thirty years, rrom a policy so sacred lo humanity, and so salutary in its elTects upon our political system, wo should never be induced volun tarily to depart. The existing war wilh Mexico was neither desir ed nor provoked by the United Slates. On the contrary, all honorable means were resorted to to avert it. A Tier years of endurance of aggravated and unredressed wrongs an our part, Mexico, in violation of solemn treaty stipulations, andofevery principle of justice recognized by civilized nations, commenced hostilities ; and thus by her. own act, forced the war upon us. Long before ihc advance of our army lo the left bank of the Rio Grande, we had ample cause of war against Mexico ; and had the United Slates resorted to Ibis extremity, we might have appealed to the whole citilized world for the justice of our course. I deem it to be my duty lo present to you on the present occasion, a condensed review of ihc inju ries we have sustained, of the causes which led lo the war, and of its progress since its commence ment. This is rendtred the more necessary be cause of the misapprehensions which have lo some extent prevailed as to its origin and true character. The war has been represented as unjust and unnec essary, and ns one of aggression on our part upon a weak and injured enemy. Such erroneous views, though entertained by but few, hate been widely and extensively circulated, not only at home, but throughout Mexico and the whole world. A more effectual means could not have been devised to en courage the enemy and protract the war, llian io advocate and adhere to their cause, and thus give them "aid and comfort." It is a source of national prido and exultation, that the great body of our people have thrown no such obstacles in the way of the government in prosecuting the war successfully, but have shown themselves lo be eminently potriotic, nnd ready Ip (indicate their country's honor and interests at any sacrifice. The alacrity and promptness wilh which our volunteer forces rushed to the field on their country's call, provo not only their patriotism, but tncir deep conviction mat our cause u jum. The u ronns which we have suffered from Me ir.n almost ever since she became an independent Power, and the patient endurance withwhich we liavo borno them, are without a parallel in me ins tnrv nl mnilprn civ ilized nations. There is reason lo believe that if these wrongs hod been resented and resist ed in the first instance. Ihe present war might have been avoided. One outrage, however, permitted lo pass wilh impunity, almost necessarily encouraged the perpetration of another, until at lasl Mexico seemed to attribute to weakness and indecision on our part, a forbearance which was the nflsnrinor of marrnanimitv. olid of a sincere de. sirb to pnserie friendly relations villi, a ulster re- pumic. Scarcely had Mexico achieved her independence, which Ihe United Slates were the first among the nations lo acknowledge, when she commented the f j item of insult and spoliation, which she has ever unco pursued. Our citizens engaged in lawful commerce were imprisoned, their vessels seized, and' our flag insulted in her ports. If money was wanted, Ihe lawless seizure and confiscation of our merchant vessels and their cargoes was a ready re source; and if lo accomplish their purposes it be came necessary to imprison the owners, eoplains, and crcwB, il was done. Rulers superseded rulers in Mexico in rapid, succession, but still there was no change in this system of depredation. The government of the, United Slates made repeated reclamations on behalf of its citizens, bul these wt-m imnuoriMl br ihs nrmeirstion nf new outrages', Promises of redress made by Mexico in hc most solemn forma were postponed or evoded. The files and records of Ihe Department of Stale con lain conclusive proofs of numerous lawless acts perpetrated upon the properly and persons qf our citizens, by Mexico, and of wanton insults lo our national flag. The interposition of our goierli nirni in nliiahi redress was azain and again imok- cd, under circumjianceJ which no notion ought to disregard. It ua lmned ilial iheso outrages would cease, and thai Mexico would be restrained by Ihe laws which regulate ihe conduct of civilized naions In Iheir intercourse with each other, a(ler tho treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, of the fith of ipnl, ItSJI, was cuuciuueu uciwecu mo iwo iu publics; but this hope soon proted to bo vain. The course of seizure and confiscation of the pi op crty of our citizens, I ho notation or their persons and the insults to our flag pursued by Mexico pre vious lo that time, were scarcely suspended fur even a brier period, although 'lie treaty so clearly defines Ihc rights and duties nf the respective parlies that it is impossible to misunderstand or mistake llicni. In less than sctcn years after the conclusion of that irealy, our grievances bail become so intolera ble thai, iu Ihe opinion of President Jackson, Ihry should no longer be endured. In his message lo Congress in February, 1837, he presented them lo the consideration of thai body, and declared lh.it "Tho length ot lime since come of the injuries have been committed, the repeated and unavailing applications fur redress, the wanton character of sonic of Ihe outrages upon the property and per sons of our ciliieus, upon the officers and flag uf the United btalcs, independent of recent insults to this government ami people by the late extraordi nary Mexican minister, would justify in the eyes of all nations Immediate war. In a spirit ot kind ness and forbearance, however, ho recommended reprisals as a milder mode of redress. He declar ed that war should not be ued as a remedy "by just and generous nations, confiding in their strength inr injuries cumimucu, ll licau uc uuiiurnwy aiuiu ed," and added, "it has occurred lo me that, con sidering the present embarrassed condition of that country, we should act with both wisdom and mod eration, bv piviiifT to Mexico one more onnortunitv to alone for the pal, before we take redress into our own hinds, to avoid all misconception on the part of Mexico, as well as to protect our own national chaiacler from reproach, this opportunity should be given with the avowed design and full preparation lo lake immediate salislaclion, II il should not be obtained on a repetition of the de mand for it. To this end I recommend that an act be passed authorizing reprisals, and the use of the naval force nf ihe United Stales, by Ihe Executive, against Mexico, to enforce them in the event of a refusal by the Mexican government lo come lo an amicable adjustment of the matters in controversy between us, upon another demand thereof, made from on board one of our vessels of war on the coast of Mexico." Committees of both houses of Congresn, to which this message of this President was referred, fully sustained his views of Ihe character of the wrongs which we had suffered from Mexico, and recom mended that another demand for redress should be made before authorizing war or reprisals. The Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, in their report, say i "After such a demand, should prompt justice be refused by the Mexican govern ment, wo may appeal lo all nations not only for the equity and moderation with which we shall have acted towards a sister republic, bul for the necessi ty which will then compel us t seek redress for our wrongs, cither by actual war or by reprisals. The subject will then be presented before Con gress, at the commencement of the next session, in a clear auu distinct lurin ; and the committee can not doubt but that such measures will be immedi ately adopted as may be necessary to vindicate the honor of the country, and insure ample reparation to our injured citizens." The Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives made n similar recommendation, In Iheir report, lliey say that lliey "luity concur with ihe President that ample cause exists for tak ing redress iuln our own hands, and belicte that we should be justified in the opinion of other na tions for taking such a step. Uul they arc willing lo try the experiment of another demand, made in Ihe most solemn form, upon tho justice of the Mexican Government, before any further proceed ings are adopted," No difference of opinion upon the subject is be lieved to havo existed Iu Congress at thai time ; the Executive and Legislative departments concur. red ; anil jet such has been our forbearance, and desire to prescrte peace with Mexico, that the wrongs of which we then complained, and which gate rise lo these solemn proceediogs, not only re main unredressed la ibis day, but additional caus es of complaint, pf an aggravated character, havo ever since been accumulating. Shortly after these proceedings, a special mes. senger was despatched to Mexico, to make a final demand fur redress, and oh the 20th of July, 1637, the demand was made. The reply of ihc Mexican goiernnicqt bears date on Ihe twenty-ninth of the same month, and contains assurances of the "anx ious wish" of the .Mexican goiernment "not to de lay the moment or that final and equitable adjust ment which is to terminate Ihe existing difficulties between ihe two governments ; " that "nothing should be left undone which may contribute lo Ihc most speedy and equitable determination of the sub jects which nave bu tcnuuBir ciigscii mc uiitmiwi, of the American government ;" that the "Mexican government would adopt, as Ihe only guides for its conduct, ihe plainest principles of public right, the sacred obligations imposed by international law, and he religious faith of treaties ;" and that "what ever reason and justice may iliclalo rrrpecting earn case, will bo done." Tho assurance was further given tha the decision of ihe Mexican government upon each cause of complaint, for which redress has licen demanded, should he communicated io the government or the united Slates by the Mcxl ican minister at Washington. These solemn assurances, in answer lo our tic mand for redress, ncre disregarded. By making litem, lioweier, Mexico obtained further delay. President Van Uuren, iu his annual messsgo lo Congress or Ihe fifth of December, 1837, stales, that "although Ihc larger number" of our demands for redress, and many or them aggravated cases of personal wrongs, bate been now lor years nelore Ilia Mexican Government, and some of the causes or national complaint, and those ot the most ollcn. aitc character, admitted of immediate, simple, anil satisfactory rrplirs, il is only " ilhin a few days past thai any snecinc communication in answer io our lurt demand, made, five months ago,-has bem re ceived Irom tho Mexican monster, ana mat "inr not one of our public complaints has satisfaction been given or offered ; that; but one of the cases of personal wrong has been favorably considered, and that but four cases of both descriptions, out of all those lormally presented, and earnestly pressed, hate as let been decided upon by Ihc Mexican gov ernmein," President Van Uuren, believing that it would be vain lo make any further attempt to ob tain rcdrcts by the ordinary means within the pow er of lie Executive, communicated this opinion lo Congress, in I ho message referred lo, in which he soid ; "On a careful and deliberate examination of ihe contents," (or tho correspondence with ihe Mexican government,) "and considering the spirit manifested by ihe Mexican government, il lias be come mv nainful dolv lo return the subieel as il now stands, to Congress, lo whom It belongs, to decide upon Ihe time, the mode, and the mcasuro of redress." Had the United States at that lime I adopted compulsory measures, and taken redress into their own hands, all our dilbcullics with Mexi co would probably havo been long since adjusted, and the existing war havo been averted, .Magna nimily and moderation oil our part only bad the ef fect In complicate iheso difficulties, and render an amicable settlement of lliem the more embarrassing. That such measures of redress, under similar prov ocations, committed by any of the powerful nations of Europe, would have been promptly resorted lo by the United Slates, cannot be doubted. The national honor, and the preservation nfthe national character throughout the world, as well as our own sell-respect and Ihe protection due to our own citi zens, would have rendered such a resort indispen sable. The history of no civilized nation in mod ern tioics has presented within so brief a period so many wanton attacks upon llio honor ol its flag, and upon Ihe properly and persons of its citizens, as had at that lime been borne by the United Stales from Ihc Mexican authorities and people. Hut Mexico was a sister republic, on ihc North Amer ican continent, occupying a territory contiguous lo our own, and was in a feeble and distracted con dition.; and these considerations, it is presumed, induced Congress lo forbear still longer. Instead oftakiu; redress into our own hands, a new negotiation was entered upon with rail promis es on the part of .Mexico, hut u tilt the real pimmse, as Ihc event has proved, or indefinitely postponing the reparation which wc demanded, and which was so justly due. This negotiation, after more than a year's delay, resulted in ihe convention of the lllh of April, 1833, "for the adjustment of claims of citizens ol the United Slates of Amer ica upon the government of the Mexican republic." 1 he joint board or commissioners created hy this convention lo examine and decide upon these claims was not organized until Ihe month or Au gust, 18-10, and under the terms of tho convention Ihey were to terminate their duties within eighteen months from that time. Four of the eighteen mouths were consumed in preliminary discussions on frivolous and dilatory points raised by the Mex ican commissioners; and il was not until the month of December, 1840, that ihey commenced the ex amination or Ihc claims or our citizens upon Mex ico. Fourteen months only remained to examine and decide upon these numerous and complicated cases. In the month of February, 1812, the term of the commission expired, leaving many claims undisposed or Tor want or time. The claims which were allowed by the board, and by the umpire au thorized by the convention lo decide in case or dis agreement between the Mexican and American commissioners, amounted lo Iwo million twenty-six thousand one hundred and thirl) -nine dollars and slily-eight cents. There were pending before the umpire when the commission expired, additional claims which had been examined and awarded by ihe American commissioners, and had not been al lowed by the Mexican commissioners, amounting lo nine hundred and Iwcnty-cight thousand, six hundred and twenty-seven dollars and eighty eight cents, upon which he did not decide, alleging thai his authority had ceased with the. termination of the joint commission. Resides these claims, there were others of American citizens, amounting to three million three hundred and thirty-six thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven dollars and fire cents, which had been submitted lo the board, and upon which ihey had not lime to decido before their nnai adjournment. The sum of two million, twenty-six thousand one hundred and thirly-nino dollars and sixty-eight cents, which had been awarded to the claimants, was a liquidated and ascertained debt due by .Mex ico, about which there could be no dispute, and which she was bound to pay according lo the terms of the convention. Soon after the final awards for ibis amount had been made, I Ik- Mexican govern ment asked for a postponement of the time of ma king payment, alleging thai it would be inconveni ent lo make the payment at the timo stipulated. In the spirit ol forbearing kindness toward a sister republic, which Mexico has so long abused, the United Slates promptly complied with her requests, A second convention was accordingly concluded between the two governments on the thirtieth of! January, IcU.I, which upon Us lace declares iul " itiie new arrangement is entered into fur the sc. commodation of Mexico." By ihe terms of this j convention, all ihe interest due on the awards which had been made in favor of the claimants un der the convention of the eleventh of April, 1S3D, was lo be paid to them on the 30th of April, 1813, and " the principal of tin- s lid awards, and Ihc in terest accruing thereon," wis stipulated to "be paid, in five years, iu equal instalments every three mouths." Notwithstanding ibis new convention was entered into at ihc request of Mexico, and for the purpose of relieving her from embarrassment, tho claimants hive only received the interest due on Ihc thirtieth of April, 1843, and lltree of iho twenty instalments. Although the payment of the sum thus liquidated, and confessedly due by Mex ico to our citizens as indemnity for acknowledged acts oT outrage and wrong, was secured by treaty, the obligation-! of which are ever held sa cred by nil, just notions, yel Mexico has violated this solemn engagement by Tailing and refusing to make tho payment. The Iwo instalments, due in April and July, 18(1, under Ihe peculiar circum stances connected with tliem, have been assumed by the United Stales and discharged to the claim nuts, bul Ihey are still duo by Mexico. But this is not all or which we have just cause for complaint. To provide a remedy for (hp claimants whose ca ses were not decided by the joint commission un der the convention of April ihe eleventh, 1839, it was expressly stipulated by Iho sixth article of the convention of thirtieth of January, 1843, that " a new convention shall be entered into fur Ihe settle ment of all claims of the government and citizens of the United Stales against the Republic of Mex ico, Which Were not finally decided by the late com mission, which met in the city of WsshinEton..and or all claims of Ihe government and citizens of Mexico against Iho United btates. In conformity with this stipulation a third con vention was concluded and signed at Ihe city of Mexico on me twentieth ot November, lau.by tno plenipotentiaries ol Ihc Iwo governments, by which provision was made Tor-ascertaining ami paying these claims. In January, 1844, tins convention was ratified by the Senate of the United States wilh two amendments, which were manifestly reasonable In met: cnaracier, upon a relerence ol the a. mendmenls proposed to ihe government ot Mexico the same evasions, difficulties, end delays were In terposed which have ro long marked lbs policy of lint government towards Ihe united males. II has not even yel decided whether it would or would not accede- to them, although ihe subject haa been repeatedly pressed upon its consideration. Mexico has ihus violated a second time the faith of treaties, by failing or refilling lo carry into effect the Gih article of the convention of January, 184.'), Such is the history of Ihe wrongs which we ham suffered and patiently endured from Mexico through a long series of years. So far from affording rea sonable satisfaction for Ihe injuries and instills we have borne, a great aggravation of Iheui consists in the fact, thai white the United States, anxious lo preseire a good understanding wilh Mexico, have been constantly, but vainly, employed in seeking tcdrrss fur p it wrongs, new outrages were con stantly occurring, which hare continued to increase our cause of complaint and lo swell the amount of our demands. Whila Ihe citizens of the United Stales were conducting a lawful commerce wilh Mexico under tho guaranty or a treaty or " amity, commerce, and narigatinn," many or them have suffered all the injuries which would have resulted from open war. This treaty, instead of affording protection to our citizens, has been the mean or inviung ineni niiu mc puna ui nii-jur..', imai iiity might be, as lliey hive been in numerous instances, plundered oT their property and deprived of llirlr personal liberty if they dared insist on iheir rights. Had Ihe unlawful seizures of American properly, and Ihe violation of personal liberty of our citizens, In say nothing of the insults lo our dig which have occurred in the ports of Mexico, taken place on the high peas, ihey would lhemelv a long since luvr constituted a state nf actual war between the two countries. In so long suffer in j Mexico In violate her most solemn Ircary obligations, plunder our citizens of Iheir properly, and imprison their per sons without offering them any redress, we hare I failed to perform one nfthe first anil highest duties which erery government owes to us citizens ; and Ihe consequence has been, that many of lliem have been reduced from a state or affluence lo bankrupt cy. The proud name of American citizens, which ought to protect all who bear it from insult and in jury throughout Ihe world, has afforded no such protection lo our citizens in Mexico, we nan ample cause of war against Mexico long before the breaking out of hostilities. Rut even then we for bore to lake redress into our own hands, until Met' icn herself became Ihe aggressor by invading our soil in hostile arrsy and shedding the blood of our citizens. Such are ihe grave causes nf complaint on the pari of Ihe United Stales against Mexico causes which existed long before Ihe annexation of Texas lo Ihe American Union ; and yel, animated by ihe love of peace, and a magnanimous moderation, wr did not adopt those measures ol redress which, uu- Irr such circumstances, are the justified resort of injured nations. The annexation of Texas to the United States constituted no just cause of offence in Mexico. The pretext that it did so is wholly inconsistent, and ir reconcilable with well authenticated lacts connect ed with Ihe revolution by which Texas became in dependent of Mexico. That this may be the more manifest, it may be proper lo advert to Ihe cause and to the history of the principal events of that revolution. Texas constituted .a portion of ihe ancient prov ince or Louisiana, ceded In Ihc United Mates hy Franest in Ihe year 18(13. In the year 1810, the United Stales, by the Honda Irealy, ceded to Spain all that part of Louisiana within the present limits of Texas ; aod Mexico, by the revolution which separated her Irmn bpaiu, and rendered her an In dependent nation, succeeded lo the rights of Ihe mother country over this territory. In the year ltM, Mexico established a federal constitutional der which Ihc Mexican republic was composed of a number of sovereign Stales, confederated together in a federal Union similar to our own. Each of these. States had its own Executive, legislature, and judiciary, and for all except federal purposes, was as independent of the general government, and that or the other States, as is Pennsylvania or Virginia under our constitution. Texas and California uni ted and formed one nf ibese Mexican States. The Slate constitution ;hich lliey adopted, and which was approved by tho Mexican confederacy, asserled that lliey were " tree and Independent of the other Mexican United Slates, and of every other power anil dominion whatsoever;" and proclaimed Ihe great principle of tinman liberty, that, 'the sover eiguty or the Stale resides ortgiually and essentially in the general mass ol the individuals who com pose it." To Ihc government under this conslilu lion, as well as lo that under the federal constitu tion, iho people of Texas owed allegiance. Emigrants from foreign countries, including the United Slates.were invited by the colonization laws of ihe Stale and of the federal government, lo set tle in Texas, Advantageous terms were offered to induce them to leave Iheir own country and be come Mexican citizens. This invitation was1 ac copied by many of our citizcns.in Ihe full faith that in their pew home Ihey would be governed by laws enacted by representatives elected by themselves, and that their lives, liberty, and properly would be protected by constitutional guarantees similar to hose which existed in tna republic uiey had lelL Under a government thus organized they continued until the year 1835, when a military revolution broke out in Ihe city of Mexico.which entirely sub vened the lederal ami stale constitutions, and placed a military dictator at the head or tho govern ment. Br a sweeping decree or a Congress subservient lo Ihe will or Ihe dictator, the several Stale consti lutions were abolished, and the Slates themselves converted into mere departments of ihe Central Government, The people 6f Texas were unwil ling lo submit to this usurpation. Resistance lo such tyranny became a high duty, Texas was fully absolved from, all allegiance to the Ceclral Govern ment of Mexico from the moment that Government had abolished .her Slato constitution, and in Its place substituted an arbitrary and despotio Central Gprernmcnt. Such were Ihe principal causes of the Texan rev olution, 1 he people or Texas at once determined upon resistance, and. flew to arms. In Ihe midst of these important and exciting events, however, Ihey uiu no. uum io piaco tneir uorriiea upon a secure and permanent foundation. They elected mem bers la a convention, who, in the month of March, 1830, issued a formal declaration that their " polit ical connections with the Mexican nation has lor- ever ended, and thai he people of Texas do now constitute a rnsr, sovereign, and indei-endent REi'tinuc, and are fully invested with all Iho rights anu attributes which properly belong lo independ ent nations." They also adopted for Iheir govern nieut a liberal republican constitution, Annul the same ttme, Santa Anns, Ihen be dictator or Mex icn, invaded Texaa with a numerous arrny for purpose of subduing her people, and enforcing obi dience to his arbitrary and despotic govern iirn Oil the twenty first of April, 1839, he was met h; the Texan citizen soldiers, and on thai day wa' achieved by them ihe memorable victory pf San Ja cinto.by which Ihey conquered their independence. Considering the numbers engaged ou the respective sides, history does not record a more brilliant achievement. Sinla Anna himself was among Ihe captives. In the month of Mar, 1830, Santa Anna ack nowledged, by a treaty willi Ihe Texan authorities, in the most solemn forni, " the full, entire, and per fect independence of ihe republic of Texas." Il is true he was then a prisoner of war, but il is equally true that he hid failed in reconquer Texas, and had me'l wilh signal defeat; that his authority had not been revoked, and that by virtue nf this irealy he obtained his personal release. Oy it hos tilities were suspended, and Ihe army which had in vaded Texas under his command returned in pur suance of this arrangement, unmolested In Mexico. From the day that ht battle of San Jacinto was fought until the present honr.Mcxico has never pos sessed the power lo conquer Texas. In ihe lan guage of the Secretary of Stale uf the United States, in a despatch to our minister in Mcxicn.un der date of the eighth of July, 1812, " Mexic-i may have chosen to consider, and may still choose to consider Texas as having been at all times since Ickij, and as still conlinuin.a rebellious province; , I ... . I ,.u L.. I I ..I -rr but Ihe world has been obliged lo take a very differ ent view of the mailer. From Ihe lime of Ihe (ut ile at Sin Jacinto, in April, 1830, lo the present moment, 'I exas has exhibited Ihc same external signs of national independence as Mexico herself, and wilh quite as much stability of government. Practically free and independent, acknowledged as a political sovereignty by ihe principal Powers nf the world, no hostilo font finding rest within her t rritory for six or seven years, and Mexico herself refraining for all that period from any further at tempt lo re establish her own authority over that territory, it cannot but be surprising to fiod Mr. tie Bocanegra" (the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico) " complaining that for that vyhole period citizens or ihe United Stales, or ils government, have been favoring the rebels of Texas, anil sup plying them wilh vessels, ammunition, and money, as if Ihe war Tor ihe reduction of the province of lexas had been constantly prosecuted by Alextco, and her success prevented by these influences from abroad." In the same despatch the Secretary of Mate at.irms that " since 1SJ7 the United Stales have regarded Texas as an independent sovereignty as much as Mexico; Ailhat Irade and commerce wilh citizens of a government at war with Mexico cannot, on that account, be regarded as an intercourse by which assistance and succor are given lo Mexican rebels. The whole current of Mr. de Boeanezra's remarks runs in the same direction, as if the inde pendence of Texas had not been acknowledged. II lias been acknowledged il was acknowledged in 1837, against the remonstrance and protest or. Mex ico ; and most or Ihc acts, or any importance, of -- II. IF I. tt wnicu uir. ue uocanegra complains, now necessa rily from thai recognition. He speaks or Texas as still being 'an integral part of Ihe territory of the Mexican republic;' but he cannot but understand that Ihe United Stales do not so regard it. The real complaint orMexico,ihcreforr,is,in substance, neither more nor less than a complaint against the recognition or Texan independence. It may be thought rather late lo'rcpeat that complaint, and not quite just to confine it lo tho Uniicd Stales, to the exemption or England, France, and Belgium, unless the United States, having been Ihe, first tn acknowledge Ihe independence of Mexico herself, are to be blamed for setting an cxamplo for the re cognition or that or Texas." Anil he added, thai "the constitution, public treaties, and the laws oblige the President lo regard Texas as an inde pendent State, and ils territory as no pari of Ihe territory of Mexico." Texas had been an inde- pendent Slate, with an organised government, dc fying the power of Mexico to orcrthrow or re-corn quer her, for more than Icn years before Mexico commenced the present war against the United Stales. Texas had given such evidence lo the world ot her ability to maintain her separate exis tence as an independent nation, that sne had been formally recognized as such, not only by Ihe Uni ted States, but by several of the principal Powers of Europe. These Powers had .entered into trea ties of amity, commerce, and navigation with her. They had received and accredited her ministers and other diplomatic agenla at their respective courts, and they had commissioned ministers and diplomatic agents on Iheir part to the government of Texas. If Mexico, notwithstanding all this.and her utter inability to subdue or rc-connuer Texas. still stubbornly refused to recognize her as an inde pendent nation, she was none the less so on, that account. t Mtkieo herself had been recognized as an independent nation by the United Slates, and by oilier Powers, many years before Spain, of which, before her revolution, she had been a colony .would agree lo recognize ber as such, and yet Mexico was at mat inue, in Ihe estimation, or the civilized world, and In fact, none the less an independent power because Spain still claimed bar as a colonr. If Spain had continued until the present neriod lo assert t Mexico was one ot her colonies, in rs. bellioiHgaiiist her, this would not .have made her so, or changed the fact of her independent exist ence. Texas, at the period of her annexation lo the United States, boro Ihe same relation lo. Mexi co that Mexico had borne to Spain for many years before Spain acknowledged her independence, wilh this important difference thai, befare'the mnexa- lion nl leiaalo Ihe United mates was consumma led, Mexico herself by a formal act of hr govern. ment;had acknowledged iho independence of Texas as a nation. Il is true, that in the act ef recogni tion she prescribed a condition, which she had .no power or authority to impose.lhat Texas should not annex herself (o any other Power; bul this could nnt detract In any degree Irom the recognition which Mexico then made of her actual indepen dence. Upon this plain statement of facts, it is absurd for Mexico to allege as a pretext for com mencing hostilities against llio United States, that Texas is slill a part of her territory. But there are those who, conceding all this .to bo true, assume Ihe ground ihst tho true western boundary or Texas is tho Nueces, instead of the Rio Grande; and thai, therefore, in marching nur army to Ihe cast bank of the latter river, wo passed tne lexan line, anu invaded the territory or AIen co. A simple statement of facts, known to exist, will conclusively refute such an assumption. Tex. as. as ceded to lhrt ITnitAi! flistAa li ISrN ,n ifinn has been always claimed as extending west of Ihe Rio Grande or Rio Rrayp. This fact, is establish ed by the authority of our most eminent statesmen at a period when the question was as well if not better underitood than it is at nresent. During Mr. Jefferson's administration, Messrs. Manroe and Pinckney, who had been sent on special mission to Madrid, charged, among other things, with the adjustment of boundary between the two countries, Tn a note addressed lo the Spanish Min ister of Foreign Affairs, under date of the twenty eighth of January, 1805, assert that the boundaries of Louisiana, as ceded to the United States by France, " are the river Perdido on the e'ast, and the .river Dravo on Ibe-nest?' and Ihey add, that " Ihe facts and principles which justify this conclu sion are so satisfactory to our government as to convince it that tho United Slates hats not' a bet ter right lo the island of New Orleans, under tho cession referred lo, than they lis lo lo Ihe whole dis trict or territory which is above described." Down, to Ihe conclusion of the Florida treaty, in February, 1810, by which this territory was ceded o Spain, Ihe United Slates asserted and maintained Iheir territorial rights In this sxtent. In the mouth of June, 1818, during Mr Monroe's administration, information hating; been received thai a number of foreign adventureia had landed at Qalveslort, 'wilh Ihe avowed purose or forming a settlement In that vicinity, u special messenger was despatched by the government of the United States, with instruc tions from Ihe Secretary of Stale to warn them to desist, should they1 be found there, "or any other place north of Ihc Rio Bravo, and within Ihe terri tory claimed by the Uniicd Slates." He was in. struetcd, should Ihey be found in the country north or Dial river, lo mako known to them "the surprise . i i . . i ti i . t : .1 with which the President has seen possession thns taken, without authority from Ilia United States, of a placo within their territorial limns, ana upon which no lawful settlement can be made without thejr sanction." lie was instructed tn call upon them lo "avow under what national authority they profess In act," and lo gire them dne warning "that the place is within llic United States, who will suffer no permanent settlement to be made there, under any authority other 'than iheif own' i , - . , . i e t . i idia . 1 - c .... r 9 laie as ine cigillil m juiv, meoctvevarj- ui Slate of the United States, in a' note addressed to our minister in Mexico, maintains that, by the Flor ida Irealy or 1810, Ihe territory as farwest as the Rio Grande, was confirmed to Spain. In that note he stales thai, "hy the Irealy nf the twenty-second or February, 1810, between the United States and Spain, the Sibine was adopted as ihe line or boun dary between Ihe Iwo Powers.. Up to that period, no considerable colonization hail been cnectcd In Texas; but Iho territory between the Sabino'and the Rio Grande being confirmed to Spain by the treaty, applications were made to that Powcr'for, grants or land, and such grants, or permission of settlement, were in fact made by the Spanish au thorities in favor or citizens of the United States proposing to emigrate to Texas in' numerous fam ines, Deiorc lue uccisrauon ui wurpciiuciito uj Mexico." The Texas which was ceded to Spain by the Flor- ida irealy of 1810 embraced all Ihe country now claimed by the Slate of Texas between the Nueces .. n ' n , ,,r f r i . anainexuouranue. a nercpuuiicoi iciasaiwara claimed the river as Iicr western boundary, and in her treaty made with Santa Anna, in May, 1830, ho recognized il as audi. By the constitution which Texas adopted in March, 1830, senatorial and llrc?cmailicx uiaincu snc urjjam&cu CAiciiumg west of the Nueces. The Congress of Texas, on the nineteenth pf December, 1830, passed an 'Act lo define the boundaries of Ihe republic or lexas,' in which tbey declared the Rio Grande from' its mouth to its source lo be their boundary, and by the said act they extended their 'civil and political jurisdiction' over the country up Id that boundary. During a period of more than nine years, which in tervened between the adoption ot tier constitution and her annexation as one or the States of our Un ion, Texas asserted, and exercised many acts of sovereignty and jurisdiction over tho territory and inhabitants westnf the Nueces. She organized and defended ihe limits of counties extending to the Rio Grande- She established a custom house, and collected duties, and also post offices snd post roads, in it. She established a land office and is sued numerous grants for land, within ils limits. A Senator and a Representative residing in it wern elected to the, Congress of Iho republic, and served as such before Ihe, act of, annexation took place In both, the Congress and Convention of Texas, which gave their assent to the terms of annexation to .the Uuitcd. States, proposed by our Csngress, were representatives residing west of the Nueces, who look part, in the act of annexation itself. Tilts' was the Texas which, by the act of our Congress of Ihe twenty-ninth of December, 1345, was cd mil ted as one of the Slates of our Union. Thai, the Congress of the Unite-! Statea underitood the State of Texas which lliey admitted into tho Union, to extend beyond the Nueces, is apparent from tho fact, that on the.thirlj-Crttbf December, 1845, on' ly two days after the act o admission, .they paued a law 'to establish a collection district' in' the Sunt ofTexas,' by which Ihey created a port of delivery at Corpus Christi, situated west of the Nueces, auj being the same point at which the Texas custom house, under the lawa of that republic, had been located, and directed that a surveyor to eollect th revenue should be appoiutcd.for the? port, by tin. President, by and with the advice 'and consent 'ot the Senate, A surveyor-waa accordingly nominal, ed, and confirmed by the. Senate, and has been etv . ersjoce in performance of bis duties. All' these acts of the republic ofTexas, and of our' Con grew, preceded Ihc orders for the advance of our army to ihe.casi bank of the Rio Grande. Bubss- -qoently, Congress passed an act 'establishing cer tain post routes,' extending west of theiNueces. The. country west of tbat river now constitutes a part of one of the Congressional districts, of Texas', and ia represented inthellouso of Representatives.' . The Senators from thai State were chosen by legislature in which .the country west of ihst river " -was represented. In view of all these fads, it is difficult lo conceive upon what ground it can be .maintained that, in occupying the country of the Nueces, with nur army,; with a view solely to its se- " curity and defence, we invaded tho territory of Mexico. But it would have, been still more diffi cult to justify the Executive, whose duty it is to see ' ' ; thai ihe laws be faithfully executed, if in the face of all these proceedings, both of the Congress of' Texas, and of tho United Slates, he had assumed the responsibility of yielding up the territory .west : of the Nueces to Mexico, or of refusing to protect and defend this territory and its inhabitants, incliid ing Corpus Christi, as well as the remainder' of Texasj against the threatened Mexican invasion. ' But Mexico herself has never placed the war, which she has waged, upon the ground tbat our army occupied the intermediate' territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. Her refuted pretension tbat Texas was not in fact au independ ent Stalbut rebellious province, was obstinate ly persevered in ; and her avowed purpose in com mencing .war with the United States was to recon quer Texas and to restore Mexican authority over the whole, territory not lo the Nuecea oqly, buttn the Sabine, In view of Ihe proclaimed menaces of i Mexico Iq ihia, effect,.! deemed it ray duty, as a ' measure of precaution and defence, lo order our, . army to occupy a position ou our frontier as a mil itary post, from which our troops could best resist ( Bet. fourth page.)