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WINDHAM COUNTY REFORMER, BRATTLEHORO, VT., FRIDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1900.
JESS AGE OF PRESIDENT Lnmends Law Prohibiting Corporation Campaign Contributions WOKS AN INCOME TAX -ly Condemns Lynching and Says Crime of Rape Should W Punished by Death Question of Marriage and Divorce Should be Settled by Congress. annum of roin lie aure he on le .nil ItuflseVCIl 111 mi p ii;iu urges iuo riiiifiiiir-iii , pruWti. wis " l.l t'illlllXllU'll fUUU. . , Hie iiasNiiKi) of the mea tllO UOVl'I'lIIIICill i ,,( ai'l" :ll I" TlUlllUll CUHe ,,r law. ( ontlimliie, tl .i t strongly urKO me Ia ' ! ;11 iu questiou. a failure it il result iu seriously ham i!. .vennm-nt Iu ItH effort to in-. '. I'sjieoUilly against r liMiivlilmild or cortKinrtlous '.n-ni.i:. ana umy aiso prevent wrimniit from obtaining Justice h -. .wwnrki'M who are not them aUc effectively to contest a case !!.! ludimieut of nu Inferior imalnst them. I have vallv iii view ii recent decision iiisirl.t Judia leaving railway ithout remedy for vlola t tain so called labor statute upon:'. lire of euactiujt Into law irtu-iil.ir Mil In question is fur- ,(r,.!-,',l by the fact that the gov .nt Ims now definitely begun rot resorting to the crlmlnnl law a trust and Interstate commerce where such a course offers a rea le elm nee of success nnitirr I e of Injunction ay List message I suggested the wit of a law In connection wun since of Injunctions, attention Ix'imi sharply drawn to the mat- the demand that the right of ap iiiiunctlons In labor cases 1 le wholly abolished. It Is at .i.iiiitfiil whether a law abolish ML'c.tlier the use of Injunctions h cases would stand the test or arts, in which case, of course, the lion would be ineffective. More- I believe it would be wrong alto to prohibit the use of lnjunc- It is criminal to permit sym f,,r nriminnis to weaken our In unholdlnz the law, and If seek to destroy life or property b violence there should be no lm ?nt of the nower of the courts to with them In the most summary LW.rlv trnv nnssllllp. But SO n nniiiii the abuse of the power IJ Le provided against by some law as I advocated inst. year iralnat LvnchinS ii vnnp nttention and the atten f the nation to the prevalence of nnn.ncr ns and. above an. XO lue ale of lynching and moo violence iprings up now in one pun 01 um irr nun n ftnotlier. Hitttu ct- nurth, south, cast or west, nas imi fnnita. No section can wun ,m spend its time Jeering at tne of another section. It snouia ub hinrr in nmpnd Its own snort To deal with the crime or iin it la necessary to have an 'd public conscience nuu vo Client this by wuuiever iei...- uill add speed ami eeriuimy iu secullou of the law. W hen we ith lynching even more is neces- A great many white men nie i 'd, but the crime is pecuimnj .. nt in respect to biacu men. xu st existing cause of lynching Is ....tin psnec a V uy umca. of the hideous crime (if rape, the i, In a the category L UUUIlH"t .: nnvQA than muroer. iuue, even wlessnesa grows by what it feeds a, and when mobs begin to lynch ii orooriiiv extend tne rape iuej -. re of their operations and lynch :any other kinds or crimes, . i. Khlrds of the lyncbings are u. rape at all, while a coMiaeu artlon of tba Individuals lynched innocent of all crime. re is but one safe rule in dealing black men as with wnue . j i ... mnat no f TV i the same ruie mm. """ . i ...iw with rch men aim JU UCOUU& - - a n treat each man, U1CU 1 LI ill. , hia rreed or BIS BO- nosltion. with even handed Justice his real worth as a man. White Hie owe it quite as much to them ... . i inrod race to treat ty us iu mc w,vlv" , 11 the colored man who shows t7 Hie that he deserves sucn irra i nn niistlon of social equuii wgro domination Involved. la my judgment, the crime oald always be punished with death Is the case with murder. Assault Ith Intent to commit rape should be nde a capital crime, at least in tne scrotlon of the court, and provision -old be made by whlcn ine yuuM- at mav follow immeaiaieiy Ul- 1 1 AKn nffallQO t,-Dlrrr,tflfl TlolICV Call D mure suunDib"- - t agined than in the fancied interest one class to prevent tne eaucauv" another class. The white man, , Is wise, will decline to auow groes In a mass to grow ' - m and womanhood without educa- 4 .. . Mr nlnconlent." la dealing with both labor and cap si, with the questions affecting botn Orations and trades unions, there one matter more important w itiber than aught else, and that is Infinite harm done by preacum - discontent These are me ,... .h a violent class ua- WX IV CA.t. against all men of wealth, iney ti.m. ria and proper s for the better control 01 toif' and .for. flolng.. WW- wlul- uw abuses connected with wealth Into a campaign of hysterical excitement and falsehood Iu which the aim Is to Iu tin me to madness the brutal passions of mankind. The sinister demagogues and foolish visionaries who are always eager to undertake such a campaign of destruction sometimes seek to annex-late themselves with those working for a genuine reform In governmental and social methods aud sometimes mas nuorado as such reformers. In reality they are the worst enemies of the cause they profess to advocate. Just as the purveyor of sensational slander In uewspaper oi magazine are the worst enemies of all men who are engaged In au holiest effort to better what Is bad in our soclul and governmental condi tions. Corruption Is never so rife as In com munities where the demagogue andth agitator bear full sway, because In such communities all moral bands be come loosened, and hysteria and sensa tionalism replace the spirit of sound Judgment and fair dealing as between man and man. In sheer revolt against the squalid anarchy thus produced men are sure In the end to turn toward any leader who can restore order, and then their relief at being free from the In tolerable burdens of class hatred, vio lence and demagogy Is such that they cannot for some time bo aroused to In dignation against misdeeds by men of wealth, so that they permit a new growth of the very abuses which were In part responsible for the original out break. The one hope for success fot our people lies In a resolute and fear less but sane and cool headed advance along the path marked out last year by this very congress. There must 1 a stern refusal to be misled luto fol lowing either that base creature who appeals and panders to the lowest In stincts and passions In order to arouse one set Of Americans against their fel lows or that other creature, equally base, but no baser, who In a spirit of greed or to accumulate or add to an already huge fortune seeks to exploit bis fellow Americans with callous dis regard to their welfare of soul and body. The man who debauches others In order to obtain a high office stands on an evil equality of corruption with the man who debauches others for financial profit, and when hatred Is sown the crop which springs up can only be evil. The plain people who think-the me chanics, farmers, merchants, workers with head or hand, the men to whom American traditions are dear, who love their country and try to act decently by their neighbors-owe it to them selves to remember that the most dam aging blow that can be given popular government Is to elect an unworthy and slnlste? agitator on a platform of violence and hypocrisy. Railroad Employee' Honr. I call your attention to the need of passing the bill limiting the number of hours of employment of railroad em ployees. The measure Is a very moder ate one, and I can conceive of no seri ous objection to It. Indeed so far as It Is In our power. It should be our aim steadily to reduce the number of hours of labor, with as a goal the general In troductlon of an eight hour day. There are Industries In which It Is not pos sible that the hours of labor should be reduced, Just as there are communi ties not far enough advanced for such a movement to be for their good, or, f In the tropics, so situated that there Is no analogy between their needs and ours In this matter. On the Isthmus of Panama, for instance, the condi tions are in every way so different from what they are here that an eight hour day would be absurd, Just as it is absurd, so far as the Isthmus I con cerned, where white labor cannot be employed, to bother as to whether the necessary work Is done by alien black men or by alien yellow men. But the wageworkers of the United States are of so high a grade that al Ike from the merely industrial standpoint and from the civic standpoint It should be our object to do what we can In the direc tion of securing the general observance of an eight hour day. Yet me again urge that the congress provide for a thorough Investigation H the conditions of child labor and of the labor of women in the United States The horrors incident to the eSSment of young children in fac tories or at work anywhere are a blot 0nInOUs;ueVraH0precaut.ons exercised by emp oyers there are unavoidable ac cident and even deaths involved In nearly every line of business connect ed with the mechanic arts. It is a social injustice to compel the em- S Indus?? to the actual conditions un to f WW? that industry is carried on community for tiie ( fcy the Indus try is earn ea ff employer, be will promptly and prop erly add It to the legitimate cost of pro duction and assess It proportionately upon the consumers of his commodity. It Is therefor clear to my mind that the law should place this entire "risk of a trade" upon the employer. Capital and Labor DlapaOa. Records show that during the twen ty years from Jan. 1, 18-il. to Deo. 31, 1000, there were strikes affecting 117. 509 establishments, aud (),10.',QU em ployees wore thrown out of employ incut During tuo same period there were 1,005 lockouts, Involving nearly 10,000 establishments, throwing over 1,000,000 people out of employment. These strikes and lockouts Involved au estimated loss to employees of t'M'. 000,000 and to employers of $143,000. 000, a total of II.'O.OOO.OIK). The public sunereu uiroctiy ana iiuuructiy prou ably as great additional loss. Many of these strikes nml lockouts would not have occurred had the par ties to tho dispute beou required .to appear beforo an unprejudiced body representing the nation and, face to face, state the reasons for their con tention. The exercise of a judicial spirit by a disinterested body repre senting the federal government, such as would lie provided by a commission uu conciliation aud arbitration, would tend to create an atmosphere of friend liness and conciliation between con tending parties. Control of Corporations. It cannot too often be repeated that experience has conclusively suowa tno tmnosalbllitv of securlm: bv the actions of nearly half a hundred different state legislatures anything but Ineffective chaos Iu the way of dealing with the great corporations which do not oper ato exclusively within the limits of any one stute. Iu some method, wheth er by a national license law or In other fashion, we must exercise, aud that at an early date, a far more complete control than at preseut over these great corporations a control that will, among other things, prevent the evils of ex cessive overcapitalization and that will compel the disclosure by each big cor poration of Its stockholders and of Its properties and business, whether own ed directly or through subsidiary or affiliated corporations. This will tend to put a stop to the securing of Inor dinate profits by favored Individuals at the expeuse whether of the general public, the stockholders or the wage workers. 'f)ur effort should be not so much to prevent consolidation as such, but so to supervise and control It as to see that It results In no barm to the people. Combination of capital, like combina tion of labor, Is a necessary element of our present industrial system. It is not possible completely to prevent it and If It were possible such complete prevention would do damage to the body politic. What we need is not vainly to try to prevent all combina tion, but to secure such rigorous and adequate control and supervision of the combinations as to prevent their Injuring the public or existing In such form as luevltably to threateu Injury, for the mere fact that a combination has secured practically complete con trol of a necessary of life would under any clrcumstauces show that sScli combination was to be presumed to be adverse to the public interest. It is unfortunate that our preseut laws should forbid all combinations Instead of sharply discriminating between those combinations which do good aud thns combinations which do evil. Re bates, for instance, are as often due to the pressure of big shippers (as was shown in the Investigation of the Standard Oil company aud as has been shown since by the Investigation of the tobacco and sugar trusts) as to tho initiative of big railroads. Often rail roads would like to combine for the purpose of preventing a big shipper from maintaining Improper advantages at the expense of small shippers and of the general public. Such a combina tion, instead of being forbidden by law, should be favored. In other words, It should be permitted to railroads to make agreements, provided these agree ments were sanctioned by the inter state commerce commission and were published. With these two conditions complied with It is Impossible to see what harm such a combination could do to the public at large. Inheritance and Income Tax. The national government has long derived Its chief revenue from a tariff on imports and from an Internal or ex cise tax. In addition to these, there Is every reason why, when next our sys tem of taxation is revised, the national government should Impose a graduated Inheritance tax and, if possible, a grad uated income tax. I am well aware that such a subject as this needs long and careful study in order that the people may become fa miliar with what is proposed to be done, may clearly see the necessity of proceeding with wisdom and self re straint and may make up their minds Just how far they are willing to go in the matter, while only trained legisla tors can work out the project In neces sary detail. But I feel that In the near future our national legislators should enact a law providing for a graduated Inheritance tax by which a steadily in creasing rate of duty should be put upon all moneys or other valuables coming by gift, bequest or devise to any Individual or corporation. There can be no question of the ethical pro priety of the government thus deter mining the conditions upon which any gift or Inheritance should be received. As the law now stands it is undoubt edly difficult to devise a national in come tax which shall be constitutional. But whether it is absolutely Impossible Is another quesUon, and if possible It Is most certainly desirable. The first nurely income tax law was passed by the congress In 1861, but the most im portant law dealing with the subject was that of 1894. This the court held to be unconstitutional. n. ..ainn ia undoubtedly very In- tricate, delicate and troublesome. The decision of tbe court was urn by one majority. It is the law of the land and of course is accepted as such and loyally obeyed by all good clUsma. Nevertheless tbe hesitation evidently felt by the court as a whole in coming to a conclusion, when considered to gelhexwith previous dec.lslflnspjL.tho subject, niay'perbaps Indicate the pos slbillty of devising a constitutional In come tax law which shall substantially accomplish the results aimed at The difficulty of amending Iho coustltutlou la so grout that only real necessity can Justify a resort thereto. Every effort should be made In dealing with this ubject, as with tho subject of tho proper control by the national govern ment over tho use of corporate wealth In Interstate business, to devise legis lation which wllhout such action shall attain the desired eud, but If this falls there will ultimately be no alternative to a constitutional amendment. tnduatrlal Tralnlnar. Our Industrial development depends largely upon technical education, In cluding In this term all Industrial edu cation, from that which (Its a man to be a good mechanic, a good carpenter or blacksmith to that which fits a man to do the greatest engineering feat The skilled mechanic, the skilled work man, can best bocouio such by tech nical Industrial education. The far reaching usefulness of Institutes of technology and schools of mlues or of engineering Is now universally ac knowledged, and no less far reaching Is the effect of a good bulldlug or me chanical trades school, a textile or watchmaking or engravlug school. In every posslblo way we should help tho wageworlter who tolls with bla bands aud who must (we hopo In a constantly Increasing measure) also toll with his brain. Under the constitu tion the national legislature cau do but little of direct Importance for his wel fare save where he Is engaged In work which permits It to act under tbe In terstate commerce clauso of the consti tution, and this Is one reason why I so earnestly hope that both the legis lative and judicial branches of the goT ernment will construe this clause of the constitution in the broadest possi ble manner. Tno Farmer. The only other persons whose wel fare Is as vital to the welfare of the whole country as Is the welfare of the wageworkers are the tillers of the soil, the farmers. Several factors must co-operato In the improvement of the farmer's con dition. He must have the chance to bo educated in the widest possible sense. In the sense which keeps ever In view the intimate relationship between the theory of education and the facts of life. Organization has become necessary In the business world, and it has ac mmniished much for good in the world of labor. It Is no less necessary for farmers. Such a movement as tne grange movement Is good In Itself and Is capable of a well nigh Infinite fur ther extension for good so long as It Is kept to its own legitimate business. ti iwiiipfltH to be derived by the as sociation of farmers for mutual ad vantage are partly economic ana part ly sociological. Irrigation and Forral Preservation. Hfnch Is now being done for the etnt0n nt the Rockv mountains and great plains through the development of the national policy or irngnuuu uuu forest nreservatlon. No government policy for the betterment of our Inter- nnl conditions has been more irumm of good thau this. Divorce Learlalatlon. I am well aware of how difficult It Is to nnss a constitutional amendment Nevertheless, In my Judgment, the whole question or marriage ana ui should be relegated to the au thority of the national congress. Tbe ohniiro n-nnld be irood from every standpoint. In particular It would be good because It would confer on the congress the power at once to deal radically and efficiently with polygamy, and this should be done whether or not marriage and divorce are dealt with. It Is neither safe nor proper to lonve the miestlon of polygamy to be dealt with by the several states. Merchant Marine. It me once again call the attention of the congress to two subjects con cerning which I have frequently be fore communicated with them. One Is the question of developing American shipping. I trust that a law embody ing In substance the views or a major part of the views expressed In the re port on this subject lam oerore tue hniiso nr its last session will be passed. rt oooma tn ma that the proposed meas ure Is as nearly unobjectionable as any can be. The Currency. t osneeiallv call your attention to the ,! ..ihit iha rnnditlnn of our DtUUU DUUJtVI) - currency laws. The national bank act has ably served a great purpose In aid ing the enormous business develop ment of the country, and within ten years there has been an Increase In circulation per capita irom i.a vo $33.08. For several years evidence has been accumulating that additional leg- uintlnn 1st needed. The recurrence or each crop season emphasizes the de fects of the present laws. There must soon be a revision of them, because to leave them as they are means to in nir Ilnhilltv of business disaster. Since your body adjourned there has been a fluctuation In the interest on can monov from 2 per cent to 30 per cent and the fluctuation was even greater during the preceding six months, xne secretary of tho treasury had to step In and by wise action put a stop to the most violent period of oscillation. I do not press any especial plan. Va rious nlnns have recently been pro posed by expert committees of bank ers. Among the plans wmcu are possi kh fonaihlR and which certainly should receive your consideration Is that re peatedly brought to your attention u the present secretary of the treasury, the essential features of which have been approved by many prominent bankers and business men. According to this plan, national banks should be permitted to Issue a specified propor tion of their capital In notes of a given irtnii th Issue to be taxed at so high a rate as to drive the notes back when not wanted In legitimate trade, lnis l not nermlt the issue of currency to give banks additional prof- Its, but to meet the emergency present ed by times of stringency. I do not say that this is the right sys tem I only advance it to emphasize my belief that there is neea ior me of as to adoption of some system which shall be automatic ana open w an souuu bunks ao as to avoid all possibility discrimination aud favoritism. Tk. law alum Id be amended ao pacifically to provide that the funds .Hiai tmm rnatoms duties may be Mill I . ' . - - - iiv flia aooretiirr of the treas ury as he treats funds obtained under thn Internal reveuue laws, inero aiinnid be a considerable Increase bills of small denominations. I'eruiia ainn ahoniii ha aivsn banks. If necessa ry under sottled restrictions, to retire their circulation to a larger amount than three millions a montn. Oar Oatlylne Poaaeaaloaa. I most esruustlv bone that the bill provide a lower tariff for or else abso lute free trade In rblllpplne products will bccoino a law. No harm will come to any Amorlcau Industry, and, while thnrn will be some small but real mate rial beueflt to the Filipinos, the main benefit will come by tho showing maae as to our purpose to do all In our power for their welfare. Porto Klcaa Affalra. American citizenship should be con ferred on the citizens of 1'orto Rico. The harbor of San Juan, In Torto Rico, ahnnlil ha dredircd and Improved. The expenses of the federal court of Porto Rico should be met from tin reuerai treasury. Hawaii. The needs of Uawall are peculiar. Every aid should be given the Islands, and our efforts should be unceasing to dovelop them aloug the lines of a com munity of small freeholders, not or great planters with cooly tilled es tates. Alaaka. Alaska's needs have been partially mot but there must be a complete re organization of the governmental sys tem, as I fcave before indicated to you. I ask your especial attention to this. Our fellow citizens who dwell on the shores of Puget sound with character istic energy are arranging to hold in Seattle the Alaska-Yukon-Paclflc ex position. This exposition In Its pur nnxea and scot)e should appeal not oiWy to the people of the Pacific slope, but to the peeple of tbe Lulted btates at large. Hlgiita of Allen. Not onlv must we treat all nations fairlv. but we must treat with Justice and good will all immigrants who come here under the law. W hetber tbey are Catholic or Protestant Jew or gentile, whether they come from England or Germany, Russia, Japan or Italy, mat ters nothlns. All we have a right to question Is the man's conduct If be la honest and UDrlKht In bis dealings with his neighbor and with the state, then he Is entitled to respect and good treatment Especially do we need to remember our duty to the stranger within our eates. It Is the sure mark of a low civilization, a low morality, to abuse or discriminate against or in any wav humiliate such stranger who has come here lawfully and who is con ducting himself properly.' To remem ber this Is Incumbent on every Amer ican citizen, and It is of course pecul iarly Incumbent on every government official, whether of the nation or of the several states. 1 am nromnted to say this by the attitude of hostility here and there as sumed toward tbe Japanese In this coilntry. This hostility Is sporadic and Is limited to a very few places, rsever theless It is most discreditable to us as a people, and It may be fraught with the gravest consequences to tne nation, I ask fair treatment for the Japanese as I would ask fair treatment for Ger mans or Englishmen, Frenchmen, Rus sians or Italians. I ask it as due to humanity and civilization. I ask it as due to ourselves, because we must act uprightly toward all men. I recom mend to the congress that an act be passed specifically providing for the naturalization of Japanese who come here intending to become American cit izens. One of the great embarrass ments attending the performance of our international obligations Is the fact that the statutes of the United States are entirely inadequate. They fall to give to the national government sufficiently ample power, through Unit ed States courts and by the use of the army and navy, to protect aliens in the rights secured to them under solemn treaties which are the law of the land. I therefore earnestly recommend that the criminal and civil statutes of the United States be so amended and add ed to as to enable the president acting for the United States government, which is responsible In our interna tional relations, to enforce the rights of aliens under treaties. The Cuban Matter. Last August an insurrection broke out in Cuba which it speedily grew evi dent that the existing Cuban govern ment was powerless to quell. Thanks to the preparedness of our navy, I was able Immediately to send enough ships to Cuba to prevent the situation from becoming hopeless, and I fur thermore dispatched to Cuba the sec retary of war and tbe assistant secre tary of state in order that they might grapple with the situation om the ground. In accordance with the so called Piatt amendment, which was embod ied in the constitution of Cuba, I there upon proclaimed a provisional govern ment for the island, the secretary of war acting as provisional governor un til he could be replaced by Mr. Magoon, the late minister to Panama and gov ernor of the canal zone on theJsthmus. Troops were sent to support them and to relieve the navy, the expedition be ing handled with most satisfactory speed and efficiency. Peace has come In the Island, and the harvesting of the sugar cane crop, the great crop of the Island, is about to proceed. When the election has been held and the new government inaugurated in peaceful and orderly fashion tne provisions government will come to an end. The United States wishes nothing of Cuba except that it shall prosper mor ally and materially and wishes nothing of the Cubans save that they shall be able to preserve order among them wives and therefore to preserve their The Reformer till Jan. 1, 1908, to new tnbscribers, S1.50. , Independence. If the elections become a farce and if the insurrectionary bablt becomes confirmed on the Island it la absolutely out of the question that the Island should continue independent, and tbe Uulted States, which has as sumed tbe sponsorship before the civ ilized world for Cuba's career as a na tion, would again have to luterveue and to see that tbe government waa managed in such orderly fashion as to secure tbe safety of life and property. The Rio Coalerenoe. The second International conference of American republics, held In Mexi co In the years 1001-02, provided for the holding of the third conference within five years and committed tbe fixing of the time and place and the arrangements for the conference to the governing board of the bureau of American republics, composed of the representatives of all the American nations In Washington. That board discharged tbe duty imposed upon It with marked fidelity and pains taklug care, aud upon tho courteous Invitation of the United Statee of Bra zil the conference was held at Rio de Janeiro, continuing from the 23d of July to the 20th of August last. Many subjects of common Interest to all the American nations were discussed by tho conference, and the conclusions reached, embodied In a Berles of reso lutions and proposed conventions, will be laid before you upon tbe coming of the final report of the American dele gates. Panama Trip. I have Just returned from a trip to Panama and shall report to you at length later on the whole subject of the Panama canal. The Alareclra Convention. The Algeclras convention, which was signed by the United States as well as by most of the powers of Europe, su persedes the previous convention of 1880, which was also signed botn ny the United States and a majority of tho European powers. This treaty confers upon us equal commercial rights with all Eurojiean countries and does not entail a single obligation of any kind upon us, and I earnestly bope It may be speedily ratified. leallna-. The destruction of tbe Prlbllof Is land fur seals by pelagic sealing still continues. Tbe herd, which, according to the surve y made In 1874 by direc tion of the congress, numbered 4,700,- 000, and which, according to the sur vey of both American and Canadian commissioners In 1801, amounted to 1,000,000, has now been reduced to about 180,000. This result has been brought about by Canadian and some otber sealing vessels killing the female seals while In the water during their annual pilgrimage to and from the south or In search of food. The process of destruction has been accelerated during recent years by the appearance of a number of Japanese vessels engaged in pelagic sealing. Suitable representations regarding the Incident have been, jpade tp the government of Japan", and we are ae aured that all practicable measures will be taken by that country to prevent any recurrence of the outrage. We have not relaxed our efforts to secure an agreemeut with Great Brit ain for adequate protection of tbe aeaf herd, and negotiations with Japan for the same purpose are Iu progress. The laws for tbe protection of the seals within the Jurisdiction of tbe United States need revision and amendment Second Haarao Conference. In my last message I advised you that the emperor of Russia bad taken tbe Initiative In bringing about a sec ond peace conference at Tbe Hague. Under the guidance of Russia the ar rangement of the preliminaries for auch a conference has been progressing during the past year. Progress nas necessarily been slow, owing to the great number of countries to be con suited upon every question that baa arisen. It Is a matter of satisfaction that all of the American republics have now, for the first time, been invited to Join in tbe proposed conference. Armr aad Nary. It must ever be kept In mind that war Is not merely Justifiable, but Im perative upon honorable men, upon an honorable nation, where peace can onlv be obtained bv the sacrifice of conscientious conviction or of national welfare. The United States navy Is tbe surest guarantor of peace which this country possesses. I do not ask that we con tinue to Increase our navy. I asa merelv that It be maintained at Its present strength, and this can be done only If we. replace the obsolete and out worn shins bv new and good ones, the annuls of anv afloat in any navy. To stop bulldlug ships for one year means that for that year the navy goes dbck Instead of forward. In both the armr and the navy there Is urgent need that everything possible should be done to maintain tbe highest standard for the personnel alike as re gards tbe officers and the enlisted men. I do not believe that In any service there Is a finer body of enlisted men and of Junior officers than we have In both tbe army and the navy. Including the marine corps. West Point and Annapolis already turn out excellent officers. We do not need to bave these schools made more scholustlc. On the contrary, we should never lose sight of the fact that the aim of each school Is to turn out a man who shall be above everything else a fighting man. There should soon be an increase in the number of men for our coast de fenses. These men should be of the right type and properly trained, and there should thererore be an increase of nav for certain skilled grades, espe cially In tbe coast artillery. Money should be appropriated to permit troops to be massed In body and exercised In maneuvers, particularly In marching. 8UBSCEIBE TOR THB REFORMER. Does What Other Stoves FailtoBo i ,. y :o: Tn almost cvprv house there is a room that Uie neat irom tne otlirr atnves or furnace fails to reach. It may be a room, on h. athr" aid, or one havin? no heat mntiivi. Tt mav be a cold hallway. No mat ter in what part of the house whether room or hallway it can soon be made snug and cozy with a PERFECTION Oil Heater iFnulnned with Smokeless Device) Unlike ordinary oil heaters the Perfection gives satisfaction .1 rr: (nramnet it ia ahuilutelv safe vou cannot turn the wick too high or too low. Gives intense heat without c .!,,. nr 0,r,n hffrannA rnninned with smokeless device. Can be easily carried from room to room. As easy to operate as a lamp. Ornamental as well as useful. Made in two finishes nickel and japan. Brass oil fount beautifully embossed. Holds 4 quarts of oil and burns 9 hours. There'sreal satisfaction in a reflection uu nearer. Every heater warranted. If not at your dealer's write our nearest agency for descriptive circular. Tm T makes the home bright. for all-round household nt e. Gives a clear, steady ,it. imtr1 with Intest Improved burner. Made of brass throughput and n ckel ph. Every lamp warranted. Suitable for library, dining room, oarlor or bedroom. If not at your dealer's write to nearest agency. STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF NEW YORK Butchers and Hide Dealers Should send their Hides, Skins, Pelts, Tallow and Bones to CARROLL S. PACE, HYDE PARK, VERMONT. READ WHAT HE DOES: He pays spot cash. He pays the freight. He keeps you posted at all times on prices and market con ditions. - , .. He furnishes, free of charge, tags, advice sheets, directions showing the best method of taking off and handling Hides and Skins; also posters and other advertising matter: He furnishes cash with which to make your purchases. He employs no high salaried agents to collect stock, but depends for consignments entirely upon his reputation for square He'offers you his 51 years' experience in Hides and Skins as a guaranty that your consignments will be properly handled. Write for Price-Lists and Full Particulars. J.? 7"- 1 .