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io THE OMAHA DAILY BEE : . SUNDAY MTGUST 22 , 1S8G.-TWELYE PAGES.
THE COUNTY SEAT OF CASS , From the Ploddiug Town of Plattsmouth , STEADY GROWTH OF THE TOWN. Itnllronilx , I'actorlcs , anil Htisliicsu Improvements The Campaign Wn.xlnjr AVnrin HnWmtli Day Scenes. Pi-ATTsMOfTll , Nob. , August 17. [ Cor respondence of the DICK.J 'flic perspec tive view of Plaltsmotilh from the D. & M. depot is "a delusion and a snare. " Hedged m by towering blnil's , the trav eler from north , east or west gets a very limited and nol over-pleasing glimpse of thu thriving suburb of Omaha from Ihe oars. A walk up Main street , however , with its rows of two and three-story brick blocks , well filled and attractive stores , plate-glass fronts , anil hern and there a tumble-down shanty , the monuments ol local Tom Murrays , will convince ono that the town is steadily pushing ahead nnd overcoming disheartening obstacles 5n the path of progress. Till : CITV AND rol'NTV Iltril.PIVdS have been "touched up" and freshened by Iho addilion of .signs proclaiming tlio nature of their business. Hero and there clusters of antique moss poop over Iho parapets ; sun-dried brick , grown weary of tlio job , have parted company and threaten to crack a head at any moment ; the bald-headed portals creak with the ngo and rust of generations , and the windows dews only lack a plugging of old clothes in broken panes to complete the picture of desolation and decay. U i.s dangerous to life and limb to point out Ihis sickly mass of ruins to a resident , and L look for its early destruction by gunpow der or dynamite. Elegant residences arc going up in goodly numbers on tlm various hillsides. Hero tiie laslc of thu builders is displayed in numerous gable.- , mansard roots , and an occasional mixture of ancient and modern .styles. These architectural abom inations are relieved occasionally by wide and swooping verandas , the only graceful feature of the buildings. The progress and prosperity of the people are plainly tdiown , however , in Iho'improved appear ance of the homes recently built or now under oonlriict. "The town i.s gelling to the front in pood.shape"said a business man. "There lias nol been a business failure of any consequence in live years , and very few ineichants complain of I lie season's trade. The finances of the city are in good shape , and the public improvements con templated will put tlio city in advance of any of equal population in the stale. " The assessed valuation of city properly approaches $1,000,000 , the three bank's have a capital of ' , ' 50,000 , and ! ? 50OUOare , invested in manufacturing enterprises , now in their infancy. The railroad shops are lliu backbone of Iho city. They are in reality Iho only manufacturing shops of the llurlington west of the river. The plant is a complete one and can turn out anvtlting from a coupling-pin to a loco motive. The pay-roll ot tlio company averages $ : J.,000 > a month in this cily. run r.rsiN'Kss OK TIIK KAIUIOAD i.s quite largo and worthy tlio attention of other roads seeking profitable business points. The location of the D. & M. is biieh that it cannot properly accommo date its patrons without the expenditure of vast sums of money in grading down the bluffs encompassing the road. A striu of about Ihreu hundred yards opens out on a level with the road ; at cither end the earth lowers up from lifty to ono hundred foot freaks of nature as useless as warts and as ornamental as sore thumbs. Of the level strip referred to the company has purchased some two hundred feet in depth , on which it con templates erecting a depot at some re mote period , or sooner if a competing line strikes the city. At present there is ' in business circlcs'a scarcity of independ ence and backbone on the railroad ques tion. It i.s n plant of gradual growth , but it is slowly gathering slrcngtii through commercial necessity , and is likely to assert itself within a year in Iho filiapo of a bonus to a rival line from the soulh or west. The business of tlio B. & M. hero aggregates $125,000 , a year for freight and ! ? .V5,000 tor passengers. LAST SI-KINO 1IONU3 WKltl-1 VOTED and the contract let to the Inman broth ers , of New York , for the construction of a system of water works. For some unexplained reason tlio contractors have delayed Iho work on various pretexts , and it i.s fen rod that thu winter's snows will nip the job. The latest assurance received from the Inmans was that work would begin this week. The citizens are anxious for a beginning , and , like mar tyrs of old , calmly await the coming of the plumber and his bill. The works proper and house connections will in- volyo an outlay of fully fJSO.OOO. The Plattsmouth canning factory baa entered upon its second year with ils ca pacity doubled to meet the demand for its products , The building is a commo dious frame striioturo , painted red , of course , to symbolize ils business vim and vitality. The company expects to place half a million cans of corn , tomatoes , beans and pens on tlio market this sea son , and tickle the stockholders with a liberal dividend. In the northwest corner of the town a handsomely rounded brick chimney rises among the hills and sends forth clouds of flinoku from the brick kilns buneiith. The method of burning brick bore is now in this region , and has so far proved suc cessful In economizing fuel , equalizing thu heat and producing brick of the requisite hardness and linish. The kiln Is a permanent fiomi-circular striioturo of varying tlueknoss , with doors ton feet apart. A temporary roof of boards sur mounts it. Hero the brick is first dried by wood lira in the doors. The drying process ovur , tlm doors nro plugged and Ihe lires on top started. Thu heat is car ried down through the kiln by the drafts of Ilia stack , while the heavy black smoke passes through the roof without discol oring a brick. This industry was started by local capitalists , wh6 will doubtless harvest a snug return on their invest incut. Till ! CAMI'AION is growing warm with thu approach of September. The city nnd county , like many others In the state , are atllictcd with a class of political perfectionists who imagine that the planets move and Iwvo their bolng In their personal attrac tions. Several of the alleged leaders are old and sulllciently worthless to orna ment n funeral procession , but 1'rovi- donco. for some inscrutable reason , per mits thorn to live on and pile up torments for the horoattor. So great and over whelming is their love for the republican party that ho who refuses to "bond the pregnant hinges of the knee , " that polit ical thrift might follow , is ostracized and forbidden to enter the sacred precincts of the caucus. District Attorney Strode and Political Danker Patterson , with a few others , have taken the contract to deliver the county to the anti-Van Wyck and Howe faction. This pair of perspiring deities have publicly declared themselves on this line , Strode has been uncom monly successful us a criminal prosecutor , especially in cases whore the criminal confesses and pleads guilty. Ho is now anxious to go to the legislature and re model the codo. Of Patterson it can bo said that ho has for years handled the pity Riul county funds with interest for him self and the trpitsuiors. Ho is a skillful distributor of political boodle , and will bear close and constant watching. These smallwarts and their followers arc espe cially bitter against Senator Van Wyck. They are thoroughly competent , by na ture and acquirements , to suppress the honest sontinionls of the people ami de liver the county delegation Io his one- inics. Ono hears very little of Church Howe In Ihis neighborhood. On the quiet it is given out thai Hie west end of tlio county , where tin- Missouri Pacilicgravel trains blossom , Howe will have a sirong following , and if Hie smallwarls of the east end succeed , the county convention will declare for 'i'cll't and deliver the del- egalion to Horn * . This plan looks well on paper , bill I can confidently assert that I lie primaries will not be a jug-handle atl'air ; in fact , II.c supporlcrs of the senior senator among republicans out number the slate-maker.s , and will ba thoroughly armed for the fray when the time conies. The vain-glorious boasts of Hie mill's reek Hie air at present. The September avalanche will stop their wind. TIIK sAiiiiATii tuv In I'laltsmouth is not devoid of interest. The natives , young and old , divide their lime between the depol , Hie po-dollico and the churches. The variety of lawns , ribbons and seersucker suits at either place is charming Io Iho eye. The belles and beaux troop trout church Io the post- ollico al noon. The latter pose their im mature forms or. the sidewalk , brush Iho down on their upper lips with infantile canes or jeweled lingers , and by winks and knowing nods invite Hie irirls Io "gel on Io my shape. " Tlieso curbstone mashers are a necessary allllction in large nnd small cities , nifd no cure for the evil has yet been discovered. One group of throe young men .standing in a doorway attracted my attention by the nervous anxiety of their looks. They peered up and down the street , and furtively glanced at the barred and curtained doors of a store across the way. A side door soon opened and a man appeared carrying a closely wrap'icd package under his arm. Hi ! hurried' the group , delivered the goods and vanished. The latter . - > hot around a corne11. Convinced that there was some crookedness here , I followed. Around corners , up streets and alleys they ditrled , and finally brought up in a livery stable. Hero the goods were di vided. "Hit it quick , " whispered the leader of the parly as the owner of the stable appeared in the distance. The "hitting" was done without further par ley , anil an empty botllo How through a back window as the slablcman entered Iho door.tlVhy \ this unseemly haste ? " I inquired. "Is this man a prohibition spy ? " "No , bo's a two-legged hojj and would kick like a bay mule if ho didn't get halt of it. " 1 afterwards learned that Sunday prohibition prevails here , and not a drop can be had without the countersign. F. BULLY HAYES. A Pest of tlio 1'aclllc Occun Now Hap pily Kvtlnut. Unity Hayes began his career as a pilot on tlio Mississippi river. One day he turned up in Shanghai , and soon after lie suddenly disappeared. A stanch little Kcliooner that had been at anchor in the harbor was simultaneously missed , Dully Hayes had begun his career as a trader and buccaneer. The .New York Sun prints some edifying stories of that career , and these among the rest : Ono of the smartest tricks Dully Hayes over played was when ho outwitted the authorities of Victoria , Australia , and made several thousands of dollars by being a person of fertile resources. It was at the lime when the provinces of South Australia feared that they were going Io be overrun with Chinese , and so to restrict immigration Victoria imposed an entrance tax of $ . " > 0 a head. One day Dully Hayes landed at a , Chinese port and loaded up with immigrants for Australia. lie took care to collect his passage and head tax money in advance , for as owner of his craft he would beheld hold responsible for the tax on every Chinaman ho landed at Melbourne. After tilling every corner of his vessel with Chinese laborers lie set sail for Australia , and in duo time arrived oil' Melbourne harbor. Then lie set to work and pumped his vessel half full of water , set a distress signal on his topmast , lit his pipe , and sot down Io await developments. It was not long before a government vessel bore down upon him to learn what was tlio matter. "I'm in a sinking condition , " yelled Dully Hayes , as she came alongside. "I want to save my ship , but I can't live with all my cargo aboard. If you'll take oil'the Chinamen I think I can make the harbor. " The Cinnamon were transferred to the government vessel with great alacrity , and were carried oil'to Melbourne. Then Dully Hayeh pumped his vessel dry and set sail for one of his island retreats. Ho had landed his load of Cinnamon in Australia , and the tax of $50 a head was jingling in his own pocket. One of the meanest capers that Dully Hayes over perpetrated was when ho robbed a party ot missionaries who took passage with him from the Fiji islands tea a new lield of labor. Ono of the mis sionaries scorns to have had .misgivings that something was going Io happen , for before sailing no oxacteua promise from Dully Hayes that lie would land him and all Ins goods and chattels safe and sound. During the voyage Dully Hayes com pelled bis crew , under peril of the rope , to co forward every morning to attend divine service. Ho said ho was running a missionary ship , and that it was the ehanoo of a lifetime to become pious and respectable. When the party reached thinr destination ho landed Brother Crawford's goods as ho prom ised , but when the other missionaries asked for their property Dully Hayes coolly said that ho know nothing about the matter , Ho swore by all that was good and holy that not a box or a bundle of theirs had been put on board. There they were among savages , with no tribu nal within hundreds of miles to protect thorn from the robber. Ho set sail with his plunder , and It wnsnftorwar'd learned that he sold the missionary outlit among the islands that ho visited In his cruise. Hully Hayes' missionary trip was a very prohtablo one. On one occasion ho had a quarrel with his mate and ho knocked that worthy down by hilling him on the head with a bag containing $2CO in gold and silver.- Then ho pitched the bag and its contents over tlio side into the sea , saying that any money that had touched such a skunk as his mate wasn't lit to bo handled , The mate was lucky to escape with his life , for Dully Hayes had a terri ble temper and during his career killed several men with whom ho had fallen out. Although Btorlcs of his lawlessness were rlfo in almost every island in the 1'ftoifio , Dully Hayes never once foil into the clutches of the law. Ho always at tributed his gooil luck to the fact that he was a total abstainer. Ho often said that whisky would ruin any man. A correspondent of the Mining nnd Scientific Press calls attention to the tin- usually high fineness of the value of gold found in two of the mines of Tuolumne county , ( Jala. higher than that of any other gold quartz mine in any country , it U claimed. The Jinenoss of the gold from one 01 those mines is stated to be ,083 , or $20.33 per ounce , and that from the other is 0501 , or 110.01 per otinco. When it is considered that tba value of chemically pure gold , one thousand line , is $00,0718 per ounce , the close approach to absolute purity of the gold found in these mines is remarkable. There are forty-nine clubs in Springfield - field , Mass. . organised for the express Curposo of furnishing liquors .to mom- ers. TIIE MAY DAY REVOLUTION , Andrew Oarnegie Roviws the Eight-Hour Struggle of tabor. USEFUL AND NEEDED LESSONS. A Short History ofthc Strlkivsiind tlio HonctUs Accnilnit to hnboraml Capital Substnu tlat I'roj- rcss Noted. Atvlrtir rni-nrgl ? 1 Tlir Fnnon. When thu article published in the April number of Iho Forum was written , labor and capital were at peace , each perform ing its proper function ; capital providing for the wants of labor , and labor regu larly discharging its dally task. Dut be fore that paper reached lliu public , the most serious labor revolt that ever oc curred in tills country was upon us. Capital , frightened almost into panic , began to draw back into its strongholds , and many leaders of public opinion seemed to lese self-command. Among the number were not a few of our fore most political economists. These writers of the closet , a small but important class in this country , removed from personal contact with o very-day a ( fairs , and unin formed of the solid basis of virtue in lliu wage-receiving class upon which Amer ican society rests , necessarily regarded such phenomena frosi a purely specula tive standpoint. Some of them appar ently thought thai Iho fundamental insti tutions uion which peaceful development depends had been , if not completely overthrown , al least gravely endangered , and that civilization itself had received a rude shock from the disturbance. Moro than one did not hositalo to intimate lhat the weakness of democratic institutions lay at the foundation of the revolt. Sug gestions were made thai the sulfrago should bo contincd to the educated , that the masses might bo held in stricter bonds. When wo hoar tlio cry of those alarmists wo are templed Io reverse tlio rebuke of the sacred Teacher : They are always troubled more by the mole in their own country's ' eye than bvlho beam in the eye of oilier lands. They forgel lhat nol sixty days before monarchical Delgitim was convulsed with labor re volts , compared with which ours were in.signilicant and practically harmless. That country , with its five and a half millions of inhabitants , had more rioters than the United Slates , with its fifty-six millions ; and instead of restoring peace , as this country did , by means of thu established forces of order , the Delgian government had to abandon for a time all law , and publicly authorize every citi zen to wage private war against tiie in surgents. Our magazines , reviews and news papers have been filled with plans in volving radical changes , considered necessary by these sciolists for the resto- rution and maintenance of propel rela tions between capital and labor. The pulpit has been equally prolific. Thirty days have not elapsed since the excite ment was at its height , and yet to-day capilal anil labor are again co-operaliiif everywhere , as at Iho dale of my lirst paper , and wo arc now in position to judge of the extent of the disturbance and to reduce the spectre Io its real di mensions. It will boon be seen that what occurred was a very inadequate cause for the alarm created. The eruption was not in ilself a very serious matter , either-ill its extent or in it.s consequences. Its lesson lay in the indications it gave of the forces underlying it. There arc in the United States to-day a total of more than twenty millions of workers who earn their bread by the .sweat ot their brow in trade and transportation alone there are more than seven millions. At the very height of the revolt not more than HO.OUO ot llieso had temporarily ceased to labor- This was the estimate given by "Dradslrccl's" on the Mth of May. Three days later it was 80,001) ) , and four days after that only 47,000. The remaining millions continued to pursue their usual avocations in peace. It i.s fair to assume that the number reported on the Mth of May included all those who were dissal- isliud and had requested advance of wages or redress of grievances , but were not really strikers at all. A demonstration that shrinks to ono fourth its size from the Mtli to the 17th of May , nnd then again to one-half it.s remaining proportions tions in tlio next throe days , can .scarcely bo called a contest. The number of those involved in a serious struggle with capi tal did not , therefore , at any ono time exceed 00,000 , not 1 per cent of the total wage-receiving class in tlio branches where alone labor troubles occurred. How then , one is tempted to ask , did so small an interruption seem so great ? Why was it taken for granted that a < ron- oral revolt of labor had taken place when not one worker in a hundred had really entered upon a contest ? Thu reason for the delusion is obvious. The omnipresent press , with the electric felegrapn at ils command , spreads thu report of a local disturbance in East St. Louis over tlio entire Ihrco million square miles of the land. It is felt almost as distinctly in Now Orleans , Boston and San Francisco as in the city of St. Louis itself , upon Iho opposilo side of Iho river. Tlio thoughts of men throughout the country concen trate upon this ono point of outbreak. Excitable natures fancy tlio trouble to bo general , and oven imagine that the very ground trembles under their own feet. In this way the potty local dilliculty upon the Wabash system of railways , which involved only tt,700 Knights of Labor , and a strike of a few hundred men on the Third Avenue railway , Now York , to gether with a few trilling and temporary disputes at other points , were magnified into a general warfare between capital and labor. There were but a low local skirmishes ; peace already rolgnsj nnd our professors and political economists and the wholu school of pessimists who tremble for the safety of human society in general , and of the republic in partic ular , and the ministers that have boldly essayed to revolutionize existing condi tions , are free to lind another subject for their anxious fears and forebodings. The relations between capital and labor , which have slowly evolved themselves in the gradual development of thu race , will not bo readily changed. The solid walls with which humanity fortlhcs itself in each advanced position indued m its toil some march forward will not fall to the ground at Iho blast of trumpets. Present conditions have grown up slowly , and can bo changed for tlio boiler only slowly and by small , successive stops. A short history of the disturbances will , how ever , furnish many useful and needed lessons , The trouble grow , its many serious troubles do grow , from a triilo. A loader of the Knights of Labor was dismissed. Whether the fact that ho was a labor loader influenced his superior to dismiss him wilt probably never bo known ; but this much is to bo said , that it was very likely to do so , Salaried oflicialu in thu service of largo corporations are naturally disposed to keep under them only such men as give them no trouble. On the other hand , the safety of ils loaders Is the kuy of labor's posllion. To surrender this is to surrender every thing. Eyon if the loader in question had not been as regularly at work as other men , oyen if hu had to take days now and then to attend to ollicial duties ( or his breth ren , the superior of that man should have dealt very leniently with him. The men cannot know wlioljipr their leader i itnckcn down for .vrqper cause or nofi ; bul , al Iho snme thnojithev cannot help suspecting. And here I calltheattonllon of impartial minds' ' w Ihe clemenls of manhood and Ihe high sense of honor and loyally displaced' upon the part of working men who < Acrllifo so much and throw themselves in the * front of the con flict to secure the safety of their standard- bearers. Everything reasonable can be done with men of tins spirit. The lovnlly which they show to ihoir leaders can bo transferred fo their emplovors bv treat ing them as such men deserve. Society has nothing to fear from men so staunch and loyal to one atmtlier. Nor is lite loy ally shown in this invbuicc exceptional ; it distinguishes working men as a clnss. Mr. Irons has said that "one hour's gen tlemanly courtesy on the pnrtof the man ager would have averted nil this disas ter. " Whether Ihis 1)U true or not , the slalemcnl should not bo overlooked , for it is true lhat one hour of courtesy on Ihe parl of employers would prevent many strikes. \ \ liether Ihe men ask In proper manner for interviews , or observe all Ihe rules of etiquette , is Immaterial. Wo expect from the presumably better in formed party representing capital much more in this respect than from labor , nnd it is not askingtooniuchof men intrusted with the management of great properties that they should devote some part of their atlenlion tosoarehingouttho causes of dlsall'ection among their employes , and where any exist , that they should meet the men more than half-way in the endeavor to allay them. There U nothing but good for both parties to be derived from labor teaching the representative of capital the dignity of man , as man. The working man , becoming more and more intelligent , will heroailor demand the treatment due to an equal. The strikers at lirst were excusable , even if mistaken , in imagining that their leader had been stricken down ; but , under the excitement of conflict , violence was resorted to ; and further , an attempt was made to drag into thu quarrel railwav lines that had nothing to do with it. The men took up these wrong positions and were deserv edly driven irom them. And labor here received a salutary lesson , namely , that nothing is to be gained by violence and lawlessness , nor by endeavoring to un justly punish the innocent for tlio sins of the guilty. Public sentiment , alway.s dis posed to side with labor , was with the men at lirst , bul soon finding itself un able to sanction their doings , H veered Io tlio other sido. When the strikers lost that indispensable ally they lost all. The other branch of the revolt of labor occurred in Now York city , where the employes of the Third Avenue railway struck for fewer hours and better pay. If ever a strike was justifiable this one was. It is simply disgraceful for a cor poration to compel its men to work ( if teen or sixteen hours a day. Such was the verdict of the public , and the men won a deserved victory. Hero again , as at St. Louis , for lack of proper leadership , they wont too far , and in iheir demand for the employment of certain men and tlio ills missal of others , they lost Ihcir only sure support public sentiment. This was compelled Io decide against their final demands , and consequently they failed , and deservedly failed. How completely public sentiment , When aroused , compels obedience , us we hvo : oen it did , both tit St. Louis and in Ni\w \ Yiork city , is further shown by the result of the order issued Juno ( ith , requiring ihe men of all the cily railroads in lirooklyn and New York to stop work uiiliUlie striking employes of tlio Third Avenue lilie were reinstated. The edict was disregarded bv tlio men themselves , who Muml that compliance would not be approved by the commu nity , and thai , therefore , Ihe attempt would fail. It was an attempt that thu worst foe of labor might have instigated. These were tlio two chief .strikes from which came the 'epidemic ' of demands and strikes throughout the country. None of tiiese . .lib'ullitions proved of much moment. Ajjasli had broken out upon the body politic , but it was only skin dee ] ) , and disappeared as rapidly as it had come. At a somewhat later date Ihe disturbance took a diflcrcnt form. A demand was made that the hours of labor should be reduced trom Icn to eight hours a day. To stale this demand is to pro nounce its fate. Existing conditions arc not changed by 20 per cent leaps and bound * , and especially in times like these , when business is not even moderately profitable. Such a request simply meant thai many employers of labor would not be able to keep their men at work at all. History proves , nevertheless , that the hours of labor are being gradually re duced. The percentage o : men working ton to cloven nours in this country in 18M was 2SI.7. These ton-hour workers in creased in 1830 to fiU.O per cent of the whole , while the classes who in 18)0 ! ) worked excessive hours from twelve to thirlei'ii constituted 3'.5 per cent. In 18MO they wore only M.fl per cent , while the number of men compelled to work between thirteen and lourteoii hours , which was in 1830 iy.r percent , had fallen in 1880 to 2.J ! per cent. Those working twelve hours are generally employed in double shifts , night and day , 1 do nol bilXuvo that wo have reached Iho limit ot this reduction , but 1 do believe that any permanent reduction will besecured only by the half-hour at a lime. If labor bo guided by wise counsel , it will ask for re- dnelions of half-hours , and then wait until a reduction to this extent is lirmly established , .and surrounding circum stances have adjusted themselves to that. In considering the reasonableness of tlio demand for fewer hours of labor , wo must not lese sight of the fact that the American works more hours , on an av erage , than his fellow in Great Dritain. Twenty-three trades in Massachusetts are reported as working sixty hours and sev enteen , minutes u , week , on an average , while the same crafts in Great Dritain work only lifty-lhreo hours and lifty min utes , showing that the American works an hour a day longer than his English brother. In Drilish textile factories. Iho number of working hours in a week ranges from fifiy-four to fifty-six. In mines , foundries and machine shops fifty-four hours make a wcok'.s work , which is equivalent to nine hours a day , six days a wcelt ; but the men. in all cases , work enough overtime cacli day to insure thorn a half-holiday on Saturday. In some districts , notably in Glasgow , the men prefer to work two weeks , and make every other Saturday a whole hol'day ' , This gives them air opportunity to leave- on early morning ! trains , on excursions , and to spend Saturday and Sunday with friends. Tlio Allegheny Valley Kailroad company , under the management of my friend. Mr. McCarfai , introduced the half- Saturday holiday in the shops some time ago , with the happiest results. Mr. McCargo found , fyy y'onrs of experience , that working inuii lee about half a day a week. Since thoJialMiolhltiy was estab lished no more .timq. has been lost llian before. The mciiiwork live and one-half days a week regularly. While they are nol paid , of courfie , for lliu half-holiday , they could not bo induced to give it up. This oxumplo should bo followed , not only by all the rajlroads of the country. but by every employer of labor , and should bo supported by every man who seeks to improve the condition of the wage-receiving classes. I venture to suggest to the representa tives of labor , however , that before they demand any reduction upon ten hours per day , they should concentrate their efforts upon making ten hours the uni versal practice , and secure Ihis. At present every ton of pig-iron made in the world , except at two establishments , is made by men working in double shifts ot twelve liours each , having neither Sun day nor holiday the your round , hvery two weeks the day men change to the night shift bv working twenty-four hours consecutively , Gas works , paper mills , Hour mills , and many other industries , are run by twelve-hour shifts , and brew eries exact fifteen hours a day , on au uv- erogo , from their men. I hold that it is not possible for men working ten hours a day to enlist public sentiment on their side in a demand for the shortening of their task , as lone iis many of their fel lows are compelled to work twelve or more hours a day. The eight-hour movomenfis not , how ever , without substantial foundation. Vorks that run day and night should bo operated with ( hreo sets of men , each working eight hours. The steel-rail mills in this country are generally so run. The additional cost of the three set's ot men has boon divided between the workmen and the employers , the latter apparently having to meet an advance of wages to tlio cMcnt of 10J per cent , but agninsl this is to bo placed Ihe Increased product which can be obtained. This is nol in considerable , especially during tlio hoi months , for it has been found that men working twelve hours a day continuously cannot produce as much per hour as men working olght hours a day ; so that , if there bo any prolit at all in the business , tlio employer derives some advantage Irom the greater productive capacity of his works and capital , while the general expenses ot tlio establishment remain practically as they were before. Since electric lighting has been perfected , many establishments which previously could not bo run at night can be run with suc cess. 1 therefore look for a large increase in Iho number of establishments working men only eight hours , but employing the machinery tl.at now runs only ten hours the entire twenty-four. Each shift , of course , takes turn of each of the Ihrco parls into which twenty-four hours are divided , and thus the lives of the men are rendered less monotonous , and many hours for recreation and self-improve ment nro obtained. [ TO UK CONii.flKl ; > NP.XT SfNOAY.J STEERAGE AND CABIN. fYitlift Issltr'x Illtiflnlldl. I was in the steerago. She was in the cabin. Not thai I was not as much aston ished to see her as possibly she was to see me. 1 had no idea that she was in the Persia , though 1 knew it was settled somn time before that the Uttfoufd wore going to Europe. It was n glorious moonliglitoveningthe third night out.How well I remember ill The lirst mate was a good friend of mine. Ho had known mo in my callow days of spending and pleasure , for I had gene as cabin passenger more than once. 1 was indebted Io him for the. neat arm chair in which 1 posed nightly to enjoy my cigar and make mental apostrophes to Iho moon. Now and llion I could go on the passenger dccif at night through his comicsy ; and as 1 was not yet seedy , though my clothes were far from now , I fancy 1 did no discredit to the aristocratic loungers who never noticed me , as , at his leisure , 1 was always in company with Alvord , the male. Musing as usual , I sat on the lower deck , my hat thrown back , my gaze in tent on her majesty the moon , when 1 heard a voice thai sounded familiar. It said : "O. mercy ! " and then a moment after : "Don't ' let's stay here , Lu. " I looked up just as the beautiful , proud face was turned , prolilo towards mo. "Gracious heavens ! " I .said , under my breath. "Uliy Lhifour , the banker's daughter ! " I did not see hercompanion , and before I could move or speak , if Iliad been so minded , both ladies hail gone. I smiled to myself , thousrh my face burned and my ears lingleiI. Only-.i few months ago and I had been her partner inagorman given in one of the most aristocratic homes in New YTjrk. Her beauty impressed me ; the acquaintance ripened into lovo. She hud accepted me , and I was the happiest man in the uni verse. Then a great misfortune oc curred , involving mo in tlio disgrace as the head of the firm. Innocent though 1 was , 1 had to undergo many searching in quiries before the Irtie verdict was made public. Stripped of money , my good name under a cloud , for a time at feast , 1 looked for sympathy from my lovely fiance , and was astonished beyond meas ure at Ihe coolness of her reception , the almost indiflerenci ) with which she list ened lo ny defense. And when again she declined to receive me , and wrote mo a cool little note in which she informed me , in a beautiful Italian hand , that our engagement was at an end , I was abso lutely petrified with ama/.cmeiit. How often she had talked of Jove in a collage ! How eloquently she had declared lhat failing fortune and failing health , and even honor , her heart would bo Into to itself and me her love the shield and the reward. I could nol believe it possi ble. L Iried to see her , but was always repulsed. I wrote , but received no reply. 1 haunted bur walks , her drives. She never looked at mo. Desperate and disheartened , I cared not what became of me. For weeks I moved , ate , woruod like an automaton. I was at my worst when a note came from a young lawyer , formerly my chum , and a good fellow to boot : "DijAU HAL There is sp.cndid news for you. Como down to tlio ollico as soon as you can. Yours , Fituo. " What now.s was there that mattered anything to mo ? I scarcely cared to obey ihe summons. That evening Fred sloppc'd me on the street. 1 Why didn't you comeS" ho asked. "Of course you got my note ? There's millions in it ! " "Millions in what ? " I interrogated. "Pounds , shillings and ponce. 1 hap pened on an advertisement in an English paper yesterday. I've heard you say your family name was Preston ; that there was some coolness between your mother and your English relations. Wow , hero is a curtain Haisted Preston , Esq. , who has just died at , the ago of seventy- two , and ho leaves well , enough and plenty to the neil of his mstor , who mar ried a Thomas Do Long in America. Of course ho must bo your uncle , and they nro searching for the heir. So yon are wanted " 1 looked at my much-worn suit , For a moment my heart boat as if it would leap from my body. Now , if this were Iruo ( and I knew 1 had an undo Hal- sled Proslon in Devonshire I was named for him ) I was Iho peer of any banker'.s daughter in America. "Keep quiet about tins mailer , will you ? " I asked. "Don't lot it got in thu papers just yet. I have good reasons lornskingit. Above all , don't talk among your friends I have nothing to do butte to start at once. " "You will Jut mo help you ? " ho said. "Not u cunt. I took a bitter oath Unit , so hell ) i o heaven , I would never bor row again. It has nearly boon my rum once. I have enough to lake mo Ihuru and back , steerage , If on arriving there I can establish my identity , money will be easy enough and I shall have incurred no obligation. I'll go just as I am. " In loss than three days 1 had plenty of proof concerning my identity my moth- er's marriage cortiiioalo being the most important pnpur ; had ongagud my passage - sago steerage in the Punmi ; and , de siring to bo known to no one , enjoyed my peculiar position with a zest of ono superior to circumstances. Did my heart throb faster when on that beautiful night I saw thu face of , tlio girl 1 had loved ? Well , ye.s , for a moment or two. Dut I had also learned to despise her character too thoroughly to give way to sentiment. Ir I had nut quite con quered my infatuation I was master of myself. She , over there , In lior roso-colorod reveries , speculating upon the possibility of winning u ilulco at thu lowest In that marvuloas i > ondon ; I in the slcorage , If not a companion of thu Mikes and ibidguts , at least in close proximity to thorn , though kindly cared for by my sailor friend. I smiled as I womWed what her thoughts could bo just now. 1 was more than anxious to know her opinion through some available means , and taking advan tage ot my friend's permission I haunted the upper deck of night ; ' . For some time I was disappointed. Al la t one evening she came upon deck , n young lady following , carrying Inn-shawl and a pillow. They came qulto noai where I sat , my face to the sea , watching tlm wonderful gold-and-erlmson gleams that mingled with Ihe ripples and wave lets left in her wake by our good ship. "Now. are yon quite well fixed * " asked tlio young lady , whom 1 supposed was her companion. "Yo" , thankx. Sit down. I wish to ask you something. Have you found out about him yel ? " "No , indeed. How can I talk of It ? Nnbodv knows him but you and I " "Slrango that wo should meet hero ol all things , and ho in lh.il horrid place. " "Nothing strange , if he is poor , " sanl the sweet , low voice of the other. "I hate poverty ! Desides " Her tones fell , IIIT words were inaudible. " 1 hope yon will never bo .sorry , " was the answer. "Sorry ! " with a scornful Hugh. "Ho has certainly lost his hoauty"shoadded , with a bitterness in her voice that 1 had never heard before , and in which only her pride spoke. "One can never tell in those business troubles how far dishon esty will lead n man. Probably ho Is running away. " 1 pulled my hat over my face , which was ono burning llame. I longed to turn upon her and upbraid her with her treachery , bin I controlled myself. "Never ! ' ' .said the other , with emphasis. "How can you speak of siioh a thing ! 1 believe him to be the soul of honor a thorough gentleman , lie looks it" "Who could this girl be ? I tried to steal a glance al her , but could see only the outlines of a very graceful figure. I remembered then that Lilly had once or twice spoken of a oousin in such a way as led mo to think her a dependent upon her bounty. This miisl be she. And how grateful I was for her sweet , heartfelt defense of mo ! I wondered if I should see her again. Night after night I waited patiently in the moonlight , until at lust I gave up looking for her. She did come one night , howeverwith an elderlygenlleman whom I did nol know. 1 was in my old place in the steerage. Some of the other pas sengers were around , lounging about , leaning over Iho rails , but Ihad chosen my. beat where 1 could see without being seen. 1 saw her face. It was as I had hoped , a lovely , youthful face , and 1 could hear every inflection of her clear , low voice. " ( Julio nice people , 1 suppose , go as steerage passengers sometimes , " ! heard her say. "O , yes , even gentlemen in reduced circumstances. Indeed , I once had a rich friend you might call him a crank who went 'for the fun of the thing , ' he said , to sec life In a new phase. 1 believe he liked it best , " and the old gentleman laughed. "A > ; irl with such a face , " I said to myself7"must be worth winning ; by no means as beautiful as my former divin ity , but more lovely in every way. " Lilly was taller , more queenly , but tin * girl with the sweet voice and glorious , star-like eyes was , in every way bul Ihe more mailer of fortune , her cousin's superior. Of that I felt assured and was quite willing her imago should haunt me. A few weekn had passed , and I .stood before the gates of a fine mansion now my own estate in a Devonshire village , and looked up the broad avenue bordered by noble oaks. All that my uncle had died possessed of was Icfl to me money and lands. I certa nly did feel Iho pride of possession in the lirst Hush of proprie torship I field my head erect ; I wasonco more even with the world. The country about was exceptionally beautiful. Hose hedges bordered the village lanes , here and there a thrifty farm lay smiling in tiie sunshine , cottages dotted the hill sides. Everywhere the land spoke of care and prosperity. The house was well preserved and filled with solid though quaint furniture. There were hot-houses and all'the inventions of this utilitarian age needed for tanning on a larire scale on the grounds. I saw the houses of my tenants. I was lord of Ihe soil. Once more in London , my thoughts turned back to my own country and some unsettled business tiie/c. There was yet work Io do , mistakes to correct , enemies to meet , friends to reward. Among my acquaintances in the me tropolis was a young Gorman baron , who hail married a lovely English girl , and with whom 1 had passed many happy hours , "Yon must come bore to-night , " said the young baroness one day. "I expect some Americans whom perhaps you know tlio Dufour.s. The young lady is exquisitely bountiful ; there are two- cousins , 1 think. " "I did know Dufour , the banker , of Now York , " I sujd quietly , though my pulses fluttered with a now thrill ol glad ness. "O , yes , it must bo the same family. Yon will come. " "On one condition , " I said. "And what is lhat ? " "That you will not speak of me till I como. As i have another engagement I shall bo hero late in the evening. " "What ! may I not even tell the story of your good fortune ? " "AnytmnjT , so j'ou do not mention my name. " She laughed her quick woman's wit comprehended nnd , promising to bo very carr.ful , she said her adieus. Tlm reader iiorhaps anticipates. I was spoken of as the young man about whoso extraordinary luck they might have heard the American nephew of an old Devonshire gentleman who had quarreled with his slater boeuuso her marriage had displeased him , but who at the las ) , had relented and left millions to her son but she withhold my name , hater on I came. They worn at lea , my host fold mo. Jl was a standing tea. 1 Ihitlor myself I made my debut with singular coolness found my.iof , teacup in hand , face to face with MissDnfoiir , Io whom 1 bowed with haughty omprcs.omont. To see IIT start , grow wldtu , and cateh her breath and to hoar her unguarded , "Why , Hal ! " Well , it was almost worth losing a for tune for lhat experience. "Miss DnfourV'I suid , with a chilling bow. Pun of mine cannot deacrlbo her ills- comlilure. It was almost like terror. For once the reigning hello , thu woninn of the world , was toiled , uiorUI'.ud ' , extin guished , Rallying at last .sho fried in some sort of way to regain bur lo.t t power , but 1 was in love with tiie starry eyes and youl- lit fucu of her cousin Lucy had been over since thattvontfu ! night , looking up from the lower deck and on ono other memorable ijeeasio-i saw her sweet face and heard iior speak for the poverty- stricken and almost banished man. " Wo took our honeymoon trip back In the I'orriia. Since ilui failure of the groal banking house of thu Dnfour brolhers , and the dorah of the graiU banker him self , Lily has hud a homo with IM , for 1 fool thai in pomu sort I owe to her my treasure of a wlfn. A Coiitonnrlaii Siudont. New York Herald : A Chinese student , according to thu Journal tin Havre , who has reached the respectable ago of ono hundred and six , recently presented him self before a learned body of Chinese .sa- vans , and .askod permission to bo oxinii- inud. Ho was accompanied by his wifu and two sons , aged ninety and eighty re spectively. The other candidates for de grees who happened to bo prawn t an- costcd the centenarian in a most re spectful manner , addressing him as "Old Master. " Hu objected , however , and in sisted that they simply call him "Com rade. " One In never to old to leuru ! ' BEAUTIFUL LAKE C0310. Elegant Villas , Mostly Owned by EnglUlt People. Line its Shores. HOMES OF SOME CELEQRITIES. I'lnccn of Historic Interest Tlio Town of Como A 1'lctnrpsiiitoolilTnwor An Ancient fjovc Storj- , LAKH COMO , Italy , August l. fOor- rospondcnco of the lir.r. . ] It would bo hard Io llml , 1 fancy , inoro delightful resorts - sorts the year round than those so well known on the three principal Italian lake.- * , Como , Lugano nnd Muggioro. I.AKI : COMO , from Its sheltered position among the mountains , is delightful in winter nnd the hotels are well lllled oven during the cold months. Lake Maggloro is much larger and Iho scenery , in many parla , much more beautiful than that around Como , but the English prefer the latlor , and leave both Lugano and Maggioro more or less to Italian pleasure seekers , or to the hordes of travellers of all nation alities who haunt the north of Italy at certain seasons , and who , in Hooting vis its of n few hours to each place , gel only a snperlleial idea of the splendid wild beauty of the Swiss-Italian lakes. More limn two-thirds of the beautiful villas on Lake Como arc owned by Eng lish people , who come down through Switzerland anil Franco between the 1st and 1.1th of August and remain until the end of October , usually. The hotels are filling rapidly , but as there are to bo no regattas next month , fewer French and Gorman visitors will be hero than usual. July ran through a most extraordinary Ihirty-one days , and disappeared in a cold wind , bearing plenty of snow , on tlm surrounding mountain tops. The Italians , who are already in their summer homes , are very quiet , ' 'saving up , " so the young ladles say , for the gaiiics of the early autumn. A CHAKMINU Vll.l.A. The most magnificent , though by no means tin : most charming villa on the lake , is llio property of lliu Viscountess Mndroda , and was formerly Iho summer home of the Countess Uaimondi , the daughter of Garibaldi. If is a large white marble building , with three great doors in front , over which hang heavy canvass curtains at present , and before which fie family congregate about ti o'clock in Urn atternoon , to lake some light refreshments and chat until dinner time. The grounds are extremely beauti ful , being wild and woody in parts , with quaint grottos and curious fountains hero and there , and the lawns dotted with im mense magnolia and lemon trees. A great gilt crown surmounts the center pinaele , and on tlio iron gate is written the word "I'Orman , " tlio name of the place , The lodges , ono at each end of the grounds , are also of white marble. The viscountess entertains a great deal , giving many dinners , lawn parties , fancy balls , etc. .lust above , on tlio mountain side , is the lovely country palace of Mons. and Mine. Capnda , who were both famous Miiger.s , hero in Italy , some ton years ago. Farther up on the lake arc the old vil las of Tagliom and VaMa , where these colobritio.- once lived. A little farther on is a beautiful island , formerly tortilied , which played an important part in the military annals of the middle ages. Charming ruins and a tew modern houses cover a portion of it now , but tlm old guide still siiows you shadowy looking eaves that the spirits of the thousand wiliihes burned in Como in 1521 are said to liatint continually , and on the highest [ ironiontory of the little isle stands A IMCICKTY ISKr.I. TOWHK imong the a/.elia and camellia bushes , uid there , every May-day , goes a young peasant , lad ot Hie vicinity Io ring the bell , and call all the young men and maidens witnin hearing tosothor , lhat from among them he may choose the maid ho loves best Io be his bride. The custom is very old and very regularly observed in the laKodfrlrictK , and no snot could bo more filling assuredly than that on the HKAITIKUI. ISI.AXI ) Of COMAC1NO. At the upper end of the lake are Iho two beautiful resorts of Itellagio and Cadenabbia. Charming balconies from tne holds , restaurants nnd villas hang over the water's edge , and the view in every direction is enchanting. At Delia- gio the tourist may purchase the silk blankets and scarfs of rich Roman colors , or the lace that the little girls make , sit ting in front of the houses in the narrow streets ; also the tiny wooden shoos of the Italian peasant girls. At Cadenabbia in Hie famous Villa Carlolla , the properly of the i duchess ot Saxemainaggen. The tor- raced gardens are beautiful beyond loscription , and the tiny landing place ' .steps and breakwater ail of while mar- ile ) . is ono of tlm pretliesl on the lake. In the great hall of the house is Tlior- waliU'en'.s frieze , representing Aloxan- ler's ' triumph. Several works of Canova are there also. First , and alwavs llrst lor beauty and grace among Iho great works of the sculptor , Is Ids "Cupid and Psyche. " The combined power and airy lightness of design seem almost to endow the marble with life , and ono half ex pects to see the two exquisite figures move and lly away , or stop from their cold , black pcdoatal into the light and sunshine , to rest with the butterflies among the flowers. There are but two or three places of any historic interest on Lake Como , and of thcso TUB TOWN 0 > ' COMO tself is tlio chief. On Iho top of a hill , which forms the background of the town , stands a most ) lcturcsque ivy-covered old tower. Not t window , crack or crevice breaks the stretch of stone from top to bottom , and is curious construction almost tells its cruel htory. AN ANU1KNT J.OVK STOItY. Some time in the liitecnth century a Duke of Como loved a beautiful Veronese adv , who , however , preferred a young ordof her unlive cily. Tlio duke , in furiated at the rejection of his suit , vowed vegcance upon the luckless lover , and vdded tlm tower , mentioned above , to his splendid castlo. Then ho wailed , like all evil spirits in legends , until just before the marriage ol Iho happy pair , when ho took the young man prisoner , ono night , and , bearing him away to his own do main. lowered him with ropes into the dark round tower. There ho left him , and the third night after , so the story goes , the peasants in tlio neighborhood s-uw a wlulo dove lly from the lower , and bear straight to heaven a human huarl , And to this day the old castle liuradelht ( such it is called ) is the f n von to haunt of the doves , and no good peasant over kills one without breathing an Ave Maria or devoutly crossing himselt , At the northern end of the lake isA A ItlJINI'.l ) OASTJ.B of the thirteen century , a tow yards from which there is a rocky pass , bearing the peculiar appellation of "O run go Juice. " Jit 17UU when the Russians were invading the territory several hun dred pushed up to this ensile of Ho/.zo- nlco and were surprised and overpowered by the Italians , who Hung them to the last ono down the dreadful gorge. Not a Ittihsian escaped uhve. Many of tlm English on Lake Como have pretty yachts , and they are continually gelling races. Lust fall , however , a good sized vnoht capsized find the cap- tuln and a little girl were drowned , which event made the residents on the luku A. much more careful than before. MIICIAM