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Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, December 15, 1886, Image 4

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THE OMAHA DAILY BEE : WEDNESDAY DECEMBER 15 ; 1880.
THE DAILY BEE
PUBLISHED EVERY MORNING.
TOOIS or sru rntrrio :
tMllr rMnrnl.nr I'dltlon ) Including Sutiilny
tlier , Onn Yvnr . $ W i
TorfllT Month * . fii
I'rtrTlirPoMnntln . 21
The Uinntm SmHlny IlKK , mnllc-1 to ruiy
uUilie s , Ono 1'car. . . . . . . . 2i
emir * . nrrif-r. No. nil AKP 01 * F .nvAV Srnrr
New vm * orrlt-K Itomi iw. fittnrNr. Ilinniis
WAMI IM > ru.x 01 1 ICE , .No. M.I POIHITXLN ru STUB t
All communication * ) rclntlnir to now * ntiil nl
torlul innllur uluiulilbo nd'liocd to tliu Uli
TUIt 01 TUB IJF.K.
itt'MNM * tn-rrn !
All litiflnoff < li-ttcr ntiilrpinHtnncoMioiil < l 1
ndclirKSCll t ( ) TDK III ! * ! rfllt.lHltlNII t'OMI'AN
Ovitiu. Irnft ) , rliorkt Mul po lotllco ordo
to be lumlu pa ) able to tlio oiiUr of the compan
IB ! BEE PUBliSmNuSPW , PSOPIIIEIORS ,
K. KOSRWATKH , Erin on.
TI1R DAIIiY UKI3.
Sworn Statement of Circulation.
Slate of Nebraska , 1 _ ,
County of loti las. fSlS-
Ueo. H. T/FclnicU , ficciflary of Tlio Oi
ruhllMiIiiK company , docs .solemnly HWC :
tlmt the actual cliciilatlon of the Dnlly IJi
tor tlio week emlliitf Doc. Will , 1S30vus ;
follows :
Saturday. DPP.I in,1)
Sunday. Doc.fi . * . .M.i (
Alonilay , Di-c. (1 ( , W.s
Tuo ilnv. Dec. 7 1'J.Ji
Wednesday. Dec. K. 1.1,1) )
TluirMlnv , Dec. 'J 1I.O !
Friday , l > ce. 10 in.l
Avciatrc. n. "
( inn. It , T/.sntrcK.
Subscribed and swoin to lnfoio me tills 11
day of December , A. D. , 1SM1. N. I1. KKII. ,
IS ISA LI Notary Public.
( > co. II. 'r/.solutck , being lirst duly swoi
deposes and says tlmt ho Is secictaiy of tl
Heo I'tihllMilm : company , Hint tlio actual n
crairo daily circulation of thu Didiv I too I
tlio month of January , 18-fl. was 10.it8 : ropli
for February. Ibsn , lo,6' 3 copies ; lor Mure
Ibbfl , 11.KI7 copies ; for Apill , ISsO , 12,1
roiups : lor May. ISM. 11,4 % ) copies ; for JUL
Ibid , m,2is ( coifi | > ; for July , IbsO , l'jnUroplc
for Aiurust , itwi , 12,40-1 roplPHtf or Si'titcmbc
HMfl , l .otO : copies ; for October. Ihso , 12'J
copies ; for November , 1W , tti3 : ! : conies.
Gi : < > . II. 'IV.sriiuric.
Swoin to and subscribed he-lore me tills 0
dayol November , A. I ) . IS * ! ,
| SKA L.\ \ N. 1' . FISH. . .Votary Tubllc.
Kxr.uv man's house is said to ho li
castle. This doe ? not apply to Omal
where cvory man's house and door yni
up to tlio RIIS inoluris claimed by the g
company.
WHAT with disappearing ranges , his
railroad tarHi'and a combination of tl
meat packers to secure low prices the 1 <
of the ningeinun just at present is not
happy one.
Lr.r us hear no in ore of Enjrli.sh niora
ity. The social fabric of Hnglish uri
loeriicy is lotlen to tlio core. Uruitca
ism is finding its strongest argimionts i
the proceedings of the British divorc
courts.
A KANSAS mnn has been : ipoinl | ) (
governor \Vyonnng , and u New I'oi
man to tlio scat of honor in Dnkot
President Cleveland appears to be brave
carrying out the policy of ignoring ten
torial residents in the distribution of te
ritoriul honors.
Tun first act of the house this sessic
was to pass the senate bill rcKuhilin
the manner of the electoral count. Tl
amendments m\do : urn considered c
minor Importance and it is believed wi
moot with ready concnrrcnco of 11
upper body. The two questions of tl
electoral count and of the president ! !
succession were perhaps the topics
highest moment discussed in the last so
sion of congress. The < -oeond was di
posed of lust summer and it is to I
hoped that the first will receive its fin
determination before the present co
gross adjourns.
A Ni\v : YOIIK member of congress c
Dresses the opinion that Mr. Clevclai
can never carry that state again. 1
thinks Hill would jrol a larger vote th :
the president , but does not think : the go
ornor could carry the state against a po
nlar republican candidate. Mr. Clev
/and has been doing his very best f
uomo time to placate party discontent
his own state , but ho appears to have a
eolnpllshed very little in that dtroclio
and ho is evidently , FO far ns can
judged from the expressions of the ( lorn
cratlc press , no stronger there to-d :
than when he appointed Magonetoclici
the growth of the Hill inlluonco. He h
probably loll , however , mitllcicnt powi
to prevent Hill getting the delegation
the national convention , and It is mo
than likely that it will be divided. Oi
side inlluenccs may consolidate it in su
port of Cleveland , but there will c (
talnly bo more or less rancor , and t !
Hill clement will not bo likely to suppc
the president with mucli y.oal if ho
nominated. Unless there is a grp
change , which there is no good reason i
expect , in the next year and a half , M
Cleveland will not command the ft
vote of his party in New York , and 1
will need it to carry the stato. There it
very substantial reason1 ? for the opinii
of the Now York congressman ,
Tin : statement madq on the anthori
of a Merlin paper , that the c/.ar , on tin
ing a letter upon his writing lablo sn
ing that the nihilists were becoming it
patient , summoned his ministers at
urged them to propo.su a constitute
snitablo to the condition of the empir
and expressed his determination to iu
an annual parliament at Moscow , w
of course bo generally regarded with 1
crodulity. The e/.ar lias given no pub ]
evidence of any Intention to depart fro
ihe traditional policy of the empire ,
to rolinimish in any degree Jus ioverelj
will and autocratic ruin. The hulk
tioiih are that he is maintaining , and w
continue to maintain , all the forms ai
methods of despotism svluch dlslingu !
ihe government of Hu sia. Yet it mi
not DO entirely abnml to regard such i
occurrence as the Berlin paporannounc
a.s possible. It would no : be more i
markablo or unexpected Hum the cmani
patlon of the herfs by his father , ai
would bo a wiser proceeding as a mea
of strengthening the government
popular regard , for the act of Alo.xand
Jt made him many enemies among tl
jjoworful nobility , who had profited I
serfdom as the planters of the south d
by shivery. Furthermore , the preso
emperor has quito as much need to HO <
Fomo wny to appease popular dlsconte
mul rclkno himself from the harrassh
Jnarof public enemies as had his fathe
One can conceive that ho might bo wi
ing to make almost any concession
improve an existence that must be iicar
; r unbearable. 8(111 ( thu story is high
improbable , and doubtless 1ms no mu
pubBtnntial foundation than thaiuvontl
imagination of % newspaper corrcspon
out.
An < f\Vlir Not ?
Mr , Dawes professes to desire.1 proui ]
reform of the tariff. Mr Randall ui
nonnccs hiinself a ? nnxioii ? to begin th
good work. Colonel Morrinin is pinin
for a chanpp to attack the present la1
with his Illinois horlxontal movemci
lialcliet Only poor old Merrill slant
ready to defend : i system wli'icli rolls u
a hundred millions of dollars n year I
needless taxationchiefly wrung from tl
laboring chases of the country i
enhanced prices ami Increased cost t
living.
What is it thai Mamls in the way (
tax reduction and an opening <
foreign markets for the surplus of Atnc
ican manufacturers 1 The blind se
llfthnojs of the giant Infant indu trl (
who have been fed &o long c
the protection pap that they imagine tin
the public will consent to a pcrmanoi
tax on labor to Increase the profits <
protected capital.
Therein lie * the essence of the prote
lion fallacy. 'The tarill'does not false tl
wages of labor. 11 Increases the prolii
of capital by restricting competition i
the homo market. It decreases tl
profile of labor by building up a Chine
wall around industry which prevents tl
marketing of the surplus abroad at :
tihiils up mills and factories 'while labi
seeks employment elsewhere.
There arc not two per cent
Nebraska's population directly ben
filled by the continuance i
the high tariff. Us maintciiam
lt > simply exorbitant overtaxation of tl
people of the weft for the benefit of tl
manufacturers of the cast. There is i
good reason , political or economic.
why taxation should continue to pile up
national surplus above the requircinon
of the government. For years to come
tariff for revenue must bo a tnrifl for pr
tecliou. if congress would attack the i
iiiilio.s ( | of the present tariff manfullym
not as cowards there would bn a pioin
reduction in its taxes and a generous e
largemcnt of the free list.
Knovals Hcvnntpcd ,
The Chicago JVCMW , acting douhtlc
under inspiration , rovamus the old at
cxplodctl charge of self-interest in co
ncction with Senator Van Wyok's ellbr
for justice for the settlers on the Denver
St. Joseph railroad lands in southern N
braska. Senator Van Wvck has foug
honestly and fairly for his constituents
tliis matter. In roponso to scores of car
cst petitions from residents of Ncbrasl
who had paid ? 3r > 0 an aero in sottlome
of Knovals' fraudulent claim , Scnat
Van U'yck declined to support the hou
bill , whicn gayo claimants only half tli
sum in satisfaction of their claims again
the government. The fact that ho owm
a small amount of land subject
the benefits of the appropriation had i
weight with the senator. Ho annoiinci
tbat lie was satisfied with the house bi
so far as ho him-.olf was concerned an
would have accepted the conditions hn
not his constituency deluged the scna
land committee with petitions again
the injiiotico which it would pcrpctrat
If tlio house bill which Economist Ho
man engineered through that boily hi
boon accepted , Senator Van Wyck won
have lost a few hundred dollars whi
his constituents would have bci
as many thousands out
pocket. Ho has resolutely foug
the cutting down of the allowance
Nebraska settlers , maintaining that tl
government must boar the entire oxpon
of the costly mistake of tlio general lai
ollico in allowing entries of settlers i
railroad lands and then confirming tl
title to the company when settlement ai
improvements had been made. Scnatt
Van Wyck has hold that every dolli
which Knovals succeeded in mnlctii
out of the settlers must bo ro-imbiirsi
by llio government. His position
equitable and right and cannot be a
sailed by charges of personal interest.
Tlio Ilusliiess Situation.
1'oports.from various centers of tra <
sliow continued business activity whii
are sustained by the clearance rceor
Omaha , as is her custom , stands high t
the list of commercial distribution point
with the heaviest increase in bank bue
ness of any city in the country. Scaso
able weather and the approach of tl
holidays have quickened activity
nearly all branches of retail trade , ai
this has had a favorable reflex infiuom
on the general jobbing markets. Tl
season of stock inventories , repairs
mills and annual book settlements is nose
so near at hand that comparatively mo
crate trading in all wholesale dopai
menu may bo reasonably anticiuati
until after the turn of the you
but Iho situation , ns a whole ,
full of encouragement for the fnliii
Wool is dull , and , while not qnnlab
lower , the market is weak to sell. Hoi
ors , however , are generally dbinclim
to Increase sales at the cost of price co
cessions , anil are not urgiug buslno. <
Tholrcunlidonco is busoil on thoimprovi
condition of general trade , the sliorla ;
in the world's clips ( which sumo audio
itics estimate to bo equal to a delicicm
of SW ) , 000,000 pounds ) , and the probtib
ity of decreasing foreign competition
the goods trade during the coming &e
fcon. There is already seine evidence
a falling oil' in the imports oi wooli
manufactures owing to Iho advance 1
prices in Ktirupc , and a slight decline i
wool values at Iho pending auctions
London is not likely to materially chnnj
the present promise of the trade. At II
moment the woolen goods trade Is in tl
butwecn-soasons ! period and very quiet.
The grain trade has been less acttyo (
foreign orders , but there has bren a brli
bpuculatm ; business In leading market
1'arJy In thu worik whuat prices reced (
somewhat from the highest point own
to a temporary lull in the import deinai
and to rializationa on recent piirchas
by speculators. ; but the partial rcactlc
was not unexpected after the "bi
llnrry" of la > t week , and most of the .1
cllno has oinoo boon recovered. Tl
feaboard markets nvo , in fact , j to 3 ol
nont per bushel higher than they u ere
week ago , but Chicago quotations are
to } of a cent lower. The favorable ge
oral uosillon of the trade has not bet
changed by the development * of tl
week , and thuro is cvory indicMion of i
early renewal of activii buying for o
port. Corn prices are 1 to 1J cunts low
under increasing supplies and a light d
muud for export ,
THE now French cabinet Is a po
mako-shift for a ministry which w
shape affairs in Franco in accordan
with n peaceful public sentiment. Tl
volatile and untrustworthy fioblet hea
the list as premier. The unpopul
Ihuiuuln , who figured in the Roust :
trial in 1931 as proGiirctirgcncrnl , '
named as minister of finance. The no
French cabinet ! a hotch notch of noi
entities. It cannot aland the strain.
I/nbonchrrc on Homo IJulo.
The English mails bring reports of U
great stump speech upon the subject theme t
home rule delivered by Henry Laboucl
ere , editor of Truth , loa London audieiu
on Thaul.pgiving ovc. It is one of tl
most powerful efforts which England hi
heard during the home rule campatgi
It deals with facts as affecting thcoric
and punctures the bubble of the lory a
( Turnouts with the weapon of commc
ficnsc. Labouchcre is the most brdllai
paragraphcr In England. He Is a frc
lance with his weapon always at the til
He Is fearless and outspoken , shirking i
issiio and meeting attack with count
attack and irony with torso and pill
sarcasm. 1'cfcriug to Ireland's appu
for n national existence he sayss
We have a federal empire ; all our colon I
liavesolf-govcinmcnt. licland has not so
government , and what Is the result' ' 0
colonies arc peaceful and satisfied ; Iieland
dlssnllsllod and miserable , It Is wild by snr
tlmt there M some wonderful distinction I
twcen Ireland and a colony ; that Ireland
in home sort of way part and naiccl of Kn
laud. I know no U\o countries In tlio woi
that are under the t-anic rule in which the
me such natural dlver encc $ > as England ai
Ireland. A sen divides us , loll lon dlvldi
us , ini'C divides u ? , natural ( eollni ? ai
natural habit divide IK f IIcar , hear. ] Tl
uisdom oCoiiraiicPstoisdccided there shon
be n parliament in KiiRkuul and nnotli
parliament In liclnnd. We , tlio inodcri
have Inturlered with this , and we , k
than a century ace , s\\ept a\\ay the Irl
liaillnnienl. And how did v\e sweep It awa
Ily fair moans ? No , by the basest arts ai
by the vilest corruption. | Cheers. | Sin
then o ha\o been etifiaijcd In a foolUh tas
That task has been an attempt to convi
lilslimon Into Englishmen. [ Lnughtci
We have sought to cribh out Irish natlo
allly. Wo have deemed that a crime In li
land which we ipcognl/o as a virtue in ovc
other pait of the world.
This is Iho argument from analogy ,
is strong and to the point. Mr. Labo
chore points to the local parliaments
every state of the American union ai
in the Itritish colonies. lie defends a ;
advocates Ireland's ' demand for her ov
Darliamcnt on the ground that granln
it will strengthen instead of wcakcnii
the empire.
Ho recalls the fact thai the Irish loadc
have not spoken so strongly in favor
separation as the Canadian loaders spo
before homo vulo was granted to Canail
Yet , since homo rule was granted not
word is hoard in advocacy of pcparatio
and to-day there is no part of the empi
more true to its integrity than the K
minion of Canada.
Are the lilbh perleel fools' . ' | hc continue' '
1 have come across Irishmen , andhavelou :
that they are sluowd poisons. They nit
Know on which side their bread is button
They must be awaio that lieltmd is an ag
cultural country ; that of the oxpoi ts of liela :
at least 08 per cent come to England ; that
we were to bliut our ports to their cxpoi
they could limi no market elsewhere , owl
to the protective duties , and Ireland won
be mined. Again , tlio Iri h have fotia
well on many a battle field. [ Hear , hea :
They are bravo ueople , but they n
perfectly awaio tlmt oven it'Mr. ( iladstoiu
scheme weio cauictl out wo hhould have t
armed force , the fortiesses , the Ileot , t
money and numbcis. And the Irish simr.
out of wlmt may be called incie "ctisscdncs
are not likely to go In for any atteaiut
separate themselves fiom England , bccau
even 1C they desired to separate , which
deny , they know peifcctly well they con
not cairy out their wibli.
Could anything bo clearer. Hero
the argument from the .standpoint
self-intorcbt. It is a plain coiniiK
sense scries of reasons why if home ru
should be granted Ireland would ki
still closer the bands which connect hi
with England as a political ncccssi
instead of endeavoring to sunder thei
and to make herself the football f
continental intrigue. In discussing ti
liberal policy towards Ireland Mr. L
bouchoro is no less happy. He pom
out that men arc often right in alterii
their viown and says :
llut It so happens that on this partlnul
question of Ireland neither Mr. Cladsto ;
nor the liberal party lias changed In opiulo
What does a doctor do when called in to a
vise In an Illness ? Ho may alter the reniei
occasionally , but his object Is always tl
name. Ho doc.s not change his aim , whl
is to cure his patient ( Cheers. ] Whatdo
tlio Arctic exploier do when ho Is trying
advance to tin1 polo ? Ho oes up one cliai
ncl which ho thinks may lead there , but It 1
finds it blocked with ice ho tiles anotii
channel. Yet his maxnc-t points Invariab
to the pole. | Cheers. I So , too , It Is with
statesman. Ho should not change Ids alii
ami objects , but ho should exhaust ovc
means , anil ho should alter his mea
as often as ho possibly can. When
finds one falls ho should try another , In ord
to attain his object. | Cheers. |
Labouchcro has the happy faculty
calling a spade a spade and the knack
steering directly for his point , A fo
more such plain and common sense tall
are only needed to turn the minority
favor of home rule into a strong major !
willing and anxious to do justice to It
land.
Tin : Douglas county bar , in conjiii
lion with the bars of the remaining con
ties in this judicial dUtrlcl , has dceidi
that n municipal court would bo a le
feasible method of judicial reform th :
an Increase in the number of judges ,
bill to this effect will bo drafted and i
trodticcd at the coming session of tl
legislature. With two additional judge
the overwhelming load of business wi
whicn our district court Is now burdoni
will be materially Hghtonou and the no
cases can bo moro rapidly disposed of.
lirnvpuwortti Street Cirmln.
The nicotine called on Monday eye
ing to dismit-s tlio proposed change
grade on Lcavenworth street was in i
sunfco of tlio word a representative on
It was composed principally of residon
on the side- streets , of property owno
living buyond the line of the proposi
change , and of men who do not reside
the city of Omaha at all. It was co
vcncd and collected to pass a re&olutii
affirming the necessity for a nowgrad
and those who convened it saw th
enough votes wore present to carry the
point , The council should not bo atfecti
in its decision by the result. As a matt
of fact , an overwhelming majority
properly owners between Twentieth strc
nnd Phil Sheridan street , who :
It is proposed to once mo
cut and till this thoroughfar
are unalterably opposed to anoth
radical change of grade. The preso
grade is an easy ono. , The street h ;
already th6 best gradient of any cast ni
thocoughfaro running out from tl
city. " " A few months ape , when the exist
ing grade was adoptedthis was couccdu
by the very parties who are now willin ;
to sacrifice the property of others to im
prove their suburban land.
The interests of the city do not dcmam
the change. The property owners olncfl ;
affected protest emphatically against Hi
move. The council should hesitate :
long time beforn they plunge the ell ;
into a succession of suits for damages
with no resulting benefits to the city a
large. , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Tin : republican" of New York wil
have no home candidate to present to th
next national convention. This the lead
crs of the parly in that stale alread
acknowledge. A year ago it was though
not Improbable that Senator Evart
might llguro a $ . a possibility having th
support of the Empire slate , but th
maker of elaborate sentences has not n
a legislator greatly enlarged his fame o
succeeded in establishing-a claim tosupi
nor statesmanship. Mr. Conkllng burie
his political hopes when ho wn
defeated for rc-clcclion to th
senate after having resigned , and doubl
loss his best friends understand that n
republican of prominence and charactc
would bo lo'-s available than he In
presidential rnce. Arthur , had he livei
might have been among tlio candidates
Thus Iho republicans f Iho pivotal slat
are unusually poor in dlstinguishc
leaders , but they will be none the les
powerful in the national convention , an
the candidate who obtains tlioir unite
stipnortwlll have his ohaneos great 1
strengthened. At present Mr. IHain
appears to bo the man most likely to d
this , but there will be f-ome hard an
skillful work done in other interests IK
twcen now and 18S8.
Inuii : ( IIDXIY : : , of Now York , has ii
sued u circular to all the employes of hi
court in winch ho urges his officials t
treat rich and poor alike. The lowc
courts , says the judge , are largely th
courts of the poor "and among the lit
gants who .seek their aid are many wh
by reason of educational disadvantage
find It hard to make their rights clcarl
understood ; manyother.s of foreignliirtl
who are as yet imperfectly ncquaiulei
with our customs , and not a few wht
smarting under some recent wrongs , ar
unreasonably irritated against the worl
at largo , and arc incline
to regard even would-bo frionil
as enemies. Hut in all cases , wha
ever may bo the provocation to in
p.iliencc , it is our duty to be kindly an
helpful and unchangeably polite an
good tempered. 'A soft way luriict
away wrath'and no man ever yet n
grcltcd that ho had erred on tli
side of forbearance and self-control.
This is admirable. Wo do not kno1
that it needs to bo commended to th
fctudyof any courts in Nebraska , but :
well rcpaj' the perusal of all court o
Jioials , however little they may need th
lesson which it teaches , or wherevc
they may be situated.
Lr/r us favor public improvements b
all means. They add to the facilities to
travel , to ease in the transaction of bus
ness and to the enhancement of proper !
values. Hut there Ls a point where th
general benefit cvcceds the private at
vantage. This cannot be greatly over
stepped without the payment of hcav.
damages by the city. The cost shoiil
always be counted before entering npo
any improvement against Mio wishes t
the property owners most alluded.
nLL's mother-in-law , whc
by the way is not , nor has ever boo
Vicky Woodhull , was on tlio stand ycstoi
day in London , and made her wanderin
boy of a son-in-law squirm in his beat a
she gave her testimony. Queen Victor !
has forbidden all reports of tbo trin
within the sacred precincts of Wimlso
castle. If the same rule was applied t
the London cable anil press association
thousands of American newspapers woul <
be correspondingly bonefitted.
Tin : chairman of the house committe
on public lands complains that th
senate will not keep pace with thu hous
in reclaiming the public lands illegall ,
hold by great corporations. Tlio troubl
is that most members of the sonalo ar
legally bound to the great corporation
as their attorneys and are only too will
ing to serve their masters at the oxpcns
of tlioir constituents.
\ \ IIIN : citizens note the contrast be
twcen our paved streets and quagmire
of intersectinc : unpavcd thoroughfare
they rail'/e ' what the strongest of al
arguments in favor of a well paved city
Omaha of to-day Is a very dllforont eltj
from Iho.Omaha of yesterday ami pave
incuts have done much to cause tli
change ,
SKCIHT.\KV : LAMA it has not yet handci
In his decision upon the location of th
Indian supply depot , but the probabilitic
are that no western city will pluck th
persimmon. OurW abhlngton dispatche
make tlio prediction on tlio authority o
the editor of the Hr.n , that the depot wll
remain In Now York.
Tin : city council should invcstigat
under wiiat grant the Omaha Gas am
( las Killing company refuses to make con
ncetions with its > mains during th
winter reason and declines to porml
clti/.ons to lay servlcp pipes within the !
own lot lines.
CU11UI2NT TOPICS.
The cinr of Kusslaha * * ordered tlmt nex
month new names bu irlvbn to all towns an
villages bearing Ccnuan names.
The new French ministry formed by 31
( ioblet Is pronounced' the most common
place since the war wltU' icnnany.
William Kei-d , formeil'y treasurer of tli
South Boston Horse rn Ifoiul , pleaded guilt
to the chmgo of einbe/.7. iftg 3160,000. ,
Jehu Baker , concics ' { pan-elect from th
Eighteenth Illinois dUtrjpt , was lined S3 an
cost tor assaulting a icjiorter at Belleville.
, f. L. Itockafollar , president of the Slant
ard Oil company , Is arranging to furnlth th
manufactories of Cleveland with natural am
Senator Mahono Is Paid to have mad
$400,000 on the rise of r.icinuond & Danvlll
stock. The senator Is a man who Is not t
bo crushed.
Matthews , the colored recorder at Washlnc
ton , is receiving fees at the rate of ; v > , OG
per annum through the activity In real cstat
in the dUtrlct.
On the waters of N'lagara river , Saturdaj
AIphonso King walked 100 jards In a hug
pair of tin jhoesof Ids own invention on
wager of 53,000 made In New Yorlr.
The house of roprescntativea has passp <
a bill extending the la of the Unite
States over tlio public laud strip south o
Kansas , and throwing the ic ion open t
homestead entries.
Uallet dancing Is a nrctty peed biislues
when you once get the hang of It. Maun
the exponent of the Spanish fnmhticc
gets 810,000 n year. Uosnttl cets S12oo <
and Subra 50,000. That's better by sever.
thousand tlullnis than going tocongiessc
cscn being president of a unlserslty.
How About Utah ?
HiHtfitnl Cnnranl.
Whcio was Utah when thu president'
was written' ' A year ago Uas a cryln
evil , - . - . . , ,
Kitous n Ctooil Dcnl About Uoiihl ,
CMtnyn Time * .
Jay ( loiild says that ho knows veiy llttl
about Jrulge ( Jieshaw. Judsc Urcslwti
however , appears to know a jfood deal abou
ayiould.
Coal 1'owcf Will Mnkc Uiu.ilin.
ISpiintifltM ( .V < i , . ) ffrpiiblfmn.
The discovery of a vein of coal under tli
site of Omaha , Neb , , promises richly for th
city's rapid doyelopiiienl. With her excollon
facilities as a distributing point and her ad
vantage as the center of one of the lines
Kialn and cattle dlstilcls In the west , sh
lacked only a y. tcm of manufactories hie
ttlspoiilldenlly hoped thai cheap fuel wl
hi Ing. "Watci-power niado Minneapolis ,
said a prominent business man , "and coa
power will make Omaha. " A high olllclal li
tlio Union I'rtciOe load says thcio are Indici
Hous Hint a coal-bbnkct unleilies the Whol
Missouri valley , and It Is needless to say tliii
"a prominent leal estate agent" notes a dc
cided HMJ In the value ol leal e late dtirln
tlio week in which the discovery has bee
known ,
TlitnklTovpi' .
Anri.
Never do ihines In a hurry , i
Take vour time ,
And | ahor well.
And , \\lieii matters of importance
I'lt'ts you inure than you c.in tell ,
Never rashly maUe
Your iiiniil up
Whether you shall buy or .sell ,
Think li over.
Yet to hnlt 'twlxt two opinions
When jou know
Which ono N tight ,
Is a wrong step and a Ion ? one ,
Jute daikness from Iho liulit.
And li' t you should
Clino.se ailveisely ,
I r you have the time oie night ,
Think Ito\er.
It may bp some other peison
Will \\ioiiiccd ,
It you should haste :
Vor you know by the adage ,
.Short ami simple , "liable makes waste. "
Then lest jou
Or any other
Should be luliucd or abused ,
Think it o\er.
Mal.e your mind up in the moiulng
Alter you
Have taken rest ,
Sleep upon it till the davbie.il > ,
llrlght ami himnv , 'tis ' the best ,
Then rclre heil
Choose well and wisely ,
.Many ha.e implied the test ,
Think it over.
C < > unllc < > * foi tunes have been
Jlioken has been
Alany a trust ,
Anil the owners , later fallen
1'ioiti.ite , tiKiilu to bltu the dust I
All because of
Hasty judgment ,
Whcic Hie panics fulled to just
Think It o\er ,
Xe\cr do thiiiss In a hurry !
Labor well
And take your lime ;
You who fnin would , tine mid Honest ,
h.un tin ; dollar and the dime ;
This applies
To every .station ,
KVCIJ land ami every clime ,
Think it over.
Knllroml Taxation.
Iliici > ln Dtmvrtal.
With all dcleicnco to our esteemed morn
Ing contempoiary's as Cition of what th
Doniociat said to the chattel-making com
mltk'oe must , icpmllato its constiuctlon
Tlio Demociat called the attention of tb
committee to the fact that SI , 000,000 or so o
piopeity hi this city belonging to the rail
roads escaped taxation for city purposes. It
escape from taxation does not , as our njorii
Ing contcmpoiary Insidiously intlnm
toil , add any revenue to HIPrura
districts. And if it did It leaves th
Journal in the predicament of favoring tli
tinust'cr of taxation lioin a heavily bin
doned city , where It Is most needed , to th
lightly burdened rural district , where It I
less needed. Tlio revenue laws need amend
incut , or lather need the interpretation o
couit with Judgment and backbone. Tlio device
vice by which taxation Is Irregularly lovlei
In behalf of and for the benefit of rallicart
Is unconstitutional. Or , perhaps It would b
better to say it Is absolutely wrong. Unfor
Innately , constitutionality and right do no
always run on parallel lines. ThPio Is nothlni
so sacied about corporal Ion proneily that I
should be exempt tiomthe burdens laid upoi
tlio the common lionl. _ _
A Hack-Action Boom.
.SI. / / < GMie-Demotrat / ,
Jiulgo drcsham's presidential boom lias re
col veil a big lift from an unexpected quaitet
Jay Could charges him with being Inllii
enced in his decision In the Wabnsh case b ;
his aspliatlons for residence In the wlill <
houso.and adds , by Implication , that he ( Jay
will do his best to Uecp-liliii out o It. Tha
luloi nmtion oimlit to bring ( JicHliam a * gooi
many votes In the nominating convention.
Our military mid Naval Pnllny.
The Journal of the Military Soivlco In
slilution for December , contains an article
clo in which the "Military and Nava
Policy of the United States" is diseiissci
by Lieutenant A. L. Wagner , of tlio Sixtl
Infantry.
While taking a somewhat pussimi.stit
view of his subject , thu author present !
an array of facts and figures which an
certainly of an extremely interesting am
instructive character.
De-ginning with the revolutionary pe
riod , and following the history of 0111
country to the present time , tiio mos
prominent features of our policy an
found in every period to bo "Iniidequiiti
provisions in time of peace for the neces
itles of war ; an injudicious reliance npor
raw troops ; and a miscellaneous Inter
meddling by civil olllcials with the con
duct of military operations. " As an iu <
stance of this last leatiiro of our policy ,
It Is stated that "the changes mailo bj
the secretary of war in the disposition ol
troops in the field of battle , contributed
not a Jittlo to the shameful disaster ol
Illudonsbtirg , " In speaking of the
militia , examples are given of thuit
inofllcionoy in every war which thoj
were called upon to play a part. Tin
rebellion called forth a kind of force that
had boon prnviousy | employed , though
on n much more limited scale , namely ,
United States volunteers. InKV \ those
volunteers made a force "peculiar among
the armies of the south. " Hut their edu
cation was costly , turn was a work ol
time even in the school of actual war
Three years' experience was ncccssai \
bcforu they became really cllieient , and
it w > > 3 the experience of four years ol
war that converted the raw levies of 1801
into the soldiers of 1805. Thcso suaionci
troops it M as who crushed the rebellion
"Tho union was preserved at thn expense
of $3,000,000,000 , and the moro lamenthuh
cost of mom than half a million lives1. "
Lieutenant Wagner , agreeing will
manv other military authorities , uellovei
that 80,000 regular troops , pitted ngams
thu raw lovius of the south and followed
up and supported by an army o
uOO.OGO volunteers , would have sup
pressed the rebellion inshfo o
ono year. After c-.tlm.iUng t !
maximum cosl of < ? uch n campaici
the writer says ; "It is imposflblc I
avoid the conclusion that the lack of wa
like preparation cost the United States i
loastSO.UXMVXW.OOO.11 This andthonmoiti
iiaid in pensions sineo the war , "woul
have been moro than sulVieient lo mall
tain an irniy of 45,090 men from the bi
pinning of the Semiuole war to the breal
Ing out of the rebellion. "
The shrewdness of our nation in allo\ \
inn Kuropo nt great cost to oxpcrlmct
with iron-clads , etc , has often been tli
sttbjccl oi self-eoucratuhition by many <
our economical cltl/.ons. It 'is argue
that when It should become necc'-sarv t
that when all doubtful questions t
armament , etc. , shall have been settle
at the expense of Kuropean nations , w
may then construct the best for our ow
use. This much lauded policy Is seen i
its true light when wo rolled that li
eighteen years , by Lieutenant Wagner
showing , wo have spent in patcl
ing up absolute wooden vcsse'
nnd "quasi iron-clad * " which Admin
I'ortor declared an enemy would sink r
worthless after capturing them mor
than enough money to hav
built nnd kepi in repair , nineteen I rot
clads like the Hritish ; Iulle\lblc , clove
like the Italian Lepanto. or thirty
nine steel cruisers like the Chicago. \ \
huvo wasted on repairs the cost of coi
slructiug pud maintaining a powcrfi
Heel , and Ibis is called economy. "
Turning to the regular army Lienten
ant Wagner traces its hNtory which lui
run in the main tlmt of a struggle fo
existence , and states the object tor whic
it exists. The army KS , or should bo mot
than a mere police force ; it should bo
school of application for ollleers in tun
of peace ; a model for the militia and
loree of such strength and organr/.atlo
that it may bo capable of easy and qiiic
expansion in case of war. It might the
be depended upon as a powerlul factor c
national strength.
It need not be largo to accomplish a
of these ends , but it is apparent that i
should bo larger than it is.
In these consideration1) ) may be foun
'
the real and best reasons for'the mail
teiiance of an army in time of peaeo.
The details of army ollicers at college
throughout the country i.s spoken of as
sound measure of policy , tending to prc
mete and extend military knowlcdg
among the people.
Founding his provision upon the les
sons of the past. Lieutenant Wugne
takes , as wo have remarked above ,
rather gloomy view of the future , A
the same time it must lie admitted tlia
some , at least , of the .lessons of Iho ] > : is
have been useful lo us as a people. I'll
action of congress of 181' ) was far mor
vigorous than that of the congress of th
revolution , whose fatuous trilling in mat
ters concerning the prosecution of th
war was , on several oc
casions , well nigh fatal ti
the cause of independence. Agaii
the congress of the rebellion was very fa
ahead of that of 1811) in its necessities o
the case , and voted men and mono ,
without stint. 15ut in these eases , actio
was delayed until war had actually bt
gun. The great trouble has over been i
the neglect of preparation in time c
peace. In this respect wo have been an
are still enemies. But even hero there i
improvement. Public sentiment whie
precedes and directs tlio legislation of th
country , is now moro favorable than i
has over been lierctolore , to the policy c
preparation. This sentiment is echoed i
the halls of congress anil thu last yea
has seen bills introduced wlio e cll'cct , i
th y become laws will improve our navj
give us forlilicalions to protect on
largest sea coast cities , and greatly in
crease the efficiency of our army.
True , these have not yet become law ?
but the fact that such bills have been ii
traduced , indicates that the people rcai
i/.o the necessity for legislation in this d
rcction , winch must in time have it
cllect 'Ihe rebellion was a great odtici :
lor of the people in this respect. At it
eloso nearly two million soldiers sprea
throughout the country , and became sun
pie citizens , but citizens who had bee
soldiers , and who , as soldiers , could ai
predate the necessity for timely prcparn
lions , These men could not fail to hav
an cll'cct on public sentiment. Organi/ : '
lions of a military character have sprim ,
up _ as ono result of this dis-semmaiion o
military knowledge , which operatic I
initiate their members , into tlio eh
montary principles of tliu military acl
and to preserve a military spirit iimotii
tlio people. It is true that the knowlcdg
thus obtained is but rudimentary , bull
the rudiments arc learned it is some
thing. In this profession , as in others ,
Htop in advance opens uj > a broader rivei
nnd shows that still other stop
lie boyond. The national guards
mail realizes that with hi
civil pursuits to attend ( o , li
cannot hope to become familiar will
moro than the elements of military ci
onco. He realizes that a necessity exist
for men to devote their lives and bos
thoughts to military matters alone ; tha
is to i > ay , ho realizes the absolute UOCCH
sity for an cllieient rcirular force jf w >
are to keep abreast with Iho ago , if wi
are to bo in ( imp of pence prepared fo
war. Hut in spite of- these oneourapiiif
signs , it must bu admitted that they an
but signs , and by no means accompli.slici
facts. Wo are not prepared for war
Legislation Is needed and tmin is nccdei
after the laws are made before wo cm
make any pretensions to readiness. It I
to bo hoped that the near t'utuni may sci
much-needed steps taken to give us KOUI <
deirrec of that "might" upon which Yoi
Moltko has recently said great nation
must dfipund for security , perhaps cvei
for tlioir very existence.
Lieutenant Wagner's article in a timol ;
ono , and shows iv candid and pains
taking btudy of his subject ; it deserve ,
moro than a moro perusal , The snbjco
Is ono that commend * ii.solf to thuearnoH
consideration of every thoughtful cilizoi
and patriot. K.
A KH'orninr'N flows ,
Ignoianeo and chicanery are riiinln ;
the farmor. Humbug M the onlttr of tli
day , and tic * people to bo humlju < 'gcdar
the farmers.
The farmer recognises iln > fact that Ih
general , Mnto , county , township and niii
melpal governments must ho Misluinui
by somu form ol taxation. Jlo is inlet
c.sted in this taxation question , as u I
eating out his vital * , and If not change *
will .speedily aciomplis-h his ripn.
Too much money is paid nut for thu ex
ponse.s of our courts All chil suit
should bo docketed at a price per hou
for time devoted to smih litigations , am
this prlco should bo high onouli ; ; to cove
all the costs-salary of judge , Hln-nll
clerk , balill's , jury , fuel ami lights , am
proportionate interest on the real e tali
used for court purposes. Tim prnbabh
cost should bo deposited in advance , tun
additional margins "liould bu put tq
from day to duy whun sunl
original deposit Iius ben exhausted
and securities ttxueted from parties t
pay amount In case ol costs going again.-1
them.
In cr'.m'nal trial.in c.tsc of guilt , UK
property of criminals bhould bo liabli
for nil costs , and such liability should at
tach to the same from HID moment u CIF : <
is docketed- the county's lion shouU
take preciidoncn of the nltorney's fee1
who dofond.s such criminal. As most ol
our criminal trials grow out of the UK *
of intoxicants , a special license should hi
paid by all wholesale and retail dealer.- *
mclutllng druggists , for the benefit o
our courts of justice. All fees attache ,
to any officer , should uarigMknccoutitoi
for , and the money received covered inti
tlm public treasury , and the pay of al.
state nnd county nilipials be a llxojl .salary
payable quarterly by warrant on tin
public treasurer , iigucd by two distiller *
cMed ollleials , to be Ihed by law.
There should be but one- treasurer for
all the funds collected for publiee purposes -
poses in the state , nnd nil motions
so collected , whether as leo * , ta\ ( . ,
sales of waste material , etc. , should bo
deposited , and no money should bo
drawn out except on a warrant setting
forth specifically the object am ) the au
thority therefor. Such warrant should
be signed , tor municipal funds by the
mayor , attested by the clerk ; for courts ,
by the judge , attested by his clerk ; for
county , by thp county judge or chairman
of the board of county commissioners , at
tested by ( Im auditor ; and such clerks ,
auditors and others , should bu required
to keep a clear record of all such war
rants by date , number , name of payee ,
object and authority , as n permanent
public record , and any Illegal or unau
thorized use of public funds should bo
made by law an embezzlement of the
funds so used or applied.
Provision should be made by law for a
pcrioillu valuation of all real estate by a
state board of experts , giving thu valid *
tiou at what such property would bring
in gold for cash at a forced sale. When
property I'1 ' * ° t UPPII fully paid for by a
purchaser , the remaining liability should
bo assessed and deducted from thu value ,
and the purchaser .should be given a
separate receipt for so miielt of tlio ag
gregate tax as would properly belonu to
Filch deferred payment , and such receipt
should be made by law , uvidcneo of pii.v-
muni of thu amount on the debt duo on
thu purchase.
Internal revenue for HIP I'tuted Statei
should bo. collected on spirits , tobacco ,
and all imilation food products. Tbo
taxes on spirits and tobacco could well
bo increased , ami on imitations of butler ,
honey or sugar should berelatively to thu
Miluo of a pure article very high' !
Tar ill' taxes on imports should be en
tirely removed from' all articles of no-
eoi.sitv to the working man , and so ad
justed on all luxuries as tnyiel't ' the great
est possible revenue. One of the greatest
impositions the farmer is subjected to
grows out of our vicious patent laws ,
flu inventor but seldom derives any
benefit from hi.s invention. The mldillo
men , who buy for a song the invention ,
nro thu bonellciaries , and th" lax on such
products fixed by them to bo paid by
commissions is simply limited by their
own cupidity. Singer made his ten mil
lions out of the sowing women of this
country by selling a machine for § ( ! ( ) to
$ ij. , while ho sent the same mauliinu
to JMiropo and sold it at from twenty-fivu
to thirty dollars. Congress should pass a
law authorizing any one to maiiufaetuio
n patented article by giving security to
account to Iho real inventor lor a royally
of from SJ to 5 per cent on Ids sales of
such patented article. Almost every tool
n ed by the tanner yields thu manufac
turer from 5rt to ' , ' 00 per cent , growing
out of our vicious patent laws ; , and if
such modifiei'.lion ho made as is heroin
suggested , farmers could procure their
implements at an average of 2f per cent
less eosl.'tlie real inventor would bo better
paid for his brain work and thousands of
farmers could till'ord to buy a telephone
instnnient and bo in telephonic connec
tion with the nearest village or town.
Intelligent politicians will argue thai
farmers tire benelittcd by the tnrilVlaws.
They urge that the la rill"protocU Ameri
can labor. Lot us sou about this. Is
farm labor protected r How much pro
tection is afforded to tlm able man who
works from sun-rt'-o to snn-sut on tlu
farm for $1 ! ) per month and board ? Do
blacksmiths , bricklayers , stonemasons ,
plasterers , eariienlcrs , quarry men ,
briekmakors , printurrf , lolugnndi opera
tors , railroad men , gastitters , plumbers ,
butchers , laundry men , teamstor.s , day
laborers , stovemakers , tinners , book
binders , bridgobulldurs , sailors , bakers ,
saddlers , harnessinakera , carriagemak-
crs , cairiagetiinimcr.s , foundry men ,
hotel waiters anil others who
might bu mentioned , have any
protection from the tarlll' ? Do they not
get more pay in Ibis country than men
pursuing corresponding avocations in
Europe ? Do they not receive on tin av
erage more pa v than the "Infill" pro
tected" labor in eastern cotton and
woolen nulls as much as "tariff pro
tected'1 iron-makers ) ! If such labor a.s is
above enumerated can get along without
"tariff protection" in iact , while suffer
ing from tariff infliction , is it not reason
able ( o urgu that labor in cotton and
woolen mills might do as well or better
than now , if tlio tariff were taken oil"of
all the necessaries of life ? Aside from
all this , is it rigid to tax all for the ben
efit of a few capitalist } ! ? l"or one , I
think not ?
Ke.al Ksialu TransforH.
The following transfers were filed lor
record with the county clerk Dec.
0 11 Kullog ati'l wife to tlio Western Loan
itTiusiCo , lot 1'iblk I Diiiiiwi'K add , ( i c , M.
Mary A Collet ! to C II Kellivtr , lot TJ blk I
Dpnlsu'saiid , wd , $ : : , ooo.
MnrvJ Crnlmm Anil hush to 0 L lail"i ! ,
lot lii blk L Lewis's add , w d. S'.KK ) .
John F .Maldmicv to Win U Hainan , lot
1 lilkilKhkwood , w il , 35.
City of Omaha to Kuiul Ncl on. SOxliM ft
beginning at the a. e. cor. lotlibllc . .lit Omnha ,
(1 e , SIOO.
lleoWTIIson to Italph W liiruUeurhlge ,
lot 4 bile r Kllby J'lace , o c , Si.
A S I'.idilock ami wlfo to Henry WSnydei ,
lot 14 blk : i I'luldoek plare , w it. 8'i.ino.
A .S Paddock and wife to Henrv W Snyilfi ,
lot II ! blk ! ! I'aildock place , w il. S'V-MKi.
i TJifl City of Omaha lo Tail Christian
Tlirano , "ux'-Ji It s ol lot 1 blk ! ! 07 Omaha , < | c ,
> ' *
llalthas , letter and wife to'flicn Olsen , lots
U and K ) blk 0 .letter's mid , w l , tf 1'JMi.
Ida II Williams and hush to Jos II Illnlr ,
Kith Intel est in lots In Kloreneo as follow *
lotMnblkbs , QnminiiiDO. illii'.M , I In in , li1
In ! H , it , in and H in ' . ' . " > , U In W , 1 1 mul 10 In
in'.H ' , Oiiml 11 in W , IS and I'.Hn ' I0li , H mid
10 In Wi , 1'In ! 110 , in In 111. 15 nnd 'M in 111' ' ,
11 In blk I'-W , 7 In blk l'"J , lit In blk I II. s In blk
1.10 , : i In blk 15:1.8 : In tilic ir\ l-r-w 15.17 blk In
101 , 10 and ir , In blk in1 ; , 111 bile lin. 'land M
in 107. also uutlots 2iO. 'JUl , ' . ; , also lot r blu
all , ( | e. S300.
\ \VllliaiiiRauil \ liusbto.ios II Itl.ilr , outlets
lots IMi , 'J01 , 'jtu ' , also lots and hIK
above , n c , i-'i.
'J'lic city of Omaha to .leanle WonlwniUi
Howard , iiOxlW It | M > IIIIIIIII $ | ; at s e cor lot 1
blh : : c > Omalm. ( i c. 000.
Win O Bartholomew to A II fum.slock el
nl. ol7ll ; ! of lot - " Huilueh'o IM mid , w il ,
: > , l < )0. )
A 11 iMaynoaiul wlfo to c K Maync , lot '
blli 3 Ilelvldeiv. w d , ? : M.
Knw.uil Keovcs and wife to IlieOnnhi
Laud . \ : Trust Uo , lots I , 7 , S blk . * S , l''lorem ' i ,
w d , tl.
Tim Omaha fc I'loionco Land , v Tru t ( '
to Kdward and Knrali Kcovcii , Jol t ; blk 1 ' >
Kloiuuee , w d. SI. ,
A ti J'.iddoek and ulfoto Itoynohls II fliiA1 ,
et nl lot r < blk . ' , I'addock place , w d. 51 , < no
CcoI'lcUinl to Itoiibi-ii 11 J'icUid ol il
pail ! ' Jv' H ' - < n o " 4 ill- 1. VI-.1. w < 1 , SI.OOJ.
ilohait U'lfllamsto Kdwiud 11 MieiHdml ,
00 acres In lift ir.-l'i w d , SINOO ) .
I'oslolllco Cliiuici'H In Ni'ln-ahlrn iiml
IllVVII.
I'oslollleo change.In NebrasKu during
the wii-l ; ending Deoeml-er 11. liSl ( ,
furnished by Win. Van VJuek of llio PO-.I
ollleodoiuirtiiieiit'
KslnlilUlip'lAlbany ' .SlieiliKin connij ,
U'ni. U. Mcliitire , postiiiHstei i AiiM'Imo.
Ciibter lonnty , .loi'jpli ' A. Mlcliele , po-
nmsU'i ; Jloutll , ColliiK count } , Jlemy I"
Kliihe , | i/BUiiasti'i ; l.oiox , Chii.o cimiil' ,
I'laieiico II. I'airan. postmaster ; Walnut
Hill , Douglas county , 1'atriok A. ( invin , post
master.
Name changed ( irecntniry , Clay coimtj ,
to OIIL %
l > osliua < tfr npjiolntcil Keystone , la\i )
county , lio'jcrt ' L C'a.stiiu.
JOWA.
1'ostufllcn changns in Iowa during th"
week ending Di'ceeniber ' 11 , 18Sl ) :
j' bllslud--lliihtirier Dcc.itiir counu.
> ti > : - - { ,
John. I. Hull , postmaster.
lsiontiiiut"l--l'alliiiin ! : , Aiiuio | | : > iso rouii
ty ; DcerliiifVirinuba.u , county ; i'lanio
Hill , Ikmno comity.
I'li-ititiiisU'rn iippointcd Kc'yslor.c , llonliMi
count ) , Ohailes W. .Shliouiau ; Lacoj , Mali s
! ui county , L. P. Hallin.'nr : La t'lo-.v , l/o
county , 11. Nlll ! aiaiihattnn , Keni i-l , t-ti mu.
A. { ! . Mcn'w ( ! ; ( o.scuwk M jv'H'iU' ' cr < ' tv.
1'rai.K Leiimt.uefi-1.

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