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Ml# a 1^ ,» Hv 5, •i l\*£ 'P W& r- S*si* I K„f S'i fif/ Pierre Weekly Free Press. CV I'KKK PKKSSCO. A IVrfert Climutc. There me no sndden changes of season in southern California. Spring comes gradually l:iy l»y day, a perceptible hourly waking to lifra and color anil this glides into a summer which never ceases, but only becomes tired and fades into the re pose of a short autumn, when the sere and brown ami red and yellow hills and the purple mountains are waiting for the rain clouds. This is according to the process of nature but wherever irrigation brings moisture to the fertile soil the green and bloom are perpetual the year round, only the green is powdered with dust, and tho cultivated flowers have their periods of ex haustion. I should thiuk it well worth while to watch the procession of nature from late November or December to April. It is a land of delicate and brilliant wild flowera, of blooming shrubs, strange in form and wonderful in color. Before the annual ntins the land lies ia a sort of swoon in a golden base the slopes and plains are bare, the hills yellow with ripe wild oats or ashy gray with sage the-Bta breeze is weak, the air grows drier, the sun hot, the shade cool. Then one day light clouds stream up from the southwest, and there is a gentle rain. When the sun comes out again its rays are milder, the land is refreshed and brightened, and almost immediately a greenish tinge appears on plain and hill ride. At intervals the rain continues, daily the landscape is greener in infinite variety of shades, which seem to sweep over the hills in waves of color. Upon this carpet of green by February nature begins to weave an embroidery of wild Jlowers, white, lav ender, golden, pink, indigo, scarlet, chang ing day by day, and every day more brill iant and spreading from patches into great fields, until dale and bill and table land are overspread with a refinement and glory uf color that would bo tho despair of the sarpet weavers of Daghestan. Charles Dudley Warner in Harper's. Marshall, the DJgeovcrer of (.old. •lames W. Marshall went across the plains to Oregon in 1844, and thence came to California the next year, lie was a wheelwright by trade, but being very ingenious bo could turn his hand to almost anything. So he acted as carpen ter for Sutter and did many other things, among which I may mention making wheels for spinning wool, and looms, reeds and shuttles for weaving yarn into coarse blankets for the Indians, who did the card ing, spinning, weaving and all other labor. In 1840 Marshall went t-hrftugli the war to its close as a private. Besides his in genuity as a mechanic, he had most singu lar traits. Almost every one pronounced him half crazy or harebrained. He was certainly eccentric, and perhaps somewhat flighty. His insanity, however, if he had any, was of a harmless kind he was noither vicious nor quarrelsome. lie had great, almost overweening, confidence in his ability to do anything as a mechanic. 1 wrote the contract between Sutter and him to build the mill. Sutter was to fur nish the means Marshall was to build and run the mill, and have a share »r the lum ber for his compensation. His idea was to haul the lumber part way and raft it down the. American river to Sacramento, and thence, his part of it, down the Sacramento river and through Saisnn and San Pablo bays to San Fran cisco for a market. Marshall's mind, in some respects at least, must have been un balanced. It. is hard to conceive how any -sane man could have been so wide of the mark, or how any one could have selected such a site for a.sawmill under the circum stances. Surely no other man than Mar shall ever entertained so wild a scheme as that of rafting sawed lumber down tin canyons of the American river, and no other man than Sutter would have leen so con futing and credulous as to patronize him. —Gen. Bidwell in Century. Tim MancB of tbe DuL-dak. If the Duk-duk chance upon a mail away from the shelter of his roof tree, meet him crossing the village green, or lurking in one of the narrow alleys, he charges dowu upon hint, and destruction seems immi nent. The man bus met lifts his arms with certain symbolic movements of the hands and lingers his sign is recognized, the cone dances Iwick, the threatening dubs are lowered, und the stroller falls in at the end of the procession. If man, woman or child thus met out of doors failed to give the proper sign the olubs of the warriors would fall and the extinguisher would dance upon the pros trate form, dyeing his feet and ankles and staining the long grasses of his disguise with the blood of the profaner of the mys teries. Sometimes it happeus that some man nut deemed worthy of initiation is caught uuuwarts before he can gaina place or refuge, and in every such case the full penalty of death by clubbing is exacted. .Sometimes a man met out of cover gives tho propi-r sign, lint, (lie Ouknluk still dances l»pfor« him, and the warriors sLill threaten, but do not strike. Two others then leave i.he line and stand by the side of the man thus menaced, always one of the buys just growing into manhood. To gether tliey all three give the sign. The disguised fugleman aud his tail dance away in search of other victims, and the two sponsors lead the lad away to an in closure near be woods on the outskirts of the village.—William Churchill in Popu lar Science. Ah Alum Fin* KxlliiguUtier. Tbe theory of all (ire extinguishers is to cut off the burning object from the sur rounding atmosphere. This can be done by either a liquid or a solid substance, but water is the simplest aud most natural ®ne. its eflicacy as a* fire extinguisher may, however, be increased by an addition of pulverized alum in sufficient quantity to give a saturated solution. On evapo rating, this solution will leave on tbe ma terial on wltfcli it has fallen a thin coating, having a high heat resisting power. Pot ash aud common salt should not be used, ax the salts will volatalize and afterward precipitate themselves in various parts of a room or building, and tend to prodnce dampness from their affinity for moisture —New York Journal. Revohiltoti iu Diaatoiul Miniug. A writer on tbe subject of the diihond supply of the world, which is steadily in creasing. vnd which can be regarded as an index or bow mncli of its surplus earnings it can afford to spend yearly in this partic ular form of luxury, says that tbe romance of diamond mining is all gone. It is now a matter of exenvating vast beds of blue day by machinery, washing it and sifting ont the diamonds, which, after being xonghly sorted for size, are sold in bulk by weight,. The men who do the work are mete laborers', and their pay is proportion dfely small.—New York Commercial Ad 1% MR. AND MRS. BOWSER. 11Y M'tS. BOWSER Some groceries which I ordered the other afternoon failed to come up in time, and at supper we had bread in place of biscuits. '•Cook run iway?,nqueried Mr. Bowbct, as he noticed I lie change. "The baking powder didn't come up," 1 replied. "Did you order it?" "Yes, at !2 o'clock." "A woman can perhaps buy gimcracks to better advantage than a mnn, but when it comes down to solids she can't lie trnsted." "Very well you buy the groceries for the next week. The cook will tell you •«rhat is wanted." "I'll do it, and I'll show you that we will live a great deal better, and yet save W or $5 a week. They can't play any roots on me, Mrs. Bowser." Next morning before going away he went out to the cook and said: "I'll send up tbe meat for dinner. That's all, I suppose?" "We want a few things liesides, sir. Put down salt, soap, pepper, teu, cinnamon, starch, sago, potatoes, vinegar" "What! Haven't we got a blessed thing in the house?*' "Lots o' things, sir, but there's some thing wanting every day. You can add a washboard, a lamp chimney, some sapolio, a box of motches and" "That will do!" interrupted Mr. Bowser. "I can see that there has been the grossest mismanagement in this house. It's a won der that we are not. on the way to the poor house." Some meat came up aud w:ls prepared for dinner. When Mr. Bowser came home he inquired: "What have von been paving for roast beef?" "About thirteen cents."' "Ha! I suspected it- from the way the butcher acted. Ho has been swindling you at the rate of six cents per pound." "No!" "Fact. 1 scntupa pieccatsix cents which beats any you have had for a month." When we got seated at the table lie look ed about and remarked that the cook had forgotten to put on the potatoes. "Yon didn't send up anv," I replied. "What!" "Nothing came but the meat." "By the great two humped camel, but" He suddenly felt in his vest pocket, and there was the list of groceries! With that he took up the carving knife and fork and began to carvc the meat. It didn't carve. He bore down und sawed away, and finally laid the knife down and said: "Mrs. Bowser, is this apiece of rhinoceros or beef?" "It's a neck piece of beef, .Mr. Bowser. When I buy 'em for mince pies 1 lxil the meat about two days. You sent it for roast, and the cook has roasted it." He turned very white and kicked the cat from under the table, and our dinner was slim and unpleasant one. After getting on his hut anil overcoat lie went out to sec the cook, and as he appeared in he kitchen door she said: "There's no butter for supper, and Lwant you to send up some tomatoes for soup, two iron spoons, a package of stove polish, some silver soap, allspice, oyster crackers and bluing. Here's a list." "Do you pretend to say we want all those things?" he demanded. In the afternoon the things came up—all but the tea and butter. At. supper time the cook made coffee. Mr. Bowser noticed it as .we sat down, and snuffing the aroma he remarked: "Doesn't your girl know the difference between breakfast,aud supper:- And where on earth is the butter?" V':.i didn't send up either tea or but ler." V.'iiai! Mrs. Bowser, do you imagine I've gone crazy?" "Well, they didn't come up.'" "Thcv didn't, eh? Ijet tne get, to that telephone, und I'll give that grocery store something to tbiukof for the next-hun dred years!" I don't know what the grocer said to him, but Mr. Bowser danced up and down, and sent him to Jericho, Jersey City and lots of other places, aud wound up by say ing that he'd go to the Cape of Good Hope before he'd ever buy another thing there. That night I found the list of articles in his pocket. He bad checked off as he or dered and had left the tea and batter out. Next morning before lie went down town he said to the cook: 'I'll send up chicken to be baked and stnffed." At 11 o'clock, no chicken having ap pea red, sbe fried some bacon for dinner. Mr. Bowser didn't know it until he sat dowu. Then he uxjk one. look at the Ijhcod, and arose and walked out, into tbe kitchen and asked: "Is this my house or yours?" "What, of it?" answered the cook. "Didn't I sav I'd send up chicken?" "You did." "And it was to be stuffed?" "It didn't come." "It didn't. Let me get, to that tele phone! Xo! I'll go down and wipe the face of the earth with that butcher's car cass!" I tried to hold him, but he broke away and weut off. He came back in about an hour, with bis coat torn up tbe back, his nose skinned, a bump on his forehead and one eye shut up. I didn't question him, but I learned from others that the batcher got the belter of him. He hadn't ordered any chicken. He meant to, but he never even got off the car. That evening, after 1 bad bound the third piece of raw beef on liis eye und bad glycerined his nose for the fifth time, he suddenly observed: "I am satisfied that I could run this house just forty times better than any woman on earth and save shillings where you save dollars, but I've got too much on my mind as it is, and you can go ahead with your extravagant and disastrous career."—Detroit Free Press. Well Meant. Mrs. O'Hourke (to charitable old Mr. Hartwell, who is giving away poultry ta the needy)—Long life to yer honor sure I'll niver see a goose agin bnt I'll think of yes!—Life. ,v v-'fcj 4 fWVi THE 'ASTOR MILLIONS. •v REPRESENTED BY ACRES OF BUILD INGS IN NEW YORK. :.i *. They Have Nearly All Been Inherited. The I'ollcy of tlie Kstate IK and llaR Been Never to Sell Land or Structure!. Something .About the Astorn. The fortune of William Waldorf Astor Is wholly an inherited one. It represents more particularly than any other great American fortuue entailed wealth. The foundation of it was made by the little pack of musicnl instruments which the first John Jacob Astor brought with him from Germany to sell in what was once New Amsterdam, but which in these latter days is known as New York. Mr. Aster's weath is almost, wholly in real estate. It is probably the most safely invested of all the larger fortunes. Only an earthquake devastating Manhattan Island could wipe it out. The original John Jacob Astor bought farms along the King's Highway, the old post road extending from the Battery in New York to Albany, the capital of ihe state. The King's Highway now bears the name of Broadway. The descendants of John Jacob Astor followed his example in acquiring lands, but Broadway soon proved too restricted for their investments, and they bought, both to the right and to the left of the thoroughfare. People who desired to put, up residences or business structures would obtain ground leases of the Astors, and on corn fields, po tato patches and pastures buildings urose which at the expiration of the lease revert ed to the Aston. As a rule these leases ran for twenty-one years. There are, tcres and acres of buildings in the upper part of Manhattan Island belonging to William Waldorf Astor. The rents from these buildings turn a mighty stream of money into his coffers every mefnth. rill-: A-sroi: roucv. The Astor policy of the acquisition of real estate has always been kept up by each successive heir, and it is being per petuated by the last. one. The real estate reports tell almost a daily story of more property added to the Astor domains of brick and mortar. It has lieen a saying that, "Astor never sells a piece of ground," anil this is almost literally true. Rarely, indeed, does a picce of property pass out of the Astor possessions. A peculiarity about the Astor buildings is that tho lessees have to supply their own gas burners. While the buildings are always in good order.it is ditlicult, lo iuducc the owner to make alterations or improvements. If the ten ant. desires these he must make them him self. In this way mauy valuable additions have been made, which have of course gone to the Astor accumulation. There is scarcely a bank iu New York which handles more money than William Waldorf Astor's ofliee in West Twenty sixth street, a few doors from Broadway. Here the books of his great property are kept and here he rents are paid in. It is becoming mor and more difficult to buy land on Manhattan Island, and the sur plus wealth of Mr. Astor is, to some extent at least, seeking investment- iu otherdirec tions. Considerable of it has gone into government, bonds and other high grade securities. Mr. Astor is to put up a $2,000, 000 hotel iu order to find an outlet for the deluge of money which monthly encuin liers his Twenty-sixth street office. Mrs. William Astor is the leader of 1 he Four Hundred, if a title conferred by Wnrd McAllister is a rightful one. William Waldorf Astor, however, is, by reason of succession to the great fortune, the head of the house of Astor. The question arose between Mrs. William Astor aud Mrs. William Waldorf Astor an to whom was entitled to issue, her cards bearing simply the designation Mrs. Astor. The conten tion awakened considerable bitterness be tween the two families. It resulted by general conseut of society and by decision of tbe postmaster at Newport iu award ing the distinction to Mrs. William AVal dorf Astor. THE ASTOlt FAMILY. William Waldorf Astor at one time had a vaulting political ambition, which, like many another ambition, overleaped itself. He served in both branches of the New York state legislature and sought a seat in congress, but Was defeated, and never after oould be prevailed upon to ask tbe suffrages of the people of his district. He served as minister to Italy, iu which ca pacity he made a creditable record. A diplomatic office, however, was not as well suited to bis taste as a legislative one. He will n?.ver figure in politics again. He is of a, literary tarn of mind. He made considerable of a name as a novel writer. Mr. Astor is 40, tall, well built aud agreeable in manner. He wears eye glasses und dresses very quietly. He has always been a great student-, and this bent is reflected in his speech and manners. Mr. Astor pays very little attention to the management of his business. He intrusts it to old and tried agents. The Astor property is very easy to manage, for it. in volves little more than the. collection of rents. The wealth ol' William Astor, like that of William Waldorf Astor, is almost wholly in real estate, and was inherited from the same source that all the Astor wealth has come. The manorial custom of Kurope was established by John Jacob Astor I. When he died the bulk of bis fortune went to his eldest son, and so the precedent was set for his estate to puss to the eldest male member of each genera tion. William Astor is a very retiring man. He is rarely seen in public. He has never displayed any political aspirations, and, although his wife is a social leader, he has never taken more than an inci dental part in society. He is known as a great reader and is fond of opera. Mr." Astor is accustomed to spending his winters in Florida, where he has a line place. He is the owner of a steam yacht, upon which be cruises in southern waters. At the end of the cold months he comes north on the yacht, and then almost in variably betakes himself to Europe. A life on the water seems to suit him much better than a life on land. He is exceed ingly democratic iu his ways. He und the master of his yacht, are on such terms of familiarity that lie In! tcr is said to address hiin ns "William." .Mr. Astor is consider able uf recluse. He does uot like the hurly burly of the world, unil embraces every opportunity to get away from New York to quieter spot.—New York World. F»eiU Terrapin Kgg* for it King Snake. One of our citizens who observes things closely was out to Cedar Uamtnock not long since, when he noticed a terrapin and king snake mutually interested in some thing, and upon looking closely our friend discovered that tbe terrapin was laying eggs in a hole, while the snake was coiled so as to bring its head in tbe hole, neetsing the eggs as lost as they were de pMtad.—Manatee Advocate. ft SINCE WE MU8T DIE. Though we must die, I would not die When fleldsara brown sad bleak. When wild geese stream across the sky, And tho cart lodge timbers creak. For it would be so lone and drear l* fr 4 To sleep beneath the snow, ,v ., When children carol Christmas cheer, And Christmas rafters glow. Nor would I Ue, though we must din When weanlings blindly bleat, When cuckoo laughs and lovers sigh, •.-••• And oh, to live is sweetl When cowslips come again, and spring Is winsome with their breath. And life's In love with everything.. With everything but death. l»t mu not die, though we must die When bowls ore brimmed with cream. When uillch cows In the meadows Ue, Or wade amid the stream When dewy dimpled roses smile To Bee the face of June, And lad and lass meet at the stile. Or roam beneath the moon. Since we must die, then let me die When flows the harvest ale, When the rnaper lays the sickle by. And taketh down the flail When all we prjzqd and all we planned: Is ripe and stored at last, And automn looks across the land. And ponders on the past, Then let tne die. Alfred Austin in London World. He Knew Better. It was the general verdict that Farmer Perrin was the most obstinate and opinion ated man in town. Ho had been foralong time averse to having the street lamps lighted after 11 o'clock, contending that at that hour all honest citizens were, or ought to lie, in bed. One night, however, he was obliged ti go for the doctor at 12 o'clock, and on the way slipped in dark street and sprained his akle. "Well," said a triumphant neighbor next morning, as lie approached tho piazza where the invalid sat with his foot in a chair, "guess you wish you'd had a little more light Inst night, don't you?" "No!" shouted the other testily. "If I could ha' seen where I wjls fnllin' like enough I should lin' been sen red and fell further!" On another occasion Farmer Perrin was at the railroad station when an Irish girl appeared, lamenting that her brother had not. conic on a train that had just entered the station. "Where was lie cumin' from?" asked the old gentleman. "Plase, sir, from Georgetown." "Well, that ain't the train. That one came from Portland." "1 lieg your pardon, sir," said a gentle man who had overheard the conversation, "but that was the Georgetown train." "Nothing of the sort!" cried the obsti nate man. "It's the Portland express." "But," said the gentleman, patientlyand conclusively, "I came on it from George town." "It's nothing to me where you came from," was tho instant reply. "That train was the Portland express!"—Yonth's Companion. A Tnmi Mystery. .Mrs. Soapsuds—Is your son's wife a good housekeeper? Mrs. Wetinopp—Alas! no. She doesn't know beans about housekeeping, and the worst-of it is she's too indolent to learn. Her house doesn't get swept all through once a month, and I never saw her with a scrub brush, lloor cloth, or even a dust brush in her hand yet. Sbe doesn't bother her head alout anything except to run into the kitchen two or three times a day and get up littlo dishes he likes, and the rest of the time she spends reading or run ning around art galleries and such places, or up in her room making herself look pretty. Mrs. Soapsuds—Dear me! How does he stand such a woman? Mrs. Wetmopp—Indeed I don't know but he just dotes on her.--New York Weekly. Zulu's lttfiC 111 Ufc. Some wenty-live years ago Kmile Zolft was a clerk in lluchette's book store on the Boulevard St. Germain—passing rich on eighty francs a month. Today he is prac tically a millionaire. No living French writer has amassed more money than he from the products of his pen. His novels sell by the huudred thousand. On the ffrst publication of any of his stories by a news paper he receives tbe sum of 13,000. His publisher subsequently pays him double that sum for. the copyright of the work, and gives him, moreover, a splendid roy alty on its sale. It is no wonder, there fore, that, under these circumstances tbe slim, raw boned counter jumper of a quar ter of a century ago should have developed into the portly, pleasant looking "bonr geois" of today.—Cor. Chicago Tribune. Tlie of the 1'iue and I'jtlm. California ia the laud of the pine and the iwlni. The tree of the Sierras, native, vig orous, gigantic, and the tree of the desert, exotic, supple, poetic, both flourish within the niue degrees of latitude. These two, the widely separated lovers of Heine's soiik, symbolize the capacities of the state, aud although the sugar pine is indigenous, and tho date palm, which will never be more than an ornament in'this hospitable soil, was planted by the Franciscan fathers, who established a chain of missions from Sau Diego to Monterey ovfv a century ago, they should both be the distinction of one commonwealth, which, in- its TOO miles of indented s«a coast, can boast the climates of all countries and the products of all zones.- Charles Dudley .Warner in--Hsr per's. The' Ci* o( "Verjr.'V The adverb "very" is properly used only" to limit adjectives or' advertw, as "very rich," "very handsome," "very Tapidly," "very soon." It is not. used with participles. We 4° not say "very loved," "very lancented," "very understood,-' but "very much la mented," "very well understood,'* "very much loved." "Pleased" being a partici ple, "very pleased" is wrong. It should be "very much (or well) pK'ised." "Tired," originally a participle, is ii'ost frequently used as «n adjective, unil when so usod "very tired" is o'vr"ci.—(.':r. Boot on Trans cript. A cosmetic water ol great use to prevent pits after the smallpox is ils follows: Dis solve an ounce and a half of salt in pint of mint water boil them together and skftn the liquor. This is a very useful wash for tlie face after tbe smallpox in order to clear nway the scabs, allay the itching and remove the redness. fount Von Moltke is an enthusiastic musician, and in former years played the violoncello remarkably well, lie delights in quiet musical evenings at home, where Dr. Joachim is a frequent guest, among other famous artists. A good camphor Ice is made of ous ounce uf spermaceti, one ounce of camphor, ne ounce of almond oil, one-half cake of white wax melt, all together and turn into molds. irjpsfsutjji 'A. 1 ptu&K VJf Y' '.uov PIERRE, SOUTH DAKOTA. 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