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VOLUME XIV.
BRATTL.13H O KO, FRIDAY, JUNE , 184S.
NUMBER 42.
ttetmrrra
!
FITCHBU RG!
A. 7. BROWN & CO.
INVITE tlie altcndon of Merchants to the under
mentioned, and & great variety of oilier Goods,
which they will sell by the package, or repacked, at
most Extruoriilimry Lew l'rlccs.
CROCKKKY WAKE.
Cratci Flowing Blue Ware, different patterns, very
handsome and cheap;
" Light lllue Printed Ware i
" Dark do do
' Blue Edged do
44 Cream Colored do
41 Yellow Stone do
14 Fancy colored do
China Ware.
llhdj. Broad Gold Band Tea Seti and llatci
41 Gold Edge an I Lino do do
u Bronzed liaised Figure do do
41 Blue do do do do
44 White French and English do do
GfjJiSS WARE.
Calks Tumblers, SOOO dot ray cheap
- &s,!xi
Dishes ou foot,
' do off foot.
Jewelers' Globes.
H Celeries,
Jars Glass Covcri
" do Tin do
u Preserve dUhcs, all sizes ;
Boxes Solar ami Cam phi ne Chimnte f ,
M Salts. Pressed and Cu:
" Epjt Glasses,
M Goblets, some rery rich Cntj
" Curtain linst
" Candlesticks.
Ks-GEItMAXM(fGS AXD VASKSca
AU
A Great Variety of Fancy Articles.
Kritniiuia Ware.
A large aortment, consisting of Codec and Tea
1'oti, Castors, Cups, Murs, Lamps, &C.,
VERT CIIKU.
IPJMP2S13 sii.s?v&nssc&s0
10,000 I'lcce Price 5 cents per piece and
upwards printed and plain i lllue and Green Cur
tain papers.
Cutlery and Tea Trays,
Of onr own importation, at 20 per cent less than
Hardware Importers prices.
SILVER PLATED WARE.
Ctors, Table, Dessert and Tea Spoons, and
Butter Kuires, at Manufacturers prices.
C7"0ar concerns were the first, AXD ARE
KOW'IllE ONLY OSES selling these Goods
on the modem system of Low Trices, Small Trouts,
and Large Sales.
A. J. BROWN & CO.,
IVo. 1, Central Uloclt,
riTcunuito,
And 142 Main Street,
WOUCESTEB, Itln.s.
Fitchhurg, March 15, 1 848. 3mU33
Millinery & Dress Making,
Sign of the big Blue Bonnet.
MRS. E. HIiYCKLEY,
GIlAXEtUL. to uie Lduies or iiratticiioro ana
vicinity for their patronage, while she has ex
erted herself to furnish lliem with the bestand molt
approved stiles of Millinery that could possibly he
disposed of in the country, sho would say that she
has lust returned from New York with a more tx-.
tensive assortment than usual consisting of the
following:
Shirred Bonnets,
Neapolitan Lace, Bird's Eye,
Rough and Heady, Cor'd ItuUand,
Fr. 13 Ends, Gcncvcse, Coburg,
Milan Edge, Fr. Rutland,
French Laces, English Straws,
Uunstablcs.
"Whirl, ihe will dispose of as few as can be purcJtased.
Itlhhnn.. Lace. Flowers. Cans, Collars. Hand
kerchiefs, Fringes, a variety of Cords and Edgings,
mounting ltoniscts, Grave Clothes, tc.
Mantillas and Dress Patterns.
rr?-Dresses Cut in the most approved styles.
rjyBONN'ETS Bleached ond Pressed in no in
ferior manner, and on short notice.
WANTED, Apprentices well recommended, for
r. tnrtnthn. Immediately.
Brattleboro, May 4, 1818. 37.
jyjG UERRKOTYPRS.
The Vermont Dagncrrlnn Gallery
IS now being fitted up anew in Halts Long Build
inq. It will bo opened fur the reception of visit
ors, May loth, 1848, when the propne'ors will be
happy to have a call from the citizens generally,
and lo show them our spetimens j also our assort
ment ol Gold Lockets, which will be sold very
cheap, by the single one or by the dozen.
Operators that arc in want of Lockets will find it
for their advantage to give them a call before pur
chasing at Boston or other places,
Abo, will bo kept et their Gallery a large assort
ment of Hates, Cases, Chemicals and cverjr tiling
appertaining to Ihe Daguerreotype line, which will
be sold at city prices. The patronage of operators
in this section or the country is respectfully soiiciiea.
rry Likenesses taken or deceased persons also
from Paintings, Duguerreotvpes, Engravings, &e.
Pupils thoroughly instructed In the art. and fur
nished with instruments, if desired,
O. II. COOLEY,
GEO. S, WEST.
Hay 4th, 1818. 37
BOOTS
Shoes,
Rubbers,
THE Subscriber lias on hand, (I do not say the
Unrest stock ever ottered in Windham County.)
yet I hare acood assort men t of Ladies', Gentle"
men's, Misses , Children's and Boys' Boots, Shoes,
U liter ana itunoers, wnicit i oner ion tor lain,
nyliubbers by the Doz. at ibo lowest prices.
N. B. ManufsWturini: of all kinds of Ladies'. Gen
tlemcn's. Misses Jind Children's Bootees and Shoes
done at short noiW, at tho old Stand.
T. SIM0ND3.
Brattleboro, Nor, 10, 1817. 12
AT CHASE & CflANDALL'S
Gentlemen's Furnishing Store,
MAY he found a large assortment of StocLs,
Bilk and Satin Scarfs, French Yoke Neck
Shirts, Bosoms, Collars, Bilk and Cotton Hosiery,
French KM and Wash Leather Gloves, Lisle Thread
and Cotton dos Baspcndcrs, Shirts and Drawers,
Dressing Gowns, Gaiters, Umbrellas, &c.
N. B. Shirts made to order at short notice.
Mays, 1818. 37
G. C. HALLj
HAS the greatest bargains in DRV GOODS
to be found in Brattleboro. His stock, pun has
el in New York and Boston. la extensive, embrac-
ins all seasonable descriptions. And he will sell
for cash at a very small advance.
rolnshniw! Lime
Oil SALE br J. C. MF.1UULL.
Hinsdale, March 16. 10
Speech of 3Ir Uplmni,
ON Tim TEN KKQIMKNT HILL,
In the United Slalet Senate, February IS, 1818.
Mr President : I do tint know, sir, that
I ahull bo nblc, in the humblo pari 1 am
about to take in this debate, to imparl any
thing uf interest or freshness lo the subject,
or to tiring any new contribution of facta to
bear upon the question propose lo discuss.
Almost every tnpic connected with, or
growing out of the existing war wilh Mex
ico, has been alluded luand ably comment
ed upun by honorable Senators who hare
preceded me on the floor. Hut, sir, exhaust
ed as Ihe subject is, I cannot content myself
with a silent tote on Die question.
Believing, as 1 do, that under existing
aws, our force in Mexico can be increased
to nearly sixty-five thousand men, and th si
the more rigorous prosecution of the war for
the purpose note avowed, would be dishonor
able to the country, 1 shall be compelled lo
record my vole against ibis bill, Bui, 1
shall da it, sir, with no view lo embarrass
the Executive in his efforts for an honor
able peace ; but to prevent Ihe forcible dis
memberment of a weak, distracted sister
republic, and to preserve untarnished Ihe
lair lame or the country, which I prize
infinitely higher than any territorial acqui
sitions uc can make, or any glory uc can
win, by the success of our arms. The hon
orable Chairman uflhc Committee on Mil
itary Affairs, in his eloquent remarks the
other day, in support ol llns hill, expressed
a desire that it might pass without opposi
tion, and that Ihe discussion, which he wns
awsre would arise upon the war policy of
the Administration, and which he hid no
desire to avoid, might be. had upon some
other measure, hereafter lo come before
the Senate. This bill, lie thought, was
safe and common ground, upon which we
could all meet and act together. Sir, safe
as tho honorable Senator may think tho
ground to be on which lie stands, 1 cannot
occupy it with him, because, in my judg
menl, it is dangerous ground.
When Texas was annexed lo t lie United
Slates, its western boundary was left an
open question, to be settled by negotiation,
between the Mexican (overnmcnt and ours.
The President, in his message of May lllh,
1S4U, inlormcd (uongress that a strong de
sire to regulate and adjust our boundary
and other causes of difference with Mexico,
cn fair and cquiiable principles, induced
him, in September, 1845, to seek the re
opening of diplomatic regulations between
the two countries; that the Mexican Gov
ernment, in October following, agreed lo
receive a minister from the United Slates
invested with full potters to settle and ad
just every existing difference; and thai ihe
Mexican Government had nol only refused
lo receive him. or to listen lo his proposi
tions, but, after n lonz continued series of
menaces, had invaded our territory, and
shed the blood of our fellow-citizens ou our
own soil. This mcssaie was accompanied
by about one hundred and fifty pages of
manuscript documents, t lie uruai motion
to print the document, was made, but it
wss toled donn by petulors on mc otner
side of the chamber. A call for the read-
ins was then made, but lliat also wns refus
ed, and the bill ol the lllin Jlay, itHo, was
passed by'a vote of forty jeas to two nays.
The uniformilv with which this bill was
passed, has been frequently referred to as et-
loeuce to snow mat uongress was oiuiusi
unanimously of the opinion that Mexico
commenced the war. The President, in
his last, animal message, referred to it for
that purpose. Hr-says, in substance, thni
Congress, by the act of the lUili.May, IS IO,
declared, with ureal unanimity, thai 41 by
the act of the rrpuhlic of Mexico, a stale of
war exists helueeu that Uuvcrumenl ana
the Unilcd States, Micro being but two neg
alive totes in Ihe Senate and fourteen in
the House of Representatives." Now, sir,
I piounse lo present lo the Senate and
the country all the facts connected with ihe
passage of that bill. The bill originated in
Ihe House of Representatives. On the
27lh of January, 1840, Mr Haralson, from
the committee on Military Affairs, repotted
a bill to authorize the President of ihe Uni
ted Stales, under certain circumstances
I herein mentioned, m accept the services of
volunteers, and for other purposes. On the
lllli of May, Mr Drinkcrhoff moicd to
amend the bill by insetling a new section
with a preamble, in Ihe words following:
44 Whereas, by the act of ihe republic of
Mexico, a slate or war exists between mat
Government and the United Sllaes." The
amendment was carried by a vole of 123
yeas to 07 nays; and, op (he same day, the
hill passed Ihe House by a vote ol 17-1 to
14. So it appears that til members oi ine
House voted against the prtapible to the
bill.
Well, sir, what is Ihe history (if this bill
in Ihe Senate) On ihp 13th of' May, it
came up for consideration, and Mr Hunting'
ton, then a Senator from Connecticut, since
deceased, moved lo amend it by striking
out the preamble: and the journal shows
thai the motion failed by a vote of 18 yeas
lo S3 nays all the Senators on this side of
Ihe chamber, wilh Ihe exception ol three,
voted in the affirmative. A motion was
then made by Ihe honorable Senator from
Kentucky, (Mr Crittenden,) lo take
vole upon the preamble alone, but the chair
ruled that U could not be separated Irom
the bill, and the motion was decided out of
order. The bill was then pressed to a tote
and passed yeas 40, nays 3. Mr Derrien,
Mr L'tsns, Mr Huntington, and Mr Cab
houu declining lo vole, and eleien Senators
on 1 1 lis side oflhe chamber voting yea with
a protest azauist the preamble lo the bill.
1 his, sir, is a concise history ol me prog'
ress of the bill through the two nouses ol
Congress,
Now, I ask, in all candor, what excuse
can the President render to the country fur
asserting in his message, thai both branches
of Congress, wilh grc.il unanimity, declared
lliat the war existed by Ihe net of Mexico,
there bciim hut fourteen ncaalive votes in
the House of Representatives and two in
the Senate! Sir, ihe journal oflhe House
shows 07 negative votes, mid the journal .of
Ihe Senile shows 18, tT.akjng ,i,n .ihe .whple
CO.
Mr Clavton. Will tho Sinolor allow
mo a word T
Mr UriiAM. Certiinly.
Mr Clavton. At the time the bill pass
ed this Senate, those of us who volcd for its
passage after our failure in the effort to
striko out the preamble, as tho Senator
from Vermont has staled, put to the gentle
men on the oilier side the excessive hard
ship of calling upon us to tote for a bill,
the object of which was to ecml supplies for
the army, with a preamble containing a
statement of a matter of Tact of which nc
had not ctidencc before us. We repeat
edly demanded the separation of ihe two
propositions, but tho separation was refus
ed, the President of the Scurtc deciding
that we had no right lo call firs division
of the question. Then we insisted upon it
that we should have the right to vole upon
Ihe bill protesting against the preamble.
And 1 lie Senator from Missouri now in my
eye will recollect perfectly what he said on
that occasion, that such would be our right ;
and such was Ihe understanding, that if we
gave our votes in favor of ihe bill, we were
lobe regarded as ruling for the supplies,
but not in favor of the preamble. This is
the simple fact of the case, and that such
was Ihe understanding is well known. A
Senator now deceased, (Mr Speight,) dis
tinctly, and over and over again, slid itiat
such wns ihe understanding wilh regard to
our vote, ll is a gross miscnncrplinn,
then, to suppose that we voted for I lie pre
amble, or ever meant to vole for it. I hopo
this statement will be sumeieut In present
any injustice bring done us upon llns sub
ject in nil future time.
Mr Criiist. I thank the honorable sen
ator for the additional information he has
given upon ihe subject the country should
have the whole truth in regard to the mat
ter. Appcols were frequently mode lo Sen
ator on the other side of the chamber, to
strikeout the preamble to the bill, as no ei-
deucc ol lis truth had been exhibited, and
lake a unanimous vote for the supplies; but
Ibey refused lo do it. We must vote for the
bill as it was, they said, or take Ihe respon
sibility of voting against it. General Tay
lor had been ordered lo the left bank of the
llio Grande with a small force, and fpars
were entertained, that he would be unable
to sustain himself without reinforcements;
and the bill was passed for his relief. No
intimation was made by Ihe Kxccutive, that
the war had been waged wilh a view to the
permanent acquisition of Mexican territory
by conquest. The message declared it to
be a war of defence, and. not of aggression.
Mexico," says the message, " has passed
Ihe boundary of the United Stales, has in
vaded our territory, and shed American
blood upon the American soil," To en
able the President lo repel this invasion,
and 44to prosecute Ihe wsr to a sneedr and
successful termination," I oted for the hill
of Ihe Wilt May, 1840. Well, sir, what
said the President in regard to the wor, in
Ins message or December, 1B4ui Hear
his language :
I he war has not been waged witn a
view to conquest: but I1at1n2lx.cn com
menced by Mexico, it has been carried into
the enemy's country, and will be vigorous
ly prosecuted there, with a view to obtain
n honorablo peace.
Hjrc, sir, conquest, 44 with a view lo per
manent occupancy of Mexican territory.
is disavowed. The war had been carried
into Mexico, to cripple her power, and
Compel her lo make an honorable peace.
a - .( . n : i.. I... -C
sgain, sir, liie 1 resiueni, 111 ins message ui
August 4th, Icltj, says:
"Lnually anxious lo terminate, by
peace honorable tn both parties, as 1
originally lo avoid the existing war, I hare
deemed it my duty again lo extend the olive
branch tn Mexico. Miould the tjoi em
inent of that republic accept Ihe offer, in
the same friendly spirit by which it was dic
tated, negotiations will speedily commence
for Ihe conclusion of a treaty."
"1 veace honorable to both parlies" was
the object desired. "The chief difficulty
to be anticipated in the negotiation," says
the President
Is the adjustment of the boundary be
tween the parties, by a line which shall be
at once satisfactory and convenient lo both,
ml such as neither will herealicr be in
clined to disturb. This is the best mode of
ccurinz perpetual peace and good neigh
borhood between the iwo republics.
Should the Mexican Government, in order
to accomplish these objects, be willing lo
cede any portion ol their territory lo me
United Stales, we ought to pay them a fair
equivalent ; a just and honorable peace,
and not conquest, being our purpose in uie
prosecution oflhe war,"
1 he boundary question was trie matter
in dispute between ihe Iwo countries and
should the Mexican Government, for Ihe
purpose of establishing a line convenient
for both parlies, be Killing to cede a portion
of territory to the Vniltd States, we ought
to vail a fair equitaltnt for it. No ces
sion ol territory was to be required without
the free consent or the Mexican Govern
ment. But this is not all, sir; the Presi
dent asked for an appropriation nff3,000
(100, to enable hint to advance a portion of
the consideration money, lor any cession
of territory the Mexican Government might
bo willing lo make. 1 lie character anu
objects 'of Ihe war laving lee., thus an
nounrcd lo (Jointress ana trie country. 1,
with most ol the senators on this side ol
the chamber, at the last session of Con
gress, volcd men and money tor its prose
ecnlion, .....
Bui, sirs I will leave Ihis subject and pass
to a oriel renew oi me measure which oc
casioned the war, viz : the annexation o
Texas, and the order of ihe 13lh of Jan
uary, 1840, tor Ihe march of the army from
Corpus Christi lo the left bank of Ihe Rio
(jrande. for these two measures Ihe dem
ocratic party and the President are respon
sible. And I thereloro charge upon them
this war, and all the blood and treasure it
has cost Ilia country. The annexation of
lexoa was n party measure. It was
scheme, devised by the democracy of tin
soulh, to prevent the abolition of slavery in
Texas; and, when first announced, il met
with no favor from Ihe democracy of ihe
north. Jt was denounced wilh great vio
lence, and in language somewhat ollcn
aive, by the parly press, and in Iho convert
liqns qf the neoplr, The Globe, the lead-
ing ilcmocralic press in this city, joined in
tho opposition, nud II was continued up lo
the triceting ol the democratic convention
in llatinmore in May, Hit. Now, sir, a.
the Ik tiorablo Senator Iruat Illinois thought
it his il'uly lo convey throigh llio Senate to
tho cou'iitry the denunciations of a portion
of the r.lergy and Ihe press against tho wsr
of 1813. 1 will fnllciiv hit example, and
present in iho Senate tho denunciations of
I lie northern democracy agaisst the annex
at ion of Texas, when the scheme was first ,
announced to the country. 1 shall do Ibis, I
sir, with tto view lo cast reproach upon the August last, of the designs of Knglaml up
people of Texas, but to show fiat, with Ihe Inn Texas', which is made the foundation of
northern democracy, obligation! to country
are sot nelimcs overcome by oligatiuns to
py- . .
Un tile viuin 01 November, I84U, the
Dover O az.Ule, N. II., a democratic psper.
in an article against annexation, ipoke of
Texas in the following language :
"Tcxos cair hardly ho in a worse stale
than it is now- tho most wicked, rill, God
abandoned place of which wo have any
knowledge -its history would makt the
sovage blush with shame.
Vet there are some who desire lo effect an
union between T txas and this country, as
if wc had not enough guill and crime al
ready upon our shoulders. Mi wijA rather
thnl tee could j!l an impassable gulf biluetn
ui and ill borders, that ill breath of pn
lilcnce might never reach our shores.
Heaven save us from a union with Texas."
The New Hamoslrire Nashua Gnzctic
(democratic paper) ol November 1), 184:1,
in speaking of the annexation of Texas,
said :
"The object and design Ihronghout all
is as black as Ink bitter as hell."
"Wc hope, and sincerely trust there will
be no truckling on the pa rt of our northern
representatives, when fhU mighty project
shall come up before Lheni in all us ques
tionable stirpes.'1
The New Hampshire Patriot (democratic
paper) of November SJ, 1813, speaking of
annexation, said:
"He, (Ihe President) and his gang will
probably atlempt to throw this question into
Congress as a fire brand. Il may produce
mischief, but we trust the democrats hsie
good sense enough to avoid being distract
ed by the acts of the enemy."
m.- r n ... ' - . T I , 1 : . .
t lie svuit'i u.tciic, isnw j'4iip"ir,
in Ihe fall of 18-13, in an article aainn. the .
admission of Texas, among other thing.,
said :
"The admission of Texas into lhf Union
uould be a public disgrace, and ilisgrace
us in Ihn eyes of the civilized woi'ld. Il
would array against us the moral influence
of all Christendom, and draw upon its the i
just retribution of an offended God."
At a democratic convention hclit at
Headfield, Maine, in Ihei.ummer of 18-13,
to nominate a candidal, tor. Oongrs-ss for
the 3d Congressional District, the follow
ing resolution was adopted :
"llciolred. Thai ihe-impropriety-and In
expediency of the annexation of Texas to
tho United Stales, oppose insuperable ob
jections toils admission into the Union-;
and that the silly representation of federal
presses, that the democratic party are in
alliance with Ihe slave power oflhe South,
in a syslemstic design to effect the admis
sion of Texas, is entirely unsupporled'by
any facts, or by the slightest indications in
any quarter, giving such a supposition the
appearance of truth ; and is, therefore, a
willul and deliberate labricatten ol tne iei
eral party for base and partisan purpose s." I
jiere, nir rrcsiacni, we novo mo uos
of the patriotic democracy of the 3d Con
gressional District in Maine upon the sub
ject of Texas annexation. The charge that
the democratio parly were in favor of Ihe
measure, is declared to be a wilful false
hood, uttered by Ihe federal parly for base
and partisan purposes. But, sir, Ihis hos
tility to annexation was nol confined to the
3.1 Congressional District in Maine; tho
democracy of the whole Slalo opposed it
by strong resolutions passed in the House
ol llepretentatires in the winter ol tel.).
Here, sir, are tho resolutions ol Ihe Dem
ocratic Legislature of Massachusetts passed
in IBJ:i:
"Resolved, That under no circumstances
whatever, can the people of Massachusetts
regard the proposition to admit 1 cxas into
Ihe Union, in any other light than as dan
gerous to its continuance in peace, in pros-
enly, and In the enjoyment of those bhsss-
ngs which il is the object of a free govern
ment to secure.
Hesolved, That the Senators and Repre
sentatives of Massachusetts, in Ihe Con
gress or Ihe United States, bo requested lo
spare no exertions to oppose and, if pos
sible, to prevent the adoption of tho prop
osition referred lo.
Resolved, Thai his Excellency, tho Gov
ernor, be requested to transmit one eopy of
these resolutions to the Executive of each
of Ihe United Stales, and a like copy lo
each Senator and Representatives in Con
gress from Massachusetts."
The democracy of Massachusetts regard
ed the admission of Texas into ihe Union
as dangerous to ils perpetuity, and under
no circumstances whatever, could they con
sent to it.
Ex-President Van Buren in a letter to
Mr Hammctt, under dale of April 20, 1844,
opposed annexation, because, in his judg
ment, il would inrolre us in a war with
Mexico.
And Ihe Washington Globe of Iho first of
May, 1844, contains the following editorial
article :
"We concur with Mr Van Buren fully
and cordially in this view, and say it is Ihe
only wise, honorable, safe, and practicable
course. Mexico and Texas are now at
war: the armistice adm'Hs it, (a circum
stance nl which we were nol apprised when
wo wrote our first article on tins subject ;)
and lo adopt the Texans as our citizens al
ihis finis, is to make ourselves a parly lo
Ihe war, and lo tske upon ourselves the
business of its conclusion, either by nepu-
tiation or by arms. Il requires no declara
tion of war from Mexico to involve us.
From Ihe moment we admit Texas, we
make her territory of ihe Union; and it
would he unlawful and punishable in her to
treat wilh Mexico or to fight alone wilh
M.;,o Th United Stales alone could
treat or fight ; and thus, from tho day of
the tatiriealion of Ihia treaty. hr unilcd
States) and Mexico would bo at war; com
merce between Ihein would cease, and they
Mould remain tl war, ami co.niiirrce re
main broken up, until the negotiation or ihe
arms of the Uuiled States terminated llic
sdopie I n ar This is clear common sense,
and no one can deny it,"
"Wc hate been looking a little further in
Iho published documents which accompany
ihe treaty, and every step amazes us moro
and more. We find that Lord Aberdeen
and the llrilish Minister here utterly deny
the DulTGrecn slorv. sent from l.oi.ilnn in
this whole proceeding. We believe it can I
easily be proved, that the whole scheme of
getting un the Texas question, nrcciselr as
Ihil question now is, existed long before
DulTUreen furnished that pretext, snd that
all this story of Urilislt interference, now
pul fori It as Iho pretext for the moment,
has been invented since the movement wis
organized." f7"o6r, .1 4, 184 1.
"If Ihe General Government should lako
Ihis step, in violation oflhe treaty wilh Mex
ico, would Iho character of our country he
lefl to our posterity the same noble and
honorable inheritance which was handed
down to us by Washington, Jefferson, and
Jackson ?
"Wc do nol beliere Ihe great mass of our
countrymen are willing to sacrifice the hon
or, the renown, and Ihe real glory of this
eminlry (or any earthly acquisition. Iflhcn,
Texas has admitted, by a solemn procla
mation, the existence of a war between her
self ami Mexico; if the Government of the
Unilcd Slates has, by a solemn official doc
iiment, declared its full knowledge that ihis
is the state of the relations between Texas
and Mexico, how can Ihe President and
Senate of ihe United Slates, without sacri
ficing the honor of the country, adopt this
war with Mexico, in the face of our Ireaty
of peace with that countri" Globe, May
15, 1511.
Here, sir, we have not only n full en
dorsement of Mr Van Huron's view against
annexation, but a strong argument showing
thai Mexico and Texas were al war, and
lliat the adoption of the measure would
make us a parly In the war, and compel us
lo bung il to a conclusion, cither by nego
tiation or by arms. . .
t he ground I assume is, that the Icrri-
Icry between the Nueces and the llio
Urande being disputable, and most of it
in possession of Mexico, the President had
no right lo lake forcible possession of il,
even if it rightfully belonged In the stale ol
Texas, without authority from Congress,
We have had many questions of disputed
boundary with foreign nations, and no ad
mautralion, except Ibe present, ever
thought of taking forcible possession of the
disputed territory. Our north-eastern Imuis
dary was in di-pule from Ihe peace of 1783
lo 1812, and no attempt was made by any
of our Presidents lo lake possession, by
force, of the territory wc claimed. lint,
Mr Presidcnl, various pretences have been
set up to justify ihe march of our army to
the left bank oflhe Rio Grande. The hon
orable Senator from Maryland, (Mr John
son,) in his eloquent speech upon this ques
tion said, ihsl the United Stales had re
ceived the republic of Texas into the Union
uilhoul antecedently defining her bounda
ries, aim under a constitution including Ihe
disputed territory; and, therefore, Ihey
were bound to defend it. Sir. the constitu
tion of Texas, formed after the passage of
Ihe resolution of annexation, and under
which she was admitted as a elate of this
Union, did nol define her south-western
boundary that was left an open question
lo be settled by negotiation between Ihe
Unilcd Slates and Mexico. Again, Mr
President, the honorable Senator said that
Mexico had mustered an army on the Rio
urande with the declared object or inva
ding Texas, and recovering the whole lo
her own sovereignly, and that wc had
clear, undeniable right to meet her there
rind striko lite first bloir. But I understood
'.he Sejiator to admit, that our right lo
meet her there and strike tho blow could
lie justified only upon the principle of self-
defence. If we were in no danger of a
blow from Mexico if she had no force
collected for the invasion of Texas, then
our march into the disputed territory was
an uujustihaulo act or hostility. Now, sir.
where is tha evidence that Mexico had
mustered an army on the Rio Grande wilh
Ihe declared object or invnding and con
nucting Texas! Did Ihe President say any
thing oflhe kind in his message of Ihe lllh
ol May, 181G, uifbrming Congress that he
hail ordered: the army to the le It bank ol
the Rio Grande! No, sir, he assigned no
such reason for the order. He said in that
message thai our force remained al Corpus
Christi until after he had received such in
formation from Mexico as rendered it prob
able, if not certain, that the Mexican Gov
ernment would refuse to receive our envoy.
Our army, then, wns ordered lo occupy Ihe
leu hank or Ihe Km Urande, because the
President apprehended lhat Mexico would
reject our envov. Now, Mr President, to
show that Mexico had. mustered no army
ou Ihe Rio Grsndo with a view lo the inva
sion of Texas, and that the President knew
it, when he issued the order of the 13th Jan
uary, 1640, T call the attention of- the Sen
ate and ihe country lo Gen. Taylor's cor
respondence wilh the War Department
while he remained at Corpus Christi.
In a .despatch to the Wor Department,
dated Carpus Chrisli, August 30, 1845,
Gen. Taylor sava lhat
"Caravans ol traders arrive- occasionally
j . . . ,, .
from the Rio Grande, but bring no news of
initmrlance. They represent thai there are
no regular troops ou that river, except al
Matamoras, and do not seem to he aware
of any preparations for a- demonstration on
mm 3IUG .' .,,.1.
On Iho Orh of September, IB-lo, in on-
other despatch, he snjs ;
"1 hava- the Honor to- report mai a conn
dentinl agent, despatched some days since
to Mnl.iuioras. has returned, and reports
that no extraordinary preparation are go
ing forward there; that the garrison does
nol seem to- have been increased, and lhal
our consul is of opinion there will be no
declaration of war.
Again, in another despatch of Septem
ber l llh. 18-15. Gen. Tavloraays:
"We have no news of Interest from the
M"l?.r; W;'"lt '", ccoun,,' w"
nt Mier. hut without nnv f7if-- ntip 1.
there, as jet, any concentration of troops
on ihe river."
In a despatch under date of October
lllh, I84A, he says that
"Recent arrivals from the Rio Grande
bring no news, or information of a different
aspect from thai which I reported in my
lack. i iii; iivitb r.presscii sis pietiuus com
munications relstivc lo Ihe pacific dirpos':-
ii-mi oi ihe border people ou both sides of
.ui. ant, air
And in another despatch under date of
January 7, 1840, he says :
"We have many arrivals from Mslamn
ras and other points ou the river, but they
bring no intelligence of interest. A recent
scout oT volunteers from San Antonio
struck the river near Presido, Rio Grande,
and the commander reports everything quiet
in that quarter."
Who, Mr Presidcnl, with Ihis evidence
before him, can say lhat Gen. Taylor, on
the I3lh of January, 1SI0 was ordered lo
the Rio Grande to meet and repel a .Mexi
can army there collected for Ihe invasion of
Texas! On the 7lh of January, nnly six
days before Ihe order was issued, Gen. Tay
lor informed the President that every thing
was quiet in lhat quarter. But, sir, Ihe
honorable Senator from Illinois, (Mr Doug
lass,) has attempted lo justify ihe order, on
another ground. He sats it was issued on
Ihe recommendation and at the request of
Gen. Taylor. If this were true it would be
no justification for ihe President. The ex
pediency of such a measure was a question
for Congress lo settle. General Taylor had
nothing to do with it. But, Mr President,
ihe army was nol ordered In the Rio Grande
on the recomendalinn of General Taylor.
All he said upon the subject is contained in
his letter tn ihe War Department, under
dale of October -1th, 1845, more than three
months before he received orders lo leave
Corpus Christi. In that Idler he say. :
"It will he recollected that the instruc
tions of June the loth, issued by Mr Ban
croft, then Acting Secretory of War, di
rected mc to select and occupy, on or near
the Rio Grande, such a site as will consist
wilh ihe health of the troops, and will be
best adapted repel invasion." itc.
After assigning the reason, which induc
ed him tn concentrate his force at Corpus
Christi, he proceeds as follows:
"It is with great deference that I make
any suggestions on topics which may be
come mailer of delicate negotiation ; but if
our government, in settling the quetinn of
boundary, makes the lino of the Rio Grande
an ultimatum, I cannot doubt that the set
tlement will be facilitated and hastened by
our taking possession at once of one or Iwo
suitable poinls on or quite near that river.
Our strength and slate of preparation
should be displayed in a manner not to be
mistaken."
II our Government had determined, at all
events. In make the Rio Grande the nest
em boundary of Texas, the sooner we let
.Mexico know it the belter. This is ihe
sum and suhstsuco of all General Taylor
said upon the subject. His suggestion was
based upon the ground that Ihe line of the
Rio Grande was our ultimatum.
Mr President, there must hive been, at
the bottom of this movement, something
more than a desire to settle upon just and
honorable terms Ihe western boundary ol
Texas ; and I will endeavor lo show what
it iv.k. Our fintrf-rntnent wai aware that
the annexation of Texas would give oflence
In U..I.A -...I - - r. fT . I mJ. ,n , .1 1" (1 M
cilc her In the measure. On the l'Jlh of
April, 1844, Mr Calhoun, ihe Secretary of
Siale, directed Mr Green, our Charge
d'Aflaires in Mexico, to iufurm that Gov
ernment thai a treaty for the annexation of
Texas lo Ihe United States had been signed
by the Plenipotentiaries of the two Gotern
ments, and would be sent In tho Senate,
without delay, for ils approval. In making
this fact known, Mr Green was directed lo
give the Mexican Government the strongest
assurance lhal, in adopting the measure,
we were actuated by no feelings of disres
pect or indifference to the honor or digni
ty of Mexico ; and lhat the step was forced
upon the United States in self-defence, in
consequence of the policy adopted by Great
Britain in reference to Ihe abolition of sla
very iu Texas. Mr Green was further en
joined lo assure the Mexican Government
thai it was our desire lo settle all questions
between Ihe two countries which might
grow out of the treaty, or any other cause,
on the most liberal terms, including that of
boundary. On the 33d of May Mr Green
gave tho Mexican Government notice of tho
treaty and strong assurance that Ihe ques
tion of boundary would be settled on the
most liberal terms.
On the lOih of September, 1844, Mr
Calhoun, as Secretary of State, directed
Mr Shannon, our Minister in Mexico, lo
renew to Ihe Mexican Government the dec
laration made by our Charge d' Affaires,
that if annexation should be consummated,
the United States would be prepared to ad
just all quettions growing nut nf it, including
lhat of boundary, on the most liberal terms.
Well, Mr Presidcnl, after having given
these strong assurances lo Mexico, in re
gard to ihe question of boundary, wo pass
er the resolution annexing Texas lo llio
United Stales, and it was approved on the
1st of March, 1845.
On Ihe lSlhcif June, 1845, about three
monllis after the passage oflhe resolution,
ond five months before Texas accepted our
proposition of annexation, the President
ordered General Taylor to the lefl bank of
" ,I.IVU, IUU DIM, , HI, (tlHUV w .fcvwn-
Ihe Hio urande to protect wnat, in ine
event of annexation, was to be our wcslern
border. Yes, Mr Pi esident, before onncx
alion was consummated, the adminslration,
notwithstanding tho strong assurances giv
en to Mexicn, lhat Ihe queslior of bounda
ry would be sealed upon the most liberal
terms, had determined that the Rio Grando
should he, the western boundary of Texas.
Was this acting in good Coilh lowords Mex
ico ! Was it calculated lo allay her oppo
sitidn, and reconcile her In annexation !
No, sir, it was calculated to Increase her
hostility to the measure, and widen the
breach between iho Iwo Governments,
Mr betier. rne oruer oi trie tutu oi
June was, that General Taylor should re-
main on the Sshine.
I ' ! 1 lo it In my hand ami
...:tl I t. '
The neiiue Seerctarr al War. in i.t.
ders to General Taylor, under date of June
13th, 1-l.j, says:
"The point of jr.nr tiltimato destination
is the western frontier of Texas, where you
will select and occupy, on or near tho Rio
Grande Del Norte, such site as will consist
wilh Ihe heiillh of thn troops, will be best
adapted lo repel invasion, and lo protect
what, in ihe crenl of annexation, will be
OUT W
western border."
Here, air, is the declaration oflhe Presi
dent, by his Secretary of War, that; in tho
event of annexation, Ihe Rio Grande will
be our western border. I was, therefore,
correct in the assertion that the Adminslra
tinn had determined, long before anncxa
ion was consummated, to force upon Mexi
co the boundary oflhe Rio Grande. And,
Mr President, if time would permit, I could
show by the correspondence of the War
Department with our military and naval,
officers in Mexico that the Executive, after
ho had yielded lo Great Britain G dcg. 40
min. of territory in Oregon, lo which ho
had declared our title "clear and unques
tionable," turned his attention to Mexico,
with a fixed determination lo wrest from
her, by the sword, New Mexico and Upper
California. On the 3d of June, 1846, the
Secretary of War, in his despatch lo Gene
rat Kearney, says:
"Il has been decided by the President lo
be of Ihe greatest importance In the pend
ing war with Mexico, lo tako the earliest
possession of Upper California. An expe
dition with lhat view is hereby ordered,
and you are designated to command il."
In a despatch lo Col. Stevenson, under
(I te of September lllh, 1840, ihe Secre
tary says, "ihe military occupation of Cali
fornia is Ihe main object in view," In an
other despatch, lo Commodore Sloat, com
manding our naval forces in the Pacific
Ocean, under date of July 13th, 1810, he
says :
"The object of the Unilcd States is, un
der its rights as a belligerent nation, to
possess itself entirely of Upper California."
Commodore Sloat, in his general order
of July 7th, 1810, says, "it is nor only our
duty to lake California, but tn preserve il af
terwards, a., a pari of the U. States, at all
hazards." In regard lo New Mexico, Gen
eral Kearney, in his teller lo the Depart
ment of War, under date of August 34th,
1840, sa)s:
4 'On llic 33d, I issued a proclamation,
claiming the whole of New Mexico, with
its then boundaries, as a territory of Ihe
United Stales of America, and taking il un
der our protection." "It is the wish and
intention of the United Stales," (says Gen
eral Kearney in his proclamation,) "lo pro
vide for New Mexico a free government,
with Ihe lea.t possible delay, similar to
those in ihe United Slates; and the peo
ple of New Mexico will then be called on
lo exercise the rights of freemen in electing
Iheir own representatives to the Territorial
Legislatures."
I haic not lime, Mr President, tn pursue
this branch oflhe subject further. The ex
tracts I hare read show, beyond all doubt,
that the war was waged for the acquisition
of Mexican territory, by conquest, and not
lo compel a just and equitable settlement
oflhe boundary between Ihctwn countries.
. ....
Mr President, I have already trespassed
too iong upon the palicr.ee ol Ihe Senate,
audi will bring my remarks lo a close.
' P 1. .. -v.n- nC ........ . 1. 1 -1.
1 IIG I.BIIII V, bUIHjUV.I Ul'Ull W llll.ll tl C
havo entered, is full of danger and peril to
the country. Il may bring under our do
minion foreign states and provinces, but it
will bring wilh them an ignorant, degraded.
population, wholly unprepared lor tho en-
iuiucui ui uur iicu aim iiucrai insiiiiiiiuua.
With Ihe extension of our territorial limits,
will come an increase of armies aud navies,
and the building upofacreat military pow
er, never contemplated by the framers of
Ihe Constitution. An increase of Execu
tive patronage will follow, and an ambitious
rresiuent, selected irom tne euccessiut com
manders oflhe army, may trample the Con
stitution under foot, and subject the people
tn Ihe despotism ol military rule. II they
appeal to the Constitution and laws for pro
tection, Ihey will be answered in the lan
guage or Ctcsar In Metcllus, "that arms and
laws never flourish at the same lime." Mr
President, I call on the student of history,
and we have many in this chamber, to
point me lo a nation, either ancient or
modern, that has by ils wars of conquest,
acquired any enduring glory, or conferred
any lasting benefits upon Ils people.
Did Greece gain any enduring fame by
the wars of conquest in winch she engaged t
No, sir, Grecian liberties perished at Ulia
ronia, more than Iwo thousand years ago.
Rome carried her victorious arms into
ne'mhuoting provinces, and subjected them
to her dominion, but she could not save her
republic. Roman liberties were cloven.)
down by Roman armies on the battle-field'
of Philippi, more than thirty years beforo
the Christian era.
What has France gained by Ihe wan of
invasion and conquest in which she has
been engnged! She dethroned kings and
established her power in ihe countries
around her. She drenched the continent
of Europe in blood, in her wars of con
quest. And what is her condition now T
She is confined to her ancient limits.
What has Russia gained by her conquest of
the Caucasian country. Nothing sir ; she
received the submission of tho people in
1700, and from that day to this, she has
been compelled to keep in the field an army
of twenty thousand men to defend and pro
tect it. Mr President, aggressive war is no
part of our mission we can gain no en
during glory by tho conquest of foreign
states and provinces. The victories lhat
redound most to our honor are '-achieved in
the work-shops and counting houses of Ilia
country. We have a broad domain wilh
cicry variety of soil and climate, and by in
dustry, enterprise, and energy, we can com
mand all the comforts and luxuries or life
and secure for our country Iho admiration--,
of Ihe world.
J An Kdito Burnt Out. The dwelling oF
i Mr Faulkner, editor oi ueimiiiwn "
partially destroyed by fira ,on Saturday. Like
- wi man, he was icvurt i
-?'-i3!rX-."'... . . LJ i ssssassssMssso. i iiiii HI

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