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Pierre weekly free press. (Pierre, S.D.) 1889-19??, April 28, 1892, Image 6

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Pierre Weekly Free Press.
By 8. G. DEWELL.
THE crowning: fortune of a man is
1o be born to some pursuit which liudt*
him employment. :md happiness,
whether it be to niitkc baskets or
broadswords, or canals. or statutes, or
Till: soul of a man is not a thing
Which comes and goes, is builded and
decays like the elemental frame in
which it is set to dwell, but a very
living' force, a very energy ot Cod's
organic will, which rules and moulds
this universe.
Mankind worships success, but
thinks too little of the means "by which
it is attained, what days and nights
of watching and weariness, how year
after year has dragged on, and Been
the end stil! far ofT all that counts
for little, if the long struggle do not,
close its victory.
IF astronomers must talk and must
disturb plain folk they should be held
accountable for consoling suggestions.
If they must prophecy a return to
glacial conditions they should point to
some method by which results may bo
bettor adapted for the use of future
races of men.
What surgical science will, in the
future, undertake, cannot be pre
dicted. The successful building up
and reorganization of noses, eyelids
and other features, is an every day
occurrence. The latest achievement,
however, is the insertion of frozen
bono whore the limb, joint or other
bone lia.s been injured or lost by frac
ture, shattered by shot and other
causes. The lime may yet come wlion,
if we may not, all be born beautiful,
we may go to the surgeon and be
made beautiful.
I.vn:u.i:i At. men, as a rule, are
not nt all averse to lying in bed in the
mornings. An intellectual man dif
fers from a mere business man in
knowing when to stop thinking. A
business man goes to bed for the
purpose of making plans for scooping
rivals an intellectual man goes to
bed for the purpose of enjoying
nature's best gift. If in doing so ho re
sembles the vacuous and fooli-h so
ho also resembles the beasts of the
tield and the birds of the air. whoso
physical and mental habits have
never been supposed to be bad or
deleterious. The biggost fool in the
world is the man who supposes that
he can beat Nature at her own game
Tm:i r. is constant insistence that
the accumulation of wealth marks the
true man of success—the creature
held up for the model, (ircal fortunes
as a rule have for their starting point
grave injustice or corruption. !roed
for success in this view debauches
public service. Wealth corrupts coun
cil chambers. It invades even the
purlieus of courts. it gains by brib
ery privato possession of common
rights. It perverts governments that
should fostor the general welfare to
protect special privilege. And when
wealth thus gained is disbursed in
part for what is called a public benefi
cence, in aid of charity, or educa
tion. or religion, the pulpit is swift to
present the donor as a model of virtue.
Tiik born teacher is observant, and
seizes upon the strong points when he
examines anything, lie has the de
scriptive faculty, lie does not mix
liis facts with his theories, unless the
latter are an important part of the
question, or are used as illustrations
to make the subject more plain. Ilia
•words will be few, simple and well
chosen, and his style suited to his
audience. Such men have the capa
bilities of being good lawyers, clergy
men, lecturers, editors, or, if they be
came mechanics, they are soon fore
men, and are good foremen, as they
can soon make their workmen under
stand what must be done, and how it
should be done. If they become manu
facturers or merchants, the same fac
ulty makes them successful where men
of greater ability, but lacking the fac
ulty of teaching, would fail.
AN intellectual man who cannot
take nine hours' sleep is simply a mis
nomer. Of course, people who have
nothing whatever to think of can theo
retically, got along with very little,
because they never tire out their
brains. But it must not be supposed
because a man lies a-bed late in the
morning that he is therefore intellect
ual. His mind may be absolutely va
cant. He may never have thought
out a wearing problem in all the days
of a useless life. He may be abso
lutely dependent on others for every
motion which he supposes to be bis
own. And yet he may stay in bod fop
nine or ten hours, and may not know
enough to get up even then by any
more intellectual prompting than the
slamor of the stomach for breakfast.
Empty-headed people are generally
food sleepers because their minds
enow bow to slumber better than how
10 do anything else. The more dead
they are to outside influences the
normal they
An Able Article Showing Its Necessity
Since the Foundation of the
Protective Tariff lias Always Been
or Urent Benefit to Laborers as
Well as Government.
The Farmer, the Merchant, the Me*
ohanic, All are Benefitted By a
Protective Tariff.
BY •Ions H. Stkvknkon, or tiik l'rriMitute
A u.—[Copy right.]
With Permission of the Author.
Question. What is the meaning of
Answer. As applied to commerce be
tween nations, it means certain
charges, or duties, imposed oa the im
portation or exportation of goods.
In the United States are export du
ties allowed?
No, for this is prohibited by theeon
What is the warrant for import du
ties or a tariff?
The right to levy a tarifi is based on
the power conferred on congress to
raise money to pay the debts of the
government, and to provide for the
general welfare of the nation.
When was the right to pass tariff
laws first exercised?
In 1789 a tariff law was enacted and
was signed by President Washington
on July 4 of that year.
What, was the extent
this first
tariff act?
The duties imposed were from ten
to fifteen per cent.
What was the effect of this first tar
iff act?
It produced an ample revenue for
the government, protected and encour
aced our home manufactures.
After the act of 1789, what was the
general legislation of congress on the
tariff question?
For about twenty years congress
kept adding to the dutiable ltst and
generally increasing the rates.
What was the next important step
on this subject?
After war was declared against Eng
land in 1812, congress passed a law
increasing the duties one hundred per
What was the effect of this law of
Throughout the nation there was a
remarkab'eincreasein all departments
industry, and the needs of the peo
ple were almost wholly supplied ty
our home manufactures.
What was the next important act of
congress on the tariff?
In 1816, after the war had ceased, and do not need
certain interests in New England be
came hostile to so high a tariff, as it
somewhat injured their shipping trade
and the policy of a high tariff was re
versed by this act.
What was the effect of this act of
In coming from a high to a low tar
ifi, the business interests of thenation
very much, and a severe de
pression in all departments of trade
succeeded. Bankruptcy prevailed
among the business men to an extent
unheard of in the history of the coun
How long did this distress last?
From 1817 to 1824.
What was the non-importact?
It was an act of congress forbiding
the importation from England of a
specified list of goods, among which
were silks, cloths, nails, tin, brass, etc,
When was this act passed?
In 1806.
When was it repealed?
In 1814. (t'his was during^the war
with England.)
In repealing this act, what was prom
ised in its stead?
A tariff for protection.
Was the act of 1816 adequate as a
protective act?
It was not, though the act of 1816
has been termed "a protective tariff
What evidence have we that the act
of 1812 was not sufficiently protec
After the war with England had ceas
ed and the non-import act was no
longer in the way, there was aremark
able increase in importations.
What was the receipts ol import du
ties in 1815?
In the year 1816 what was the
amount of duties?
£36,300,000, or about five hundred
per cent, of an increase.
What effect had this great increase
of imports?
It was disastrous to our home man
ufactures, from which they did not re
cover until after 1824.
What legislation checked this dis
In the year 1824 another tariff act
was passed, which increased the du
ties, and in effect was a protective tar
iff act.
Wbo was the most influential man
in the advocacy of this act of 1824?
Henry Clay.
What was the result of this act on
the business interests of the people?
The historv of the nation following
the act of 1824 was one of prosperity
noticeable all over the country.
What influence had this era of pros
perity on tariff legislation?
The noticeable good effects on the
business of the people from this act of
1824 caused the advocates of protec
tion to still further increase the duties
in 1828.
What great man was converted to
the doctrine of protection after the
act of 1824 was rally tested?
Daniel Webster. In 1828 he voted
for higher duties. Prior to that time
he had opposed much of the tariff leg
islation. In 1824 he opposed Calhoun
and Clay on this question.
What was the general effect of the
act of 1828?
The higher duties operated to in
crease the industries of the nation in
an astonishing degree it made the
country prosperous.
Who was it that led the opponents
ot a protective tariff about this time?
John C. Calhoun.
What had been Calhoun's views on
the tariff question before this time?
Mr. Calhoun had been a strong pro
tectionist and had advocated the
good policy of the nation in "protect
ing home mariufacturers to the end
that they might be built up."
What reason can be given for this
change in Calhoun?
One reason assigned is that theigor
anoe of the slave unfitted him for the
factory, and the cheap labor of the
south enabled that section to prefer
free-trade. Slave labor being"pauper
labor" per se, needed no protection
from foreign cheap labor. The south,
under such circumstances, could com
pete successfully against the poorest
paid labor of any country, without
any protection.
To what length did Calhoun carrv
his opposition to a protective tariff?
He resigned the office of vice-presi
dent and led the threatened seccession
movement in South Carolina.
When was the next important tariff
act passed?
In July, 1832, congress passed alaw
reducing the import duties, and again
in 1833 another law on the same sub
By what name is this latter act
Mr. Clay'8 compromise act.
What were Bome of the terms of that
The law provided a eliding scale for
all dutieB above twenty per cent.
What time was given to abolish the
duties above twenty per cent."
Ten years.
What was the idea of such a law?
It was to pacify the south and to ar
rest the threatened secession.
While this act was in force and the
duties were being reduced what took
The terrible panic of 1837.
To what was the panic attributed?
The gradual approach ot free-trade
under the sliding scale act (Clay's).
How long did the hard times con
tinue after 1837?
History tells us that the depression
in business continued up to 1842, and
that it was a period of distress scarce
ly ever equaled.
in all these periods of distress what
was the comparative effect on the
north and south?
The distrees always fell with a more
crushing weight on the northern, east
ern and middle states.
Why was this the case?
Because these sections employ so
many more men and capital in the
manutacturers. About twenty-five
per cent, of the workingmen are thus
In which section of our country is
the cost cheapest?
In the south where they can live in
cheaper houses, wear cheaper clothing
"so much fuel. The
products of the soil are also cheaper,
being produced by the cheapest of
cheap labor.
During this operation of Clay's com
promise act and the consequent finan
cial distress, what great political event
The overthrow of the democrat par
ty and the election of General Harri
son as president in 184.0, and a whig
congress also.
What tariff law was then passed?
The famous tariff act of 1842.
What was the main feature of this
It was strongly protective.
What effect had this act on the coun
There was a general revival in all de
partments ot industry. A feeling of
cheerlulness prevailed among the peo
ple and prosperity was over the land
Was there any immediate attempt
made to repeal this act of 1842?
There was not. The democratic par
ty seemed to recognize itasentitled to
What is the evidence of this fact?
In 1844 the democratic party went
into their campaign Bhoutmg for
"Polk, Dallas and the tariff of 1842."
They were even louder in praise of this
act than were the whigs who had pass
ed it.
Was this praise sincere on the part
of the democrats?
Subsequent events showed that it
was not. The south still held an an
tipathv against a tariff for protection.
What was the next move by the
south against the tarifi?
After the protective feature of the
act of 1842 had placed the country in
a healthy condition congress enacted
in 1846 what is known aB the "free
trade" act of 1846.
Who were elected president and vice
president in 1844?
Polk and Dallas.
Having been elected as friends of the
tariff of 1842, how did they after
wards act in relation thereto?
Mr. Polk, as president, gave the
weight of his position to the free-trade
party, and Mr. Dallas, as vice-presi
dent (the senate being a tie), gave the
casting vote for the tariff act of 1846.
As the evil effects tbat generally fol
reduction in the tariff did not
seem to do so in this instance, to what
can this exception be attributed?
To the war of Mexico, wherein about
100,000 men were inlisted. This last
ed till 1848, resulting in the acquisi
tion ol a vast empire of land,
California, in which gold was discover*
ed in 1849. Money iiow became more
plentiful than ever before. Again, the
Crimean war in Europe, in which Eng
land took part, began in 1858 and
lasted three years. This necessarily
made a market for our farm products
and largely checked importations.
What was the extent of the reduc
tion of duties by the act of 1846?
The average reduction was 24 1-2
per cent.
How long did this act of 1846 con
Until 1857, when a further reduc
tion was made.
Were theBe duties then unusually
They were lower than they had been
for over fifty years.
»Vhat followed the free-trade act of
A great panic, known aB the panic of
1857. It was very sweeping in its ef
fect on the nation. The people were
greatly distressed and business was
about paralyzed.
What effect had this panic on the
doctrine of protection?
It caused a renewal of that doctrine
tbroughont the North, and it was
again taken up as a political issue
between the political parties.
How were these parties divided?
The old whigs, now republicans,
took the
Whit has been the result of this
lati legislation on the tariff.
Prosperity beyond that of any
nation of modern times.
As a seeming exception to this pros
perity, to what can the panic of 1873
be attributed?
Partly, at least, to the reduction in
import duties of $74,000,000 in
the years 1870 and 1872.
What is the generally conceded ef
fect on wages, prices, etc., by lower
custom duties?
Lowering the tariff, lowers wages,
prices, etc.
In this, wbo are most damaged?
The laborer or workingman. As
the workingman's capital in bis labor,
he suffers by loss of employment or
by lowering his wages.
What effect has free-trade on exist
ng debts, National, State or private?
The effect is always to make the
burden of such debts harder to bear
and remove.
Is this the same with taxes?
It is for taxes are in a measure a
fixed indebtedness, and consequently
the tax-payer is damaged by reducing
his wages, income or profits.
What position did congress take in
1860 on the tariff question?
The revenues of the government in
1860 being inadequate, the house
passed what was known as the Morrill
tariff act, a measure to increase the
duties on imports.
What political party was in control
of the house?
The republican oarty. This bill
passed the houee in 1860.
What was the fate of the Morrill
tariff bill in the senate?
It was defeated.
What party controlled the senatb?
The democratic party.
What action did congress take on
the tariff in 1861
The senate passed tbe Morrill act in
March of that year.
What caused this change in the
senate's action?
Moat oi the senators from the south
has seceded.
What doctrine was distinctly ap
proved by the passage of this act?
The doctrine ofprotection to Ameri
can industry. This doctrine has
pretty uniformly been advocated by
the republican party and opposed by
the democratic party up to tne present
time. In this the democratic party
has taken the advice of their southern
What has been the attitude of Eng
land on the subject of protection?
England for over five centuries (from
1836 to 1846) favored not only a
protective but a prohibitory tariff.
What was the result of this system?
Her manutactures were carried to
euch a state oi perfection that no
other nation could successfully com
pete with her.
When did England change her policy
of protection?
In 1846.
What is England's policy now?
To tax only such classes of imports
as to meet no competition in home
What effect has a protective tariff
on the price of article protected?
The experience in this country has
been that it cheapens the price: for
example, steel rails. Had we not pro
tected this industry so as to have it
built up here, we would not be paying
such prices as the foreign manufactur
er would demand.
What caused this cheaper price?
Home competition and hence, it
the article protected is dearer for such
rotection at first, in time it gets to
On this subject of protection what
was the advice of Horace Greeley!
He eaid, "It isinjurious to the new
country to continue dependent for its
supplies of clothing and manufactured
fabrics on the Old." And also, "Pro
tection is necessary and proper to
sustain as well as to create a benefi
cent adjustment ot our national in
What is reciprocity?
As intended by the McKinley law of
1890 it is, under treaty regulations,
an admission into the United States
of certain articles not produced by us,
or not produced in sufficient quantities,
free of duty, on condition that tbe
treaty nation will admit certain of
onr surplus products on like terms.
What does the McKfnlev law keep
in view?
The encouragement to the producers
of articles named in the reciprocity
treaties, by warding off competition
as nearly as possible.
What has been the result of this
policy since it haB been tested?
An undoubted stimulus, in the pro
duction in several of the articles named
in the several treaties, noticeable in
wheat, corn, pork, etc.
What treaty can be citedasan illus
tration of reciprocity?
The treaty with Braxil, from which
country we get much of our coffee.
In the treaty with Brazil what haB
An increased market for our farm
products, agricultural implements,
etc., named in the treaty.
What reason is given for admitting
sugar free of ddtyf^Q yg _,-v
of protection, and at
the convention which nominated Lin
coln for President in 1860, it was de
clared that "Sound policy requires
such an adjustment of imports as will
encourage the development of the in
dustrial interests of the whole coun
try." Democratic party, on the other
hand, adhered to the opposite side.
Where baa tne policy of the govern
ment on the tariff question since 1860.
One of protection. During the war
tor the Union import duties were
raised'to the protection and nearly
to the prohibitory point.
Because we do not and for years to
come cannot, product) but a traction
of the sugar we use.
What is the difference between reci
procity and free trade?
The former stimulates a bome in
dustry by protecting it, while tbe lat
ter tends to destroy it by free com
Disturbed at Their Work.
Two Omaha policemen disturbed a
gang of safe-blowers operating in the
bank district of the city just before
daylight, on the morning of the 24th
and 100 shots were exchanged. Offi
cers Hate and Hudson were standing
at Thirteenth and WilliamsJ streets
when they noticed some black sbad
dows skulking suspiciously along the
shady side of an adjacent bank build
ing and sang out "Halt!" A volley of
pistol shots was the answer, and four
men sprang from the wall and broke
away down the street, firing tbeir pis
tols as they ran, the
ing the fire. The fugitives disappeared
in the darkness. A trail of blood
along the sidewalk told that some one
had been hit, and the officers followed
the scent. A short distance down the
street a pool of blood showed
the wounded man had vested. Under
the sidewalk here the officers found a
fine revolver and burglar's quill and
drill. A little further down they halted
a man who gave the name of Schultz,
who came tearing down the street, like
a race horeo. He eaid he had
awakened by the groans of a man
whom he found lying on his doorstep,
and who said he bad been injured in a
fall from a train and wanted a car
riage to take him to a hospital. It
was Jack Murray, an expert safeblow
er, train robber and all-round thief.
He had a bullet through his leg and
was carried to the station on a stretch
er. Murray and his gang are no strang
ers to the police of Omaha. He has
served time in the penitentiary at Jef
ferson City, Mo. A few weeka ago on
North Sixteenth street he fired in the
face of officers and made his eecaue.
8ix years ago he was with what was
known as the Cook gang, .and during
a brush with the police a bullet from
his revolver passed through Capt. Cor
mack's coat. The city is beine scour
ed tor his pals, of whom he refuses to
say a word, though with all the shots
which were fired the officersthink that
some of them must b"s carrying lead
mementoB of their escapade.
tattle Filching.
At Rapid City, 8. D., on the 24th
Deputy United 8tates Marshal Math
ieson arrested John G. Little, for four
terms sheriff of Cherry county, Neb.,
on a charge of cattle stealing. Little,
it is claimed by the officials,
tbe leader of the worst gang of cattle
thieves operating between the Indian
reservations and the Northern Ne
braska towns. It is asserted tbat
they have stolen and shipped hun
dreds of cattle to Chicago, but it has
heretofore been impossible to fasten a
case upon or arrest Little. The par
ticular charge on which he was arrest
ed is stealing seventy-two head
from tne heard on tbe Rose
bud reservation belonging to
Slaven of Kansas City, the agency
beef contractor. They were driven
into Nebraska and shipped to Chicago.
Deputy United States marshals and
Indian police are now in pursuit of
the other membero of the gang.
Little's arrest was kept secret in
order that they should not take warn
ing and skip the country. It would
break up tne largest and most audaci
ous gang of cattle thieves in that part
of the country. Little's arrest was
only accomplished after much plan
ning and considerable stratagem, but
bloodshed is expected before all are
captured. United States District At
torney Sterling will return in a few
days to personally attend to these
A Missing Judge.
In spite of the most persistent
search on the part of the friende, not
a single clew has yet been found as to
the whereabouts of the venerable
Judge Marr, of New Orleans, La. The
last information of him was on the
evening of the 19th, when he was seen
walking along tbe river bank in the
Vicinity of Oarrollton. There are
none now wbo believe that the judge
is alive. If he sought shelter at any
of the cottages near Carrollton some
information as to his whereabouts
would have come long since to
relieve the anxiety of his neart-brok
en family. It was believed by many
that Judge Marr had wandered away
intentionally in the hop9 of escaping
tbe importunities for the reprieve of
Murderer Descbamps, and proposed
remaining in biding until aiter tbe ex
ecution or until the day set for it had
passed. Now the jurist hasstill failed
to materialize, all hope of his return
has been abandoned by those who
clung to the belief tnat he was still
alive. The family and friendB of Judge
Marr are sparing no pains or expense
to discover something about him that
will tend to relieve their terrible
anxiety. Perhaps the muddy waterB
ot the Mississippi will give up
secret in a few days ana clear
the mystery.
Beselglng the Bustlers.
Nate' Champion and his men are
surrounded by 100 men under Fred
Hesse and Charles Ford at the T. A.
ranch, says a special telegram dated
the 12th lust. Two hundred shots
have been exchanged, but the
don© on either side cannot b6 aecer
tained. The fighting is done with
Winchesters, Indiaq fashion, at long
range. 8heriff Angus and posse, who
left recently to maintain order, are
cut oC Jrom town. A number of men
are known to have been wounded and
some killed. About forty rustlers
have passed through Gillette, Wyom
ing, en route to the fecene of battle to
help Champion and his men. p?i
How Harmon Kioiter Uund to
Birds With a Glob.
Harmon Lostcr, a young man not
long in this country, relates the New
Sun, was boosting:
one winter
afternoon at Heading- of his trapping
birds in tho Hart/, mountains,
many. and how he bud caught many
Bleeping birds in the night with hi®
••That's nothing." said one. "You
ought to see us catch elbedricliela is
Lostcr wns eagor to hnovr.
"All right" snid tho man. --The
birds prefer cold nights up on the
mountains, and as we're going to hunt
for them to-night, you can go along."
Tho stin ting point was named and
all arrangements wore made. It had
been one of the coldost days of the
winter, and ut nightfall tho mercury'
touched zero. The party mot Loster
at tbe appointed time and place, aui
all hands, five in number, armed with
clubs, proceeded to Mount Pcnn. over-'
looking the city.
••Where are your guns?" asked
"We don't shoot tho elbedriehela.
but wo chase them up with clubs and
catch thorn in a bag.was the reply.
When the party reached McKnight's
gap an arctic blast whistled through
the bare boughs, and in the moonl'ight
the swaying brancho? cast fantastic
shadows over the snow on the moun
tain side. At very lonely spot
Loster received a club, and the entire
party scattered and began beat
ing the bushes and shouting "Shoo!"
Lostcr joined in heartily, and notwith
standing tho extremely cold weather
those in the secret extremely enjoyed
Loster's zeal in the hunt.
The idea was. Loster was told, to
drive th* elbedrichela from their hid
ing places up into the ravine. Fre
quently the practical jokers would
shout: "There goes one! Loster,
diil you see it?" Loster imagined he
did several times and replied, -Yes,"
as he kept beating tho bushes with his
After a half hour's chase the party
had reached the head of the ravine.
"Now, lxstor. you hold the bag
open." stud one of the party. "Hold
the mouth of the bag well open close
to the ground. We'll go down this
side of the ravine and drive up the
birds on the other side. But be care
ful and hold the bag lower or the
birds will run under you."
Ixjster shiveriugiy took the bag and
held it open and close to the ground,
while his companions, shivering with
cold and nearly choking with laugh
ter, left him and continued beating the
bushes and shouting "Shoo!"
For ten minutes Loster heard tha
voices of liih companions growing
fainter, and frequently he felt tho bag
to see whether any birds had entered.
Finally the voices were silent, and
Loster thought the hunters were be
hind aliill. He shivered and shook,
but still kept holding down the open
bag. For over an hour ho loyally re
mained at his post but Anally, not
wishing to freeze to death, he resolved
to ijuil. and tottered down the moun
tain with tho empty bag on his shoul
der. Ho had not gone far beforo
dawned upon his mind that he had
been made the victim of a very cold
practical ,'oke. When he reachod a
hotel on tho outskirts of tho town he
wartned himsolf and took a thoughtful
drink alone.
TIw Theory of Spuntam'on* CouiluiMirm
Oncit Seriously Kntortulnvd.
The theory of spontaneous combus
tion of the human body in former
times was held by almost every ox*
pert, says Pearson's Monthly. French
scientists, in particular, supported it,
una several of thorn published pamph
lets, in which numerous cases of al
leged spontaneous combustion of the
human body were described at length,
but there are three vory significant
points to bo noticed in connection with
such reports. One is the invariable
admission that there was a light or fire
in the room where the catastrophe oo
curred another, that the alleged in
stances always happened in families
composed of ignorant persons and
another, that in no case was there
any actual witness of the occurrence.
Something like 75 per cent of the
human body consists of wator this
fact in itsolf is surtlciont to discredit
any of tho alleged instances of spon
taneous combustion. It is just con
ceivable that persons
drink an
enormous amount of spirituous liquor*
may become so saturated, as it were,
with this inflammable material
their bodies burn much more easily
than would thoso of people who do
not over-indulge in this way. but it it
perfectly certain that the Are would
have to be applied from without
no such thing as spontaneous combus*
tion could be possible in any article
containing so great a preponderance
of tho liquid element as does the
man body.
Ace of Bird*.
According to a foreign scientlQo
journal tho swan is tho longest lived
bird, in extreme cases reaching 300
years. Tbe falcon has been known to
live 102 years. An eagle died in 1819
which had been caught 104 years be
foro end was then quite old. A white*
headed vulture, which was caught in
1706, died in the aviary at Scbonbrun,
near Vienna, in 1824. Parrots live
more than a century. Water bird!
have a long life, exceeding that .ol
several generations of men. Ravens
also live over 100 years. In captivity
magpies live from twenty to tWMtjr*
five years, and still longer in fraodoUt
The common hen attains the age ol
from fifteen to twenty yeara Dove#
live ten years, and the little singing
birds from eight to seventeen yearfc
The nightingale's life 1b the shortest
jten years being tbe longest, and next
comes the blackbird, which never
lives longer than fifteen yeara

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