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PART TWO THE OMAHA SUNDAY EE.
TWENTIETH YEAR O3HAHA SUNDAY MOKNING , JAiSTUAEy 18 , 1801.-SIXTEEN PAGES. NUMBER 214 IRRIGATION IN NEBRASKA , The Subject Illustrated by the Successful Experience of Colorado. \ HOW WATER IS APPLIED TO ARID LANDS , OpcratloiiH In tlio South Plntto Coun try , Just Aorrns the Htato l/tno How tlio Stnto Assists the AVorlc. ( Third Article. ) The arid rculon of Nebraska adjoins the itnto of Colorado on the west nnd south. On both sides of this Imaginary linn the sol ) , the climate nnd nil natural condltiohs are the samo. But on ono sldo thcro is agricultural prosperity of a high nnd growing order. On the other sldo there Is poverty nnd distress. On ono mdo lies the garden , on the other Mdo the desert. During the past season the farm ers living In the valley of the South Platte in "Colorado raised train loads of potatoes and sold them for fabulous prices. In the same period the farmers living In the valley loy of the South Platte in .Nebraska raised scarcely anything , and irnny of them nro now receiving food and clothing from the state nnd they must look to the earno source for the seed of future crops. Nebraska had the advantages of earlier settlement. She hns a larger population and moro xvcnlth In the aggregate , but in the matter of irrigation she Is but an infant to a man when compared with Colorado. And ir rigation In Colorado has only begun. These facts arc not , however , as discredit able to Nebraska as at flnt appears , Nobody over pretended that Colorado coulil depend on rainfall. Western Nebraska , with the aid of unscrupulous land agents , was persuaded that she could. Experience is a bard mas ter , but wo are learning the lessson at last , nnd the lalo severe drouth may turn out to bo n blessing in disguise. As the best possible means of Illustrating how irrigation can bo accomplished hero , this paper will undertake to trace how it has been accomplished In Colorado in the face of simi lar difficulties. I. BnaisxixoB ot THE WOIIK ix ( The total area , of Colorado is 00,500,000 BCICS. Of this vast domain 20,500,000 , acres Is mountain land , hopeless for agri culture , but rich in minerals and timber. The balance , of 40,000,000 , acres , Is composed of plateau , plain and valley , nnd has a soil fit to grow any crops that will thrive In this latitude and altitude. But it Is perfectly arid. When the first pioneer settler pushed his way , * net Oss1 the plains and into Colorado , iV > aver thirty years ngo , ho found only a few thousand of these millions of acres uudor cul tivation , and these only by monns of mdo ditches constructed by unskillful Mexican farmers. Now , according to the latest stalls- tlon of what is locally known as the "English company , " an association of Scotch capital- bts. Their first undertaking was the con struction of the Larimer and Weld canal , which takes its source In the Cnctio a 1'oudro rlvor , two miles north west of Fort Collins , and runs cast acrosi Larimer and Weld counties for a distance of forty-flvo mlloi. It is twcnt.v-fl vote to thirty feet wldo and from live to seven foot deep , it has a capacity sufficient to irrigate iOOW , acres , almost all of which are now In a High state of cultivation. This largo canal tins now been in operation nearly ten years. Thrco small reservoirs are used in connection with this enterprise. The success of this canal led the same capi talists to undertake a larger and more diffi cult project. This was to tap the Platte river as it leaves the mountains and develop the lands lying around Denver. The scheme liad been long- talked of and for years had waited only for the assist- nco of capital. Tlio construction oi this "High Line canal , " as it Is called , was bceun early In * the spring of 1SSO and con tinued without cessation till 1833. It is a fine piece of engineering , with its dam in the river , its tunnel at the head of tho' canal , its fluma In the canon , and its. numerous flumes across the creeks that Ho in Its course. Tlio mnln canal is seventy miles long , nnd forty feet wide for a larro part of Its length. It has n branch about twcnty-flvo miles long and of smaller dimensions. It waters be tween fifty and sixty thousand acres. It cost This was the beginning of irrigation In Colorado. It demonstrated that if water could bo applied to the arid soil the desert would blossom ns the rose. It converted timid , unbelieving capital into an aggressive ally of the state's devel opment. With the suceoss of these two undertakings of the English company , Irriga tion was established as a great and promising factor in the life of Colorado. Capital cimo from England , from Holland , from New York , from Chicago and St. Louis , to seek investment whcro returns were assured. And , Denver itself a hint for Omatm readily In vested in irrigation enterprises the capital it had accumulated with phenomenal rapidity in mining and real estate. Nebraska stands today where Colorado stood ten years ago. II. JS KOUTHKUK COLORADO. From a Nebraska standpoint the most in terestlng part of irrigated Colorado is that portion lying between Denver and the Ne braska line , and especially in the valley of the Souzh Platto. The accompanying map shows the developments in this legion at a glance. This part of Colorado Is precisely like our arid region. It has the same soil n.id climate and draws its water supply from ono of the sources which wo must utilize. The stnto line that separates Nebraska from Colorado is only Imacinary , but the line that runs be tween irrigated prosperity and arid dlstrcs is n real line , plainly marked on the surface of the earth. The association of foreign capltilists al ready alluded to undertook the development NORTHERN COLORADO. Showing how the Smith Platte and other streams are linrncsicil to systems of Irrigation tics available , Colorado has 4,001,409 acres under ditch , for which she has paid , through the investment of private capital , $11,150,003. Better than this , she has organized all the public and private force * , enacted comprehensive laws , nnd done various other things to secure the further develop * meat of irrigation on the grandest scale. How has all this been ilonoj It is a story of persistent energy and untiring efforts directed against diQIcultlcs , but aiming at great and certain results. The flrjt attempt to build a Inrgo ditch in Colorado was undertaken in 1800 by a few citizens of Denver. They spent flO.OOO nnd managed to make a com pie to failure of It , owing to tbo lack of experience nud thu un fortunate fact that their verdant engineer Nhad omitted to glvo any fall to hi * grade lino. Both the citizens and the engineer retired from the business , but the spirit of cntorpriso kept on. Two years later the Platte water company's ditch was built with bolter success , and it still furnishes Denver with IU irrigating water. Between 1S < W and 18SO tbo Irrigation movement got well under way. Numerous nmnll ditches wcro inudo , fully demonstrating the feasibility of the project , and a systematic effort begun to Interest largo capital , Colorado had first to ovcrcoma the skepticism of capltil , as Nebraska still S has in some measure. The real development of the arid regions in the Ccutonnlal state begun with the forma- of the wido-strotching plains in the northern part of the stato. The Platte valley canal takes Its source In the Platte river , about thrco miles north of Lupton , a town twenty- six miles north of Denver. The canal has an appropriation of 400 cubic feet per second and can Irrigate 20,000 acres. The construc tion cost about $ -13,030. There is a substan tial dam In the river , 200 feet long , which cost about $ J,000. , From the fart that there , nro no flumes nor any timber work of any kind on the canal , with the exception of the dam , its maintenance is comparatively Inex pensive. The Lovcland nnd Grceloy canal is another of thrfenterprises wltn which this same com pany is connected. Its bend Is located on the Big Thompson near Lovcland. It is thirty- ono miles long , twenty-six feet wide and Ilvo feet deep , with a variable grade. Its appro priation of water U 410 cubic feet per second , nnd it Is capable of irrigating 23,000 acres , of uhlch nearly one-third is under cultivation. This canal cost about 8150,000. ! Thcro are two reservoirs near its head , which hnvo cacti n surface area of nearly fifteen hundred acres. A reservoir 1ms also been constructed at Its lower end , on th hill overlooking Grcelcy , which is capable of holding2,000,000 , cublo foot of water. The North Poudro canal is worthy of men tion in this connection. It is a private en terprise and presents some engineering fea ture j of moro thuu usual interest , The canal takes iU water from the north fork of the Cucho Ja Pouilro rlvor , In tha northwestern portion of Larimer county. The dam in the canon is ns good a specimen ot this class of work ns U to bo found in the state , The dam cost7,500. These are the largest irrigation enter prises In the portion of Colorado nearest Nebraska , though ttiero nro hundreds of smaller canals and ditches of great value to tbo region. in. SOME Iui01:11 : cowiiVDOKXicnrmsns. In other pirU of tlio state , especially in tto San Luis , tbo Gunnison nnd the Arkansas valleys , thcra are still larger works of Irriga tion. Prominent among thorn Is the Empire canal , in the San Luis valley , which takes water from the Hio Grande fourteen miles nbovo AUmosn and extends southward to the Hio Concjos. This is thirty miles long , sixty feet wide at the head nnd five and n half feet deep ; discharges 1,400 , cubic feet per second ; noor , wbo should Imvo the oversight of all these enterprises nnd sco that they con formed to the wlso laws of the state , Tbo provisions of these laws will bo moro fully dwelt upon in n subsequent nrtlclc. In his message delivered to the legislature during the past week Gover nor Uoutt admirably summed up the present relations of the stole to this subject. Ho said thnt Irrigation was the most vital and pressing subject thnt would como before the legislature ; that the people wcro holding mass meetings la various parts ot the state to discuss priority of rights nnd the use of water fordomcstiopurooses ; that this matter called for nn early and decisive opinion from the sunrcmo court , aud that the legislature should pass effective Inus on the subject. Ho also advocates the establishment of reser voirs , and urges the legislature to cull upon congress to assist In this work by speedily donating the aild publtelands to the states. Besides the assistance directly obtained from the state , various foroUry , agrleultura THE METHOD OF IRRIGATION. Tlio water enters the lateral from tbo main canal when the gate Is raised , nnd runs into a dis tributing dltcb nt tbo head of the Hold. It Is then diverted to tlio plow furrows , which nro dammed at frequent Intervals , oaiisliij } the water to distribute ItAulf over tbo entire field covers 120,000 acres , of which the company iwns 74,000. , It has cost $170,000 and promi- ics to bo a most profitable investment. The Del Norto is the largest irrigating canal in the United States. It is sixty-five 'cot wide on the bottom nt the headgato , car rying water five nnd a half feet deep , with side slopes thrco to ono , making the top width nt water line ninety-eight foot. Pour miles from the head Ills bifurcated : the larger branch being forty-two foot wide at the bet tom-nod the smaller branch thirty-elgbtKfeot" ivlde. Thcro are about fltty miles of main channel. It carries something over 2,400 cubic feet of water per second and Is circulated to Irrigate over 200,000 acres. It is located In the San Luis valley in southern California , takes its supply from the Hio Grande river nnd covers the land in the northern end of the valley. It cost ? 300,000. The peculiar feature in the construction of this canal was the rapidity of its completion , the cntlro work being accomplished within a period of four months. The Citizens' canal Is in the snmo neighbor hood , taking its supply from the Rio Grande river , eight miles below the Del Norto and on the opposite sldo of the river. It Is de signed to irrigate the lands In the southwest ern part of the San Luis valley. It covers 120,000 acres and cost $200,000. ThoUncompahgro canal , in the west cen tral part of the state , covers about sixty-fivo thousand acres of the lauds of the Uucom- pahro valloy. The entire valley has a consid erable fall to the north , abdut sixty feet to the mile , which gives the canal the nppcar- nnco of having an ascending grade , and ne cessitates the frequent use of drops or over falls. The entire cost of this canal was $210 , 000. 000.Tho The Grand river canal system , in the ox- trcmo western part of the state , is a combi nation of three canals , projected and largely hu'.lt by the farmers of the Grand river vnl- loy , but purchased nr.d united by the present owners. The combined appropriating capac ity Is CSO cubic foot per second. There are about sixty.fivo miles of main channel , cov cring some forty thousand acres. A striking feature is numerous overfalls or "drops , " ranging from four feet to thirty-six feet in height. The Fort Morgan canal , in the northeast ern part of the state , takes it supply from the Platte river , about ninety miles below Den ver. It is twenty-eight miles long nnd thirty feet wldo at the bottom ; carries water tnreo nnd one-half feet deep and has a slope of ono In ! ) ,800 ; capacity something over three hun dred and forty cubic foot per second. It irri gates 20,000 acres nnd cost about S'J. > ,000. , Besides these largo eatorpriscs many oth ers nro under way nnd irrigation is still iu the full tide of development. IV. HOW THE STATE 1'OSTEHS IllllIOATIOtf. It Is neither possible or necessary within the limits of this article to describe moro fully the progress of Iriigation in Colorado. The object Is to show thnt our neighbors have successfully overcome every dlfllculty which wo nro now facing , and thereby point the way to the speedy and complete reclamation of our arid lands. For this purpose , how ever , it Is very essential that the work done by the state should bo understood. In his report to Governor Adams of Decem ber , 16S3 , J , S. Greene , stnto engineer ot ir rigation , used these words ; "IJut , however cnorgctlo her people may have been , how- vcr skilled In construction or fruitful in resources , It was in the legislative halls and the court rooms that they fostered best Col orado's wonderful development in Irrigation enterprises , " In otuor words , thcro would have been no capitalists , no grand undertak ings , If the executive and legislative ofllcors of the common wealth , and all manner of pub lic associations , had not united in en effort to Dush the agricultural development of the state. That Is the point which the people ol Nebraska must nomprohcnd at this juncture In the first place , Colorado has given great attention to her laws bearing on tbo subject of Irrigation. She has constantly broadonoO them to meet the growing demands of the subject nnd only recently has appointed a commission to completely revise them , The object has boon to encourage cnpltnl , to pro tect the water supply , to guarantee equal op- pQrtunltlca to all parts of the stnto , A very Important step in reaching these ends was the appointment of a competent state cugl and irult growers' ' associations nro giving their influence systematically to the de velopment of Irrigation in all directions , and nro runrding from every stand point , from the preservation of the water supply on the mountain tops to the fertilization of the farthest aero on the edge of the nvld belt. It was by means of this deep nnd earnest conviction of the vnluotof Irrigation that the work has been broughtjtojllts pro3Oiitstago , a Colorndo.iHIt'Is'iby ' riSilnWKC'.no'd81InTcc ? ? ? operation with private capital and local en terprise , that n great empire west of the 100th meridian in Nebraska can bo inudo prosper ous. ous.Colorado Colorado ranks high among mining states. It abounds in silver , gold , Iron , coal mid other minerals. But , without a slngio foot of natu rally arable land , its agricultural product In the year 1890 exceeded in value the output of all its mines. Could there bo a moro elo quent tribute to irrigation ? In closing this sketch of the progress m Colorado I leave untouched a mass of mater ial on the subject for lack of space. But enough 1ms been said to provo the truth of an old proverb , wnlcb , revised for the occasion , would read : "What-Colorado lias done , Ne braska can do. " , Next week's article will deal with the irri gation laws of Ncornska and the urgent de mands for their revision nnd enlargement , a subject rendered timely by th J approaching convention nt McCook. E. SMITHE. CO XXUflJA CITIES. " ! Branson a slngio manl" "Not quite. Uo's about half a man. " The average wife hates to oak her husband for money and in most cases ho hates to have her. her."So "So your wife has left you ? " "Sho has. " "What wore her last words on leaving you ! " "Is my hat on straight ! " InBachelor Docs your wife always have the Qst word ? Benedict ( sadly ) Never ; I Invariably get ll Grand Rnplds leads the world In Its per centage of divorces to marriages. This year the ratio was ono to flvo and lost year ono to six. Somehow papa tells his fairy tales to mamma instead of to the little ones. And mamma is generally not enough of a little on ate to swallow thorn nil. Ho Are you intimately acquainted with Mr. Wilson ? She ( from Chicago ) Only slightly. Iyas married to him once. Mem frau is gon'o , divorced away I tolls you dot is funny. I haven't ' got zwcl doilnr left , And she got alimony , A Now York husband was so insanely jealous thnt ho would take his wife's shoes with him when ho went to work so thnt she could not go out in h-is absence. Ho What rome'dy uould you suggest for the deplorable cond ition of the marriage laws ? She Appropriate penalties. FiratoiTcnee. short sentence ; second , for Ufa 1 Hicks Maria , I dlon't bellovo you would wako up if Gabriel Were to How his horn I Mrs. Hicks You would ; the faintest sug gestion of n horn would rout you out early. Judge You are charged with bigamy , Mr. Smith. Hnvo you suythlng to say to the chargol Prisoner No , sir. I'm not fool enough to talk against two women. Mrs. Grumps If that stranger you were talking to said nothjng about his wife , how do vou know ho Is married i Mr. Urumps Oh. be. looked so sort o' sym- pathntlo when I tuld him I was. Bingo Dear mo , I'm ' tired. My wife got mo up at 0 o'clock tlm'mornlng , KIngley What did the get you up so early for ! lllngo She wanted to catch the noon train. For sovcn years a Hooslor named I'cto Dayton had obliged his wife to support the family by washing and ho had loft un aver age of &J per-week In the saloons. TlioVhlto Caps took him out and thrashed him and in less than eight months ho had earned $200 and kept sober every day. It is tbo women who do the proposing in Dahomey. When ajiirl reaches the ngo of eighteen sbo is eligible for matrimony nnd she at onca sots out to find some ono willing to marry her. Frequently stio takes n hus band on trial for a month or two before choos ing him for better Or worse. James Paris , a TcniiosseAn , was going out to bunt , and his good wife loaded his gun for all day. When bo drew a bead oh a squirrel thcro was a crash and a bane1 , and , while the squirrel escaped , Mr. Paris' returned homo with a broken jaw , five tooth gouo nnd two finger * ready for amputation. A DAY IN DARKEST 01AHA ! , Experience of The Bee Reporter iu the Homes of the Need ; . THE STRUGGLE FOR MERE EXISTENCE , Talcs of SufTcrliiR Wliloh Should Touoli the Hearts and Purses of the Happy anil 1-rospcroiiB. Whatever of Just cause the ice dealers may hnvo hid for complaint regarding it , the mild weather that hns characterized the winter thus far hns certainly been a God-send to the tfoitunatopoor. In a city the slzo of Omaha there nro many uch , and the amount of suffering that has xcn averted by the merciful tampering of , ho wintry blasts is not to bo caculatcd. There are , within the limits of this happy , irosperous , well-lighted and well-fed city , cores of cheerless and forbidding places ivhero poverty and hunger are constant .hough unwelcome guests. The needy ones i\ho , from necessity nnd not from choice , nro ivont to call these places "homo" find In , hem no reall/ation of the comforts ind enjoyments that , to the majority of the liuman family , arc so closely associated with .hat sacred word. After visiting thorn , ono loubts the sentiment of John Howard Payne , bat hns found n responsive chard in so many : iearts , nud Is will nigh convinced that whe-n lomo becomes so humble as this there are ithcr places far moro desirable. True , no cases of heartrending destitution have been discovered this \vlntor , nnd It is wsslblo that the cases that have been ro- iiorted do not meet with so ready nnd gcner- > us relief because of the absence of this 'cnturo. When the details nro particularly igoulzlng , thcro is u tendency on the part of everyone to give spontane ously to relieve such abject want , and the object of the charity is amply pro dded with necessities nnd oven luxuries , which will last until the case hns entirely lipped from the mind of the greater number if ttio givers. The scores of cases that demand attention and assistance this winter present their needs "in a general call for charity and the response is neither ns prompt nor as generous as would bo the ease if harrowing details wcro pres ented to awaken the sympathies of these who nro naturally charitably Inclined. Thcro are undoubtedly manv cases whcro nil needed assistance is given by kind-hearted neighbors , nnd all knowledge of them is withheld Irom the public , but whcro the case demands constant support the strain is too heavy for a few to bear , nnd it is then that an nppcnl is made to the general public for systematic giving. Comparatively fowof the citlzensof Omaha o accustomed to bestowing their charities systematically. The nearest approach to n board of relief outsldo of thoolllcq of tlio county poorraastcr Is that in connection with St. Timothy's mission and superintended by Missionary Reedy. A Dr.u reporter accompanied Mr. Heedy on ono of his trips to note the condition and sur roundings of some of the families who nro do- pendeat for support on their moro fortunate fellows. It was found that the majority of them ex isted la ono room hovels , some of thorn fairly \\lndond weather proof , and others offering but little resistance to the encroachments of the elements. The first place visited vfM the little hut near the corner of Twentieth and Castcllar , otfcOptciabyWrs8tuart11Reod.'ji ! Vato- ! . ! ) whoso case was recently published In Tun BKB , when her husband was sent to the hospital for the Insane nt Lincoln. Previous to that time the destitution of the family was not known , but when TiicBnr. called public attention to It a number of charitably disposed indies and gentleman in terested themselves in the case , and it was nter taken In charge by Mr , Reedy. The mother of the family of five children is al most helpless , suffering from nn organic trouble , to remedy which a surgical opera tion is required. The operation is provided for , together \\ith the necessary medicines , and it is stated that $ -0 will furnish such ap pliances nnd bandages as may bo needed. Two of the boys and ono girl are now largo cnouph to bo of some service , nnd the family would bo self-supporting with the mother's health restored. Airs. Heedis , a very enor- getlo and intelligent woman , nnd appreciates keenly her dependent position. The next case investigated was out among the hills south of Hanscom park , whcro a family by the name of Taylor reside in n rough board cabin. Sickness was the causa of their destitution , and the medical nelp that has been donated has put them on tliolr foot again , and it is not probable that they will need further help. A family named Miller was next visited. They llvo In a 10x13 box near the corner of Twenty-seventh and Mason. Tlio ground is leased for3 a month , and the occupant owns a few hundred feet of lumber that entered Into the construction of his humble abode. Just now , in addition to other cares , ho is worried because of a notice to quit the prctu- jscs. All of the surrounding property has been raised to grade , r.nd the wretched little crib Is down in a nolo ton feet deep , so that the roof scarcely rises above the level of the adjacent street. This , of course , is another ono room affair , nnd the furniture consists of.two beds , two chilli's , n three logged chair bucked up In one corner , a badly cracked cook stove and twc children. A few dishes momentarily threaten to Jail from a narrow shelf over the table , and two or thrco show bills and advertising calendars servo as brlc-n-brno and cover long cracks in the walls at the same tlmo. The head of the family who was formerly a canvasber in the employ of the Metropolitan company Is very low with consumption , anil looks ns though the end might comii at any time. His cough seems to shako the house from foundation to rlago polo. Mrs. Miller Is energetically endeavoring to support the family by washing , but the cost of medicines makes it almost hopeless work. Ono child was burled about two weeks ago nnd churltablo people defrayed the funeral expenses. As sistance Is being rendered tbo family , but the outlook for the bravo little woman who is struggling along against such overwhelming odds is nnythtng but encouraging. The next stop was at the habitation of Jens Larsen , a day laborer , who resides wllli n constantly increasing family on Fourteenth street Just noth of Nicholas. Larspi ) is "away up" compared with some of tho"fami lies visited , la that ho baa two rooms in which , to divide his poverty His rent bus been paid bv the Danish so ciety , and free medical assistance has brought him through ascvcro case of blood poisoning. With a litilo moro help Larsea will bo able to again provide for his famllv. AIw. Slsso Is a widow with thrco children who rcsltlo in n primitive little hut on Locust street , east of the railroad tracks. Ono boy , aged thirteen year3 , is a cripple , with a false Joint in ono log below the knee , nnd the mother Is nililctcd with n running sere on ono hip , that renders her helpless much of the timu. Sim makes an attempt to oka out nn existence for herself and children over the wnshbonrd. The family is sadly In need of continued assistance , nnd a physician who has examined the case says that a brace ought to bo secured at once tor the crippled boj.Assistance Assistance was asked by a family named Ruby living near the corner of Ninth and Garttolii avenuo. The father is Bovonty-slx years of nge , and is suffering with asthma. There are five children , all plrls , the young est only two j cars of age. Missionary Kecuy intimated that a man with the apparent vigor of the held of the family ought to contribute moro to their support. A little clothing nnd a few provisions together with places for the older girls to woik will probably bo all they Will require. Tbo most pltlulilo case that was found was that of Mrs. Ralph , ut the corner of Thirty * third and Maple streets , Her husband was addicted to driiik and finally run away nnd deserted tier , leaving her with four small children and no menus of support. The oldest child is under five years of ago , nnd the youngest is about six months old. The mother is nursing the two younger children , being forced to thus nour ish tbo older of the two because ol her inabil ity to provide for it In any other wnv , The house is n dilapidated brick , with ono win dow entirely gouo , and several panes of glass mlsilng from the others. Ono of the door * is badly demoralized nnd is little leis than n relic. The neighbors IMIVO been contribu ting for the relief of the family. The case was brought to the nttontlon of the landlord. who was not nwuro of the slnto of llalrs , and who finally offered to lot lie family have the house free of rent for tlio inlanco of the winter. A fuel merchant , , -hoso attention \\ns called to tUo c.ise , romptlv sent half a ton of coal. Food must o supplied nt once. Mrs. Ralph Is sadly in .ceil of clothing , both for herself and her lit- looncs. Medicine will be supDllcd through ho free dispensary connected with St. L'lmothy's ' mission. .All packages contributed for tlio use of the 'oor ' may bo left nt M. 0. Maul's , orlll bo lalled for In any part of the city if Mr. Kcedy s notified at telephone 'J ! , " > . IAJJ ixi > & . The cotton crop of Alabama Is valued at 00,000,000. Thcro are 15,000 brass bands in this conn * ry , with 150,000 performers. The rails In the Unttod states would go round the earth twelve times. A largo oak trco known to bo 140 voars old us been felled at Flint , Mich. The deepest hole over bored into the earth the artesian well nt Potsdamwhich is 6,500 ect deep. Lake Maltlnnd , Orange county , Fla. , hns n ornot band composed of thirteen young la- les nnd two gentlemen , Sixty thousand people are out of work in ho city of Berlin. Ninety thousand nro out f work in tlio cast end of London alone. The deepest ocean in the world Is the Pn- Ific. Near the Ladrono Islnnds a depth of ,475 fathoms , or over five miles , was found. The numbcrof telephones now undorrcntnl y the iicll telephone company is 478.7. ! . ' ) , an icreusoof 8SSS5 over the same tlmo last car. Mary Eddy , colored , of Cincinnati hns sued bookbinder to recover her family bible , vhlch she claims she placed with him to bo obound. But OHO letter is duplicated In the follow ; ig sentence , which contains nil the letters f the alphabet : "Quiz Jack ; thy frowns ox G. D. Plumb. " A Chicago man , who for ilvo years had Icpt with n revolver under his pillow us n rotcctloa against burglars , found It was not' ondcd in all that llmol South Carolina seems to have n fondness oss for the old soldiers of the rebel 11 on. Dvcr ono hundred ex-con fed era to soldiers are n the legislature ol that state. A jeweller says thnt It Is n rare thing for im to sell a cold watch clitdn. Everybody iuys the plated article nowadays , oven these icoplo who are well able to afford tbo bolld. Cicsar Hornbock , colored , who died at lontgomery , N. Y. , last week , was known o bo over ono hundred years old. Ho claimed 0 bo about ono hundred aud ilvo years of igc. igc.Animals Animals nro kept on the roofs of the houses n Lima , Peru , audit frequently happens thnt 1 cow passes her whole life on a roof , being , alten there as a calf and brought down finally as fresh beef. Oliver Wendell Holrr.es has just invented , wo moro admirable words "psemlopnthy" nnd "pseudothernpy , " ono signifying the quack science of disease and the other the quack method of healing. A sweet potato -weighing twenty-seven rounds , raised nt Wutuliachlo , Tox. , and a obstor weighing twenty pounds , raised out > f deep water oft Atlantlcvlllo , Ij. I. , nrb the atost chamulon heavy Weight pdibos. ( Different classes of substances have been 'ound to _ altccttbo _ . . . organs _ of-taste . la the fol v * * M * * - * vt t1 * " _ * _ ' 1 J J.r * . . . * , . stances , sweets and alkalies. The taste nerves nro nearly 2,000 times as sensitive to quinine ns to sngar. The strength of spider silk is incredible. Size for slzo It Is considerably stronger than a bar of steel. An ordinary spider's thread is capable of bearing a weightof thrco grains , whllo a steel thread of the same thickness would support less than two. M. L. Levi , near Nowtonvillc , Ind. , had an apple tree which bore three croiu In ono season. Tills led to newspaper comment , n paragraph fell under tbo eye of Mrs. Lou Clifford of McCordsvlllo , his sister , whom ho had not seen nor heard of for thirty years , and they wcro reunited , The orange was originally imported to this country years ago by tlio mission fathers , who brought the bccds from Spain. They wcro planted about , the old missions , the fruit being used for domestic purposes , nnd the crop being simply suitable or larco enough for these mirposes. It is said that college journalism originated at Dartmouth in IbOO , Daniel Webster being editor of the paper. There nro now 18U col lege papers In tlio United Ktatosnnd only ono in England. The four dallies nro the Cornell Dally Sun , Dally Crimson , Yale News , and the University of Michigan Daily , A negross named Caroline Jenkins , living near Houston , Tox. , is n veritable Samson. Four police ofilcers wont to arrest her , when she took them ono by one , threw them out of the house nnd locked the doors upon them. She can break a half-inch rope with ease by stretching it from band to band. It is not always the coal oil or gasoline steve that burns to death. Mrs. George Rcdpath opened n steve door ut Alarcngo , 111. . with an apron , which caught lire nnd burnoif her so badly that she died in a few hours. In attempting to put the lira out nor husband burned Iho ends of his fingers off. Mr. f i d Mu.W. Strong of Ottawa , . Kan. , had arranged to celebrate the fifty-first anniversary of their inarrlugo recently , nnd relatives wcro present from various parts o the state to participate In the festivities. Ii the morning Mr. Strong died and In the afternoon Airs. Strong passed away. The greatest moat oatcr.s in the world are the pcoplo of America , whoso average con sumption is IT.'i pounds per annum. The English coma nnxi with an avoragoof u little over 110 pounds. Tbo French cat only half as much meat as the English and the people of Germany , Austria and Italy still less. In the mayor's court at Anthony , Fla , , few days ago n Ind for violation of an ordi nance was lined $3. The court irruntcd the boy's mother the privilege of paying the fine or whipping the lad in open court. She ac cepted the lattx > r and the mayor had to check her to prevent an unmerciful whipping. Spectacles wcro Invented just 000 years ngo. The UEO of glass to aid tlio sight of de fective eyes Is , however , much older. Nero looked througti u concave glass in watch ing the gladiatorial games , and many other historical mon of ids dav wcro de pendent on similar devices for lent'thonlng their sight. Following Is n scientific description of what happens when you lleht n tire : The phosphorous on n match is mlsod by friction to a temperature of 1WJ3 farenhelt , at which U Ignites. It raises the tcmperaturo of ttio sulphur , if itbo n sulphur match. r < 00 = , when the sulphur begins to burn , The sulphur raiser the heat to 800 = , when the wood tunes up the work and produces n tcmperaturo of 1,000 , ° , at , which the coil ignites , Air. James Fnlrflold , who Is the author of "Tho Coney Island \VnlU , " "Sunset Iluvoml ' the Missouri , " "Omaha Exposition Wn'ltz , " lias just finished n now musical composition entitled "Governor IJoyd's inaugural March1 shortly to bo issued by Oliver Ultson com pany. Critics who have heard the march de clare it is the author's bos t work and written in his h'ipplcst ' vein. "Noah's Ark , " the now play which is to follow the season of the pantomlnoof "Hubos in the Wood , " ntNlblo's , New York , Into In I'obruary , Is not nt all descriptive of the days of the Hood , but deals wltn llfo in the big city. Noah , in Hits ease , being n pawn broker , and the "Aik" the tltlo by winch his loan bureau is known , The 100th performance of "Tho Last Word" was reached at Daly's ' last night , and the comedy will hnvo achieved ono of the best of nil thu successes nt this house , Tim ensuing Tuesduv "Tuo School for Scandal" will bo revived in u form varied by Mr. Daly. VERDI'S ' LAST GREAT OPERA , A Humorous Exposition of Sir John Fal- staff's ' Doings , ARRIGO BOITO , THE BOOK MAKER , The Crowning Composition of tliO Great Mni'htro Hemly for tlio Op'iilng of I.n Koala Diirlnc tlio Season of 18(11 ami 'Oil. At Intervals , for many years put , tbo Ital inn composer , Vonll , has revealed to Ills ncatf friends it dcslro to write 11 conilo opera or , as ho phrases it , musical comedy ns apart from oponi luufTo. Hut the difficulty In finding a good libretto deferred tlio nttotupt so long Hint tlio possibility of success passed from ttio minds of those around him and after vainly repeated searches through ttio plays , of Golilom , Mollcro anil ottior noted pluy wrlghu , tlio maestro himself apparently abandoned the idea , mid produced "Othello" asthoilnalo of his life work , Hut evidently fate , or providence , or what ever people la general nut their faith In , decreed creed pthorwlso , for In tlio summer or 18S9 Verdi apoko of his cheated hopes to Arrlgo Holto , his colhiborotor and the clover eom < uosor of "Mcllstofclo" who , pomtorlug , retired - tired to Nervl Liguro , near Genoa , nud nftcr forty-eight hours'closo meditation nud woilt ( so it is said ) , put Into Verdi's hands n bmi iout sketch of the libretto of "Falstuff , " and urged tno immediate olnborntlon of thothoino , Verdi is a jealous guardian of his privacy , and grasping the ninmiscrlnt with eager hands enjoined upon Holto the greatest secrecy , forbidding oven the men tion of the tnsk to Hlcordi , his publisher , who incurred his dlspicusuro before tlio pro duction of "Othello" by giving certain hints to the press without receiving permission to Uoso. Such was the composer's caution upon Jthli occasion Hint , to avoid exciting suspicion , lid sent to Venice for his score paper. Apropos of this , It is n fuel that Vordl niiikos use of more paper than any other musical author , not infrequently writing n few bars upon a 'minimi sheets , only to toss tlium aside con * lecuttvcly with nervous disgust , as unlucky mil vain attempts. Vordl Is lavish In genuine nrnlso of Hollo's Ibrelto considering It a chef d'oovra and of so thoroughly comical n nnturo * ns to afford the greatest amusement to himself and the author whllo working upon It. liolto has made as much as possible of the character of Falstaff not confining the npi jicarauco of the "Comical Gallant" to that ' 'Most anil pleasaunt excellent con , ceiled Comcdlc of Syr lohn FnlstalT anil the Mcrrlo Wives of Windsor , " but touch * ing ns well upon the role ho bears In the first and second parts of King Henry IV. Vordl declares the opera to bo moro thna mlf completed , and his friends add that that slgnlllcs its immediate consummation. Al though a lyilo comedy In the broadest signi fication of the word , and with no grand massIng - Ing of chorus , yet It is adapted to tbo Scald , where It will bo n supreme attraction during tlio season of lS'Jl-3. ] "Falstaft" is divided into three nets and flvo scenes , and. as would boom appropriate , the title role is to bo sustained by a baritone , and n baritone , moreover , possessed of a rociono. as the Italians say , proportionate la strength to the "waist two yards about , " of which tbo reckless knight was used to boast. , The DumoDf.Kuschm ( > un of European fnmd is whispered ustUo'posslblo .hcroj'DUt'VorJl Is not to bo Influenced by any ono in the se lection of his artists , i'hero are many im. portnnt personages in the opera and but fcv ) chorus singers llftcen men and thirty women , but of superior oxccllolicc. Asldo from this , children will pose before the foot lights in the bullet. It was at a dinner party nt the Hotel MI- lane that Verdi and lioito llrst miule their work known. Verdi's guests were Uo publlslicrs , Ktcordl and his beautiful \vlfo Glnditta their daughter and son-in-law. When the champagne appeared , Bolto rose , glass In band , gave n toast to the success or the "I'anclono" ( bltr fat fellow ) . Each gucsb gnzod Inquiringly at the other without com prehending. Then ho gave a toast to "ITal- staff , " and Signora Hlcordi was the first to divine that I'anclono incantFulstalT , uud that "F.ilstulT" was tbo title of a now opera by Vordl. Verdi then gave a brief sketch of the plot , showing that Bolto had clung as closely to the Shakespearean text as ho hud In his composition - position of "Othello. " Kicordl then brought to mind the fuct Hint twenty-five years ago Verdi announced to him tie intention of re tiring upon his laurels and , Indeed , for several years the fertile and vivid imagina tion seemed nt rest. Uut , fortunately for all music-loving people , tlio genius that gave to tlio world "Trovatoro" and "Trnviiitn" had not Mulshed its course , mid further efforts re sulted in the production of "Aidn , " "Don Carlos , ' "Munzoni's Kcmiieum , " ' 'Simon Iloceancgrn , " and "Othello" the latter ot which was not begun until Verdi had reached his seventieth year. The grand old man ot Italy , as a contem porary culls him , Is halo and hearty and la wonderfully good spirits hoping oven to witness a gala performance of "KalstafT" on his eightieth birthday , which will occur la ISO I. It is strange almostlncongruous to think of a comic opera from the composer of"Aida" and "Othello , " but no moro extraordinary than it seemed to the admirers of Wupner that ho should contemplate a comlu opera after the uroduction of "Tristan and Isolde" in 1S05 , However the success of the "Mels- tcrslugor" n year Inter moro than justified the attempt. Tlio latter masterpiece is ns harmonious n ? ills comical , defending really upon n study of character. Not at all the "comic wotk" that French composers take in hand. And Verdi's "Fulstaff" la of n similar nature. Tlieso freaks of genius bring to mind Romo- thhiB I once heard Modjoskn afllrm a belief she held that artists Invariably fancied them selves especially pif led in an opposite line ot work to that in which they had gained their greatest HUCCOSSCS , adding that bo had al ways imagined herself pniticulnrly suited to Koubrctto parts , and Booth had neverdoubtcd his gicat but dormant ability to enaut the low comedian. In appearance Verdi strongly resembles the photographs of Longfellow with shlninir , wavy hulr , dreamy oycs and n senaitlvo mouth and chin. Almost shabbily dressed and tnnld and roth Ing in manner - ner , ho positively suffers when attention is drawn to him inlpubllo places where , ns a natural consequence lie is rarely to bo found and the sight of his evident distress when , dragged repeatedly upon tlio stage of La Scula , after the triumphant performance ot "Othello" In I8S7would certainly have ap pealed greatly to a loss clamorous and excited crowd. Ho spends most of his tlmo nt his country pluco , and works for hours each day over his vegetable garden , which Signora Verdi In sists takes only second place In his affections. The peasants around nro devoted to him , and never grumble If tlio "niaostro's" tomatoes or tuinlps bring better prices than theirs. Holto in two ways slightly resembles "Wag- nor first , In his problematical writings , and second , in nlinmg ills two-fold faculties ( for ho Is both clover librettist and musician ) at , the generation of now form ami original natter , Ills successful and beautiful opera ' "MoIUtofclu * ' to bo followed by another entitled "Nerono. " which was to have been a novelty of the Milan opera season this year. Hut lie chcer- lully hud It aside , unwilling to permit escape of the opportunity of writing a libretto for Vordl. It Is known that Bolto , though so young and zealous has qultu lost faith in lliu Illusion of fame , and is moro happy to work quietly with Ids venerated friend , or. baton In hand , lead his well drilled orihestra in an artistic Interpretation of Verdi's creations , than seek now honors for himself in the uauui field. field.Miuuu Miuuu C. FOIID ,