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THE OMALTA DAILY I1KF. SUNDAY , AUGUST 26. 1801 13 THE ARMIES OF CHINA Tacts and Figures About a Crazy-Quilt Mllitar ; Organization , STRENGTH Or THE ARMY AND NAVY The Ohinoso GoTornment Honeycombed by Corruption , HOW OFFICIALS CHEAT THE SOLDIERS Ifoir tlio ClillicHo Soldier * Ar Located VUlt to u C'lilncfla Iliirrnck * M MUIIR Lliuiic'4 Gun nuil I'owderVorL * Kiiil | | > i > c < l lorVnr. . ( Copyrighted , 1S04 , by I'rank a , Carpenter , ) The vur between China and Japan has only begun , Tlio Japanese could , If neces sary , throw something Jlko 800,000 trained soldiers Into the Held. Tliclr army Is thor oughly organized , and It has been drilled after the beat method * of Europe. When I visited Japan six years ago I found Gorman officers In eliargo of all Its branches and my Interview with the minister of war vrai car ried on in tlio German language. He was a Japanese who had been educated In Ger many , and who could not speak English. The Japanese are a nation of lighters. They hava alt tlio quickness and bravery of the French married by years of training to the discipline of tlio Germans. I have seen their cavalry nnd Infantry In review again and again during tlio present summer. Their troops arc splendidly equipped and they have arsenals and navy yards of the most modern methods , about which I will write In the future. Today I want to tell you something about the army of China. It Is almost Impossible for ono who has nol been on the ground to appreciate- condition. It Is a mixture of the old nnd new , of the weak and the strong. I have made some study of It In half a dozen different states and have some Inside Information which I gathered at Peking regarding It. It Is the most wonderful mili tary Jumble on the face of the globe , and you have to know something of the Chinese gov ernment to understand It and the present situation. ROTTEN FROM SKIN TO CORE , The Chinese government la rotten from skin to core. The people of China are one of the strongest In the world. They can do anything , and I believe In the future they will revolutionize the world. They are bound dona today with as bad a govern ment as ever pretended to rule. The ofll- clals of China are almost universally cor rupt , and stealing Is considered a part of their legitimate pay. This la true of tbo oITlcors of the army as well as of those of civil rank. They systematically cheat the soldiers under them and present false ac counts to the emperor and ministers of war. At Shanghai I saw a barracks which was supposed to contain 100 troops. The officer In charge of It drew rations and pay for this number , but there were really only 400 soldiers In the garrison and ho was pocketing the balance. Ills salary was some thing like$1,000 or JI.KOO a year , but he spent $20,000 , and I was told that several ol his understrappers and trainers sat down every day at his table. Ho received | 6 per mouth for the pay of each man , and pocketed Just $600 a month for the 100 men who had no existence , but were represented by fictitious names on hit pay rolls. As to the 400 soldiers remaining , I waa told that he paid them only $5 pet month each , and In this way lie made I IOC per month more. In addition to this , he squeezed on their ration : Ho bllncltd the eyes of the government b , xrlblng the cen sors who are sent out as Inspectors , or he could hire an extra 100 men to nil up Me quota at the time that the Inspectors arrive , This man squeezes his under officers , but they protect him because lie allows them to take a percentage of the pay of the moot below thorn , and the < result IB. that the privates gel little- more than will keep them alive. In stead of having COO well satisfied , and , foi China , well paid men , he has 400 who arc discontented and halt starved. This sort o : thing Is going on all over China , nnd one o the greatest dangers to tlio country come ! of the discontent of the soldiers. $300,000 FOR AN OFFICE. The government Itself expects the officer ! to squeeze and extort. It pays low salarlei and the officers are expected to entertain like princes. Take the tautol of Shanghai. Ill ; salary is not more than that of ono of oui government clerks , but he paid $300,000 thli summer to ono of the chief eunuchs oC thi palace for hts influence with the eirpres : dowager In getting him a position , with th < understanding that he should have it foi three years , at least. There is no doubt li my mind but that the old dowager herself go a slice of the money. This office Is worth abou $250,000 a year in squeezes and stealings and as tlio lautot will receive something llk < $750.000 during his term lie can afford to gtvi $300,000 for the Job. The name of thi eunuch who got the money was PI T J Seau LI. Ho combs the empress dowa ger's hair and Is her confidential servan and lulvher. At the Klagnan arsenal learned something of how orders for gun and ships are made and how these Chinee officials nro making money out of the presen war. They order the ships through forelgi agents nt Shanghai and Insist that the ; shall have from B to 10 per cent of th < amount of each order. Many oC these order ; run Into the millions and you will see tha their profits are large. They are very partlc ulnr as to the foreigners making any mono ; out of the business anil insist that thel profit shall not be more than B per cent o the list price of the articles. On this basl the foreigner vrould not make anything- his work , as he has to pay at least 6 pe cent to tlio official who gives him the order There Is usually a collusion between the for elgn * ' aid n manufacturer by which th foreigner gets a big percentage and th Chinaman pays an extra price for the article SQUEEZING EVERYWHERE. The squeezing goes on everywhere , both 1 China and Corca. The officers of th Chinese navy expect to matte- money ov of their sailors. The officials in charge c the railroads squeeze- the men under them and every Chinese servant squeezes his mat ter. Ono of the , greatest of the offlclt squeezes Is In salt. This l a governmen monopoly , and Its sale Is farmed out to th highest bidders. The sale of the salt fa a district Is worth hundred of thousand of dollars , and foreigners are nc permitted to handle It. There are sal stations at which supplies are stored nn the native cuitoms officers get their pei cent ace on the salt as It passes from on district to the other. In the collection c taxes for the government tlio officers tak out something from every collection to themselves , anil If a Chinaman has a larg amount of money , blackmail la aura to b levied upon him in some way or other b the o metals. Still , China , with all this , ba about the lowest taxes In the world , an it Is only because tha taxes are low tin th government can retain Its hold upon th people. It they should be greatly increase by this war , rebellions \\l\l \ \ spring up In man ot the states , and the Chinese emperor Is , 1 tact , in more danger from the people with ! the empire than from th Japanese outslJ of It. China. la a strange combination of a dc : potto monarchy and * government of tli people. It Is as much confederation ( BUtes ai It is a nation , and the clghteo provinces Into which It la divided each hi IU governor , who Is appointed by tha en poror , but whom the people- can get rid ot they will. U Is the same with other official Tlis Chinese are long tolerant , but when a official squeezes too much they wilt oust hli ( ram his office , and instances bava bee known ot their utonrng him out of the com * ' try. The government la very much afraid i the people , and It will not < Uro to ovorU them during the * present war. It Is hard to underatand how thess different provinces are governed. WHAT TUB VICEROTS ARR DOING. Kach province hai a governor , ami In coma of the biggest provinces the governor lalceroy as well. In other provinces the governor Is second to tlio viceroy , ami a viceroy m r rule two or threa provinces. Thrie viceroys and governors have cabinets of their own. They have the power of life and death over their subjects. They have in many clerks and subordinates almost ns you will Hnd In our government , and It Is quite ns dlfllcuU to fill ono ot these positions na It Is to bo president of the United States. Each of these viceroys and governors has an army of his own. LI Hung Chang's ' forces number about 35,000 men. These have eleven campi within the province ot Chill. They are armed with fortlen guns and are well drilled , nnd will form the chief support ot the government In the present war. Ll Hung Chine has also eleven camps of men In the province of Chnngtong , and he Is , as far ag this war Is concerned , practically comtnander- In-chlcf of the whole. At Nanking I found a viceroy who had 23,000 men under him. He controlled the big gun factory of Klngnan , and I visited his naval school on the outskirts of Ills capital and found several hundred boys studying navigation under two English professors. Some distance below Shanghai there Is another great governor who has an Immense military establishment. Tills Is the governor of I'oochow. Hla troops , ac cording to the Peking records , number more than Gl.OOO men , and this number Includes oth liU land and marine forces. Ho Is In narge of the navy yard at Foochow and ho laa some thousands of men there building jotlle ships. CHANCl CHITUNO. THE GREAT. Another remarkable governor is life ex- ollency , Chang Chilling , the viceroy ot Wu Cl-ang. Wu Chang Is a city ot nearly 1.000- 0U people , and Chang Chitting governs his , ens of millions. Ho has long been a great man In China , and It you ask Chinamen who the two greatest men In China are hey will say LI Hung Chang and Chang Jhllung. Lr Is , In fact , said ; to bo very calous of Chang , nnd I suppose Chang feels he same toward LI. Chang Chltung bates 'oiclgnera. Ho Is building railroads be- : ause he wants to bs able to defend China igalnst the foreigners , and now that this war has broken out his work will go on moro rapidly than ever. Ho Is importing itecl Ingota by the hundreds and coke by ha thousands of bushels from England and Delglum for his steel works at Han Yang , " 00 miles from the ea.coast , and he has > pcnt already In the neighborhood of $10- )00.000 ) upon his railroad experiment. It was his gun factory that was burned down only a few days ago , and It may be that his 'mmenso blast furnaces will now ba turned : o the making of weapons of war. These 'urnaces ' are 100 feet high and they are of lie latest European make. Ho has con nected with them shops which cover from "orly to fifty acres , nnd there ara twenty-flvo acres of machinery under one root. China oday has no good means ot moving troops. A railroad has been planned from Hankow to Tien Tsln , and also from Hankow to Can ton. These Immense car works could be put to the making of materials for this road , and as there arc coal and Iron in their near vicinity the building of the line would be comparatively easy. About forty Belgian engineers are now In the employ of this viceroy. These men understand all about the making of railroads and the working1 of steel , and It the government will furnish the money this the greatPit ot all trunk lint's of the world could bo built. It would go for 1,500 miles through the most thickly populated part ot tb Chinese empire and would connect a half dozen odd cities ranging from 500,000 to 1,000,000 people In Elzo. LI HUNG CHANG'S GUN WORKS. Ll Hung Chang has gun works and an ar senal , the shops of which are nearly a mile square , and In which alt kinds ot modern cuns are made. It la much similar to the Shanghai arsenal which I described in the letter I published some months , ago when I told how the Chinese were preparing for war. No one can go through these works without wondering at the marvelous skill of the Chinese. In both of them they turn out big guns , and the Klagnan arsenal Is turning out twelve-Inch guna which weigh over 100,000 pounds and fire single shots which weigh over TOO pounds. Three of such shot would bo a load for a two-horse team , and one of those guns standing upon its end would reach as high as the roof of a three-story house , and at Us breach It is as big'around as a Hour bar rel. Some of the other guns that I have seen in these arsenals will fire shot at the rate of ten to the minute , and each shot weighs 100 pounds. I saw fitly Chinamen pouring metal into the moulds for the making of projectiles , each of which weighed 1,000 pounds. They were turning out thirty of these shots a day , and the ships are now being supplied with them , I was taken Into ono of the ware houses and was shown the- different kinds of shot that the arsenals were making. There were more than 200 different varieties of shot and shrapnel , and In addition to this there were specimens of all sorts of powder which are being made at the powder works. Many of the varieties I saw wo do not make in the United States. I am not sure that wo make the brown cocoa powder which is used for the firing of these big guns. This comes In the shape of nuts. Just like those by which 0 big bolt Is fastened , and It takes some thing Ilka four bushels of these powdrir nuts to fire oft ono of the twelve-Inch guns Still , the Chinese are making this powder , and they have lately sent for a German chemist to teach them how to make smokeless powder. They are making pebble powder for from five to eight-Inch guns , and they make all sorts ol other ponders from that ot the rifle to that of the largest guns. They have been ordering new cruisers during the past year , and they recently sent an order to Armstrongs , the big ship makers of England , for two new vessels which are each to cosj $1,250,000. They have a number of trained men in these arsenals. Ll Hung Chang has several thousand. The viceroy ot Nanking has 2,000 , and there are thousands at work at Hankow , Canton and Foochow. The hours of work of these men will be doubled from now on. I am told that the Chinese learn very rapidly , and that there .will ba little- difficulty in in creasing the force. The making of small arms Is to be pushed , and Qul Leo rifles will bo turned out as fast as possible. These are a sort ot Remington , which the Chinese consider the best gun in existence , and the old matchlocks and lances will be done away with as soon as possible. BOWS AND LANCES STILL USED. With all this you would think that the Chinese would have given up their bowi and arrows and the weapons which have come down from the middle ages. The ) have not done so by any means. Some ot the Interior troops still carry bows and arrows , and archery is a regular part ol every military examination. These inllltarj examination' } are held all over the empire and the candidates have to shoot with bows both on foot and In the saddle. I saw Jusi outslilo ot Pekingan archery mate ! of this kind. There were , perhaps , 10.0QC Chinamen looking on , and the soldier : rode on the gallop by one target aftei another , shooting arrows as they passed , The targets were about the size ot a man and I did not note ono of the hundred whom I saw shooting- who missed in a single Instance They also shoot at balls lying on the ground as they go by on ft gallop , and they practta for years before -coming to Peking. Th < candidates are weeded out again and agalr before they get to the capital. There ti first an examination held by the- prefect o : the district in which they live. The , mer who pass this shoot again before the llterarj chancellor , and their next examination I : before the governor of the province. Suol examinations comprlsa great tournaments and out of the thousands who are examinee only forty or fifty may pass. Those whi stand highest at Peking always get c facia positions and nearly every ofllcer of thi Chinese army could drop a. bird on the fl ] with his arrow. The exercise of thi soldiers consists largely ot gymnastics , one those students are examined In the wleldln ( 01 swords and In the liftingof weights which are graduated to test their muscle. They have to bo good lancera , and whtli visiting one of the Interior cltlea I sav some of these lanca exercises , I had beet warned that I must pot go Into the barrack ; and that I must keep away from the forts but In passing ono I heard mualo and toll my guide that I wanted to enter. He re piled that it was not allowed and that 1 might be dangerous. I had caught a glimpse howevor. of the exercise as I went by and determined to try. I walked boldly througl tha gate. No one attempted to stop mi and a moment later I was In tha preaenci of a scene which you would expect to find line no camp outsldo ot the mlddlo ages. At the back ot a largo inclosureaat i band pounding op drums and. sinking cym bals and making a most L riblo din. Near these stood a number c.1 high Chinese of ficials , and on the other aide ' f the yard were aeveral companies ot soldleri. ItoUveen these stood a man dressed in the uniform ot a Chinese private. He had a spear about fifteen feet long In his , hand , and ho was danclnn about and puking this Into the air In every direction. Now ha Mould Jab It Into an Invisible enemy at the right ; now he would hop up four feet from the ground and turn clear around before he again lit to drive it Into another Invisible enemy at the left. He poked 11 In front of him , and twisted himself into a. half knot in trying to destroy his enemies in the rear. He con torted his face in the most horrible manner to Inspire fear In his airy combatants , and ho yelled now and then as lie thrust. Such an exhibition would have put him Into a lunatic asylum In the United States I looked tor perhaps ten minutes before anything hap pened , and during this time a second man came out and began to go through the same pcrform2n"i. I then sent my boy for n camera , but before I could use It , nn official came -up and objected. I apologized and left. I find this the best rule In foreign travel. Go where you please , and do what you please , but always be ready to apologize. If you ask you won't get It , nnd a civil tongue will carry you further than a shot gun , THE ARMY OF CHINA. But let mo give you some facts about the army. This letter Is aa long that I cannot enlarge upon them. First there Is the Eighth Banner corps , which Includes the Jlanchus and Mongols , and which 1s sup posed to have something like 300.000 men. Of this army there are in Peking a2,393 sol- Olers , and connected with them about 11,000 supernumeraries. In Mongolia there are 0,844 Manchus r.nd 3,231 supernumeraries. There are kept about the summer palace of the king Just about 5,000 ot uch troops. Just outside ot Peking Is the Imperial huntIng - Ing park. Four thousand soldiers are kept there. In addition to these In Peking there are artillery and musketry to the number of 8.000 , Infantry 2,300 and other troops to the number ot 0,000 , making a gr/md total of Jlanchus surrounding nnd about Peking of 100,000 troops. These troops are supported entirely by the government. Their officers are of high rank and about 700 of them have high positions as guards inside the for bidden city , where the emperor lives. I have written already of Ll Hung Chang's army. It Is the best drilled and tht > best equipped ot any In the empire. In addition to these there are three great armies known as the army ot Manchuria , the army of the center and the army of Turklstan. The Mnnchurlan army contains 70,000 men , and Us headquarters are In Manchuria , above the Chinese wall. It has good cannon and first class , modern , rifles. These , however , are confined only to a limited number of the regiments , and there are more match locks than Winchesters. The army of the center Is also north of the wall. It is sup posed to include 50,000 men. Manchurlan and Mongolian troops could bo moved down Into Corca if there was any good way of carrying their provisions and supplies. The army of Turklstan U In the western part of the empire , and too lar off for use at the present time. ARMIES OF THE GOVERNORS. In addition to this there arc the armies of the governors , which are scattered throughout the eighteen provinces of China , and which include all the large centers. In Shantung there are 20,000 men. In Shansl , 25,000 , and In Foochow , 30,280. Tlio gov ernor of Honan , one of the most anti-foreign provinces of the empire , lias 13,000 soldiers. The governor of Nanking has 28.00C. The governor of Foochow , 61,435. The governor of Cheklang , 38,000 , and those of Hupe and Hunnan , 58,000 men. In Shcnsl , Kensuh and Hi there are 97,900 men , and In Szu- cheun there are 33,897. Kwantung has 6S - 000 , Kwangsl has 20,000 , Anhul , 9,000 , and Yunnan and Kwetchow , 42,000 , making a grand total , with one or two smaller prov inces added , of 701,517. Just how many of these troops can bo relied upon In case of war I don't know. The reports are those of the Chinese government , and many of them may bo overestimated. There Is no doubt , however , but that there are hundreds of thousands of soldiers in China , and that they have many who will flght If they are properly led. Chinese Gordon , who handled them during the Tal Ping rebellion , said that they made splendid soldiers , that they wore cool and calm , and that they could do a great deal on small rations. They are full of superstition , and will carry priests and soothsayers with them. They may eat black dog's ficsh to make them brave , and their surgeons will give them ground tiger bones to inspire courage. In flght they will be bloodthirsty and cruel , and If the war is carried into the interior It will be accom panied with horrora which will shock the Western world. cotra vitiA L rrrvM. Under the laws of Russia a man Is not al lowed to marry moro than four times. Mrs. Wecms I do believe you were scared half to death when you proposed to me. Mr Weems Indeed I wasn't. I thought you would say no. Clara I'm afraid I should get tired of married life. I should like to be married ono year and single the next , year In and year about. Jack Why don't you go on the stage , then ? W. A. Galloway , aged 82 , married Mrs. Amanda Thornton , his mother-in-law , at Ot tawa , O , , on Monday. The old veteran -was also noted for his intrepidity during the war. The reported engagement of Prince Andre Poniatowskl and Miss Sperry , the California beauty , confirmed by the relatives ot Miss Sperry , who are on their way to Europe. The wedding will take place in Paris. Judge Cut tern On what grounds , madam , do you apply for a divorce from your hus band ? Mrs. Laker Ob. It's a case of abso lute necessity , Judge. Mr. Laker's hair nnd complexion don't match the decorations in my now house. "Papa , " remarked tha congressman's darghtor , looking nt the clock. "What la ft , Lou ? " asked papa , who had lingered In the parlor with the young people. "It is 9 o'clock ; at this time George and I usually go into committee. " Then papa retired. It Is announced that the marriage of Miss Ellen Taft of Providence to James P. Scott , whoso engagament was made public about two weeks ago , will bo celebrated In New port quietly , some time In the second week In September. Friends of Mrs. Nellto Grant Sartorls are taking the trouble to deny that she is to be married to General Henry Kyd Douglass , a pleasant , elderly bachelor , who served In the ccnft-ilerato army. General Douglass , Who escorted Mrs. Sartorla north last wesjt , has his home In the mountains of Maryland , among which Mrs. Sartorls spent the sum mer , and was her constant attendant. Another good record bas been made by a New Yorker In the matrimonial raco. Nine months ago Washington Durton arrived In Sioux Falls from Now York ; July 25 ho se cured a dlvorca from hte wife , Harriett Bur ton , f > n the ground of desertion ; last week ho waa married at Canton , south of Sioux Falls , to Miss Lou Gardiner ot Brooklyn Heights , N. Y , Miss Gardiner made the trip from her eastern homo alone to wed Mr. Uurton. No marriage which has occnrred of laU In New York has made such a sensation as that which was celebrated last Thursday ai Avanel Villa , Now Rochelle , the summer home ot Mrs. Adela A. Ronalds. On that day Mrs. Ronalds , who Is a woman of great wealth and of unimpeachable social standing , albeit she Is somewhat more than 70 years oi age , was married to Charles Francklyr Rcglld , who Is an actor of some note , well known along the Rial to , Mr. Rcglld , whost real name may bo obtained by spelling his atage name backward , Is only 30 years old , Several score of male and female simple- tens are regretting the dealings they have had with a matrimonial agency , conducted by one- Herman Max Gumpest , alias Mai Quble , and his young wife , at 17 Great Jones street , New York. The couple closed theft bureau a few days ago and left for unknown regions. The pair were In the same busi ness In Chicago and St. Louis before cornlnj to New York. Advertisements like this were put In the various newspapers "Orphan girl , seventeen , and petite , $29.00 ( cash capital , wishes to marry refined gentle man not over forty. Address Quble , No. r , Great Jones street. " The refined gentlcmar had to pay a $ ! fee before he could see thi orphan girl. That part wai generally playai by Mrs. Guble , or some Ilowery nymph hlrec for the occasion. A second Interview cos $10 , and then the orphan girl would decidi not to wed after all. THE INDUSTRIE SITUATION * - if Reforms Suggested by .Jjfrof , Ely of the Univcriity o& Wisconsin. DOUBTfUL FORCE .6f'riPUBLIC , OPINION Some VcrtliH'Mt Qm-nlldim A Ylslimiir ; Hop" Kcoiioinlu and 1'iilltlcal llrlittloni Mourci' of Corrui > tlim tlvll : - rv li-o Koforin * Dctiiiirnlccl. ii I -i ( Copyrighted by Irving Syndicate. ) We Americans have during tha past gener ation been confronted v > lth new and most momentous questions of an economic nature , but nmong them all there have arisen no questions mare of Importance than those which are connected with a class ot great Industries which are now generally called natural monopolies. The leading Industries of this class jarc so familiar that It can scarcely be necessary even to mention them. Every one knows that referetice Is made to telegraphs , telephones , railways , municipal lighting plants , etc. The peculiarities of these Industries liave been forced upon our attention much against our will. We tried to deal with businesses ot this kind accord ing to the general principles which obtain with respect to agriculture , manufactures and commerce , but failed so conspicuously that finally every or > e must recognize the fail ure. Those entrusted with the management of these businesses were naturally the last to recognize the fact that they occupy a peculiar and exceptional position. The railway presi dent for a long time told the dissatisfied far mer , If he were not content with the railway rates charged , to go elsewhere , or build him self a railway , But now even the railway magnates themselves acknowledge a quasi- public character In railways and other busi nesses ot like nature. This wo may regard as an established fact , and It iiced not detain us longer. TWO PERTINENT QUESTIONS. The question then could not fall to arise. What shall wo do with these businesses which are peculiar and essentially public In character ? Tno answers were ready. Ono was the answer which long historical experience must euggest to the careful economist , namely , turn over public func tions to respnslblo public authorities. The other was a plausible ansuer appealing alike to prejudice and special interests , namely , control those who manage these essentially public businesses , see to It that they so discharge their functions that they will promote the general welfare. This second answer was the one which wo have gen erally received , and thus was established among us the principle of public control of private property. Those who owned or managed businesses public In nature but resting on a basis of private property came to be regarded and are still regarded as delegated agents. A | VISIONARY HOPE. The hope of a beneficent control of private property of the kindmentioned is Utopian Every article , monograph-snd book advocat ing such control should bo entitled "Utopia , " because they all rest ipon 'hypotheses which apply only to an imaginary world. First of all , let us notlco that under the system in vogue among ; us , the special knowledge must of necessity bo as a rule on one side , namelyonJ the side of those who are to bo coi trollti ] , This special knowledge is gained by .experience and the experience belongs to thbsi who conduct the business. Of course , some ono now and then who lias had business experience as a railway manager , nlll take public office and assume the duty of control. So , ono who has been engaged in the gas or street car business may occasionally become a member ot a commlsslonotho duty ot which Is to control &as works tor street car lines. Such a. person , however , has acquired the habit of looking at these businesses from a private standpoint , and this Is the wrong standpoint. Many other difficulties suggest themselves ; but as a matter of fact It oftener happens that a man who has atijulr' l a cer tain experience in public office and who Is rendering himself useful to the public Is taken from the public service into private employment. What wo are trying to ac complish. In our system of control Is to bring it about that inexperience shall con trol experience and Ignorance knowledge. Can anything moro Utopian bo Imagined ? ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RELATIONS All careful social philosophers have re cog nlzed the fact that there must bo a certain correspondence between economic and polit ical relations. Ownership and management ot businesses which include in the scope ot their operations an entire continent and which are the largest known In the world's history cannot fall to give the owners and managers vast social power of every kind. Moreover , the possession ot enormous power without its oxerclso Is something which the world has not seen. It would be contrary to our experience oC human nature to ex pect that those who have the management of tbo chief businesses of the country should not make use of the power which they find In their bands. They are called In popular language "magnates" and "kings ; " and the popular Instinct la correct. In this case at least , In the use of language. There Is no reason to bo surprised at the presence ot BO many railway presidents and attorneys in the senate of the United States. If these men want to bo In the senate ot the United States the only thing which would need to cieato surprise would be their absence. Our policy of control resembles the conduct-of a man who should put a glnnt In charge of a boy 10 years old , saying to the boy , "Make this follow behave himself : If ho does net , give him a good thrashing. " Our policy of control Is Utopian because it means that weakness shall hold in check strength. Our condition Is of necessity one of unstable equilibrium. A SOURCE OF CORRUPTION. Furthermore , It Is wildly utopln tc e - pect that those whom it Is at'cwptcd to con trol will not seek to ese'.pe from control. This means an Interference In politics of the very worst kind on the part of those who are the most powerful members cf the community , The result Is the corruption which is so- familiar and which takes so many forms. The distribution ot railway passes , telegraph franks and the like Is familiar to all. What la less familiar , how ever , Is the solicitude with which , there Is every reason to believe , the appointment of Judges Is watched by these whom it Is at tempted to control , because under our con stitutional system the power of the Judges Is encrmous. The court Is the critical In stitution with us. arjd those who hold to rigid theories of private property are nat urally Inclined to declare any really effec tive control ot privafe property unconstitu tional .in Boino essentUl feature. Should , however , a Judge ba appointed who can reconcile the necessary control with the In stitution of private property , It Is always possible for the prlvate corporation affected to attempt to lure him .from the bench by a position as attorney with a large salary. The inevitable result then of a policy of control Is to bring 'all11 ' the businesses of the kind named Into- politics in the worst manner Public ownership means that the businesses are In politics In the best man ner possible , namely , opbnly and avowedly , while control means secret nnd underhanded methods which It Is impossible to discover In all their ramifications. , To expect a high and noble political life free from corruption while the policy of control Is followed is a Utopian aspire tlon. THE FORCE OP PUBLIC OPINION. Much has been said about the force pf public opinion. Public opinion can , how ever , act only through channels and agencies. Public opinion -which cannot strike with a strong arm is despised. Public opinion has for years pronounced against grade crossIngs - Ings In Chicago and Duffalo , for example , but U haa been regarded with merited con tempt because It has not clothed itself with power , but has beeti Impotent to accomplish anything In all these years. Those who wish to escape from any effective- control naturally nurse tha doctrine that public opinion In Itself la sufficient ; and thosa who talk almost incredible nonsense about pub lic opinion are allowed to pose IB wise men. Unlesi the public opinion leads to tha ea- AT THE FOR You can get a nobby double breasted suit. in * Excellent value at FOR We have a nice assortment of cassimeres in all the different mixtures. Our regular price for these suits ! .50 FOR You have your pick of any of our boys' suits that sold at FOR We give you all wool Scotch cheviots , new IB' patterns , suits well worth L'OR $ ; You can't help but be pleased at the fit , style and quality of suits worth every cent of , FOR We boldly claim that we can give you suits that can't be duplicated elsewhere for less than tabllsliment of appropriate Institutions , re liance upcn It Is Utopian ; It Is then but a breath of wind. Reliance upon the press is unreliable. . Businesses ot the kind mentioned have given to a favored few fortunes beyond the dreams of avarice. It Is In their power , therefore , to establish nevspapers or buy newspapers If they desire to do BO. The newspaper la private property. It is generally owned by a Joint stock company and the control of El per cent of the capital means the control of the policy of the paper. When a news paper which has been guarding the public Interest changes at a critical juncture , It does not necessarily mean corruption or wrong on the part of the editors. It may simply mean new ownership , and owner ship by Its very nature Implies direction cf policy. Newspapers are absolutely Indis pensable In a free government , but reliance upon them for adequate protection against the encroachments of private monopoly , when monopoly is so vast as at the present moment in the United States , la utcplan. The policy which has been pursued In America has produced a spirit which is the precise opposite of the spirit of self-help. Wa observe all about ua apathy amounting to Indifference and a stibmlsslveness to wrcngs and Injuries which startles every foreigner. The explanation Is to be found In the tact that a remedy against the abuses of corporate power Is under American condi tions eo hopeless. If we expect that this could bo otherwise with all businesses ot a monopolistic nature ( owned and managed by private corporations , we are cherishing a Utopia. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS. There are , however , advocates of the pub lic ownership ol undertakings which ara es sentially public , who at the same time do not see the necessity of changes In our civil service , or of other preparation for the change. If public duties are Increased In the manner required by present economic conditions , the civil service must be radically changed In many respects. The reform in the civil service required by existing con ditions Is moro far-reaching than that ad vocated by those who are popularly desig nated as civil service reformers , although what these vtlsh Is a step In the right direc tion.Ve need , however , as a preparation for coming changes far better training In every branch of economics and politics.Ve must have not only Instruction In these branches In all the schools ot higher grade in the country , but we must also develop the departments of economics and politics In our universities into civil academies which will spare no expense to train men for all branches of the.civil service. To suppose that the economic changes which are needed now and which will be needed In the future , enlarging greatly tha functions of govern ment , can be effected without a moat careful development of our ctvll service Is perhaps the wildest oflld Utopias. RICHARD T. ELY. University of Wisconsin , Madison. ItOTKX. Germany now rivals France In glass color ing. ing.An An electric rocking chair has been In vented. Alabama's supply of red cedar is o.x- naua'ed. Aluminium drums are being used by the military bands. Eight million people In the United States own their own homes. Paving blocks made of compressed hay are being experimented ivlth. The avenge man can do the most work at 3 p , in. , and the least at 9 a. in. A substitute for gliss la made from cello dion wool , and Is flexible , not brittle. More iron sates are made in Cincinnati than In all the other cltlea of the union com bined. Sapless cedar blocks from regions swept by forest nres are used lu paving Detroit's streets. Aluminium la used as a substitute for leather in building up the heels of boots and shoes. A firm In Augusta , Me. , sends to potteries abroad photographs of places of note , and these vle s are artistically reproduced on pieces of china. With the new and Improved methods of mining it Is thought that It will cost lees than 22 cents on the dollar this year to mine gold In Colorado. The annual reports of the railroads of Iowa for the year 1893-94 sl'SW that more men were employed than for several years In all departments of the roads , and that a higher average of wages was. paid. An encouraging piece of news comes from New England In the statement that the boot and shoe trade Is showing marked Improve ment. At Marlboro , Mass. , In one day last week a single firm mude and shipped 20,000 pairs ot shoes. Only two strikes were ever known to occur in Turkey. One was of dock yard laborers In tb government employ far arrears in pay , and the other was ol cigarette makers In government factories tor the exclusion of women. The dockmen got their money and tha women were turned out. A plan to build a. co-operative farming col ony baa been started by Charles LlnneUohl In New Jersey. Ho desires to band together fifty persona , each with $200 cash capital. Into a company with regularly elected officers and a board of ar-t''rg. | This company will buy a large tract of lana : n Sussex or Warren county. Of A'-dl'W/.KO.Y. Friendship la but a name , There Is nothing terrible In death. The only \lctory over love Is ( light. Liberty and equality are magical words. Words pass away , but actions remain. Where flowers degenerate man cannot live. Marriage bas always been the conclusion ot love. We must laugh at man to avoid crying for htm. I failed ; therefore , according to all Justice , I was wrong. Uncertainty Is painful for all nations and for all men. Better never to have been born than tf live without glory. Judgment In .extreme cases should bo guided by precedent. Independence , like honor , Is a rocky Island without a beach. The only encouragement for literature Is to uivo the poet a position In the state. Indecision and anarchy In leaders lead to weakness and anarchy In results. When wo have drunk the cup of pleas ure to the dregs , all we want Is rest. Great men ara like meteors , which shlno and consume themselves to enlighten the earth. Men ot Utters are useful men , who should ever be distinguished , as they do honor to their country. When a man is determined to hold a place ( under government ) bo has already sold himself to It. Disdain hatreds ; hear both sides and de lay Judgments until reason lias had timeto resume her sway. Wo can only escape the arbitrariness of tlis Judge by placing ourselves under the despotism ot the law. The sight of a battlefield after the fight is enough to inspire princes with a love of peace and a horror of war. The praises of an enemy are suspicious ; they cannot flatter a man of honor until after a cessation of hosttlttic. . Historians are llko the sheep of Panurgc they copy that which their predecessors have written so that their opinions and interests are not opposed to it , without troubling themselves to inqulro Into truth or proba bilities. _ IIKI.H1JO1IS. There are CGI churches In Philadelphia. The twelfth Baptist congress Is to bo held at Detroit November 13-15. Klvo hundred million people now have op portunities of studying the bible In regions which knew almost nothing1 of It 100 years ago. ago.At At the opening of the present century it Is claimed that but forty-swen translations of the bible were In existence. Today there are ninety entire and 230 partial ones. Rev. Allen Clark has resigned the pastor ate of the Congregational church at Ottumiva , In. , In order to make the canvass ni the populist candidate for congress in that district. The latest statistics show that In Brooklyn there are nlnoty-flvo Young People's societies , with a membership ot about 10,000 , ami forty-two Junior societies , numbering about 1,700 members. Rev. Mrs. Sarah M Darnes , pastor of the UniversalUt church at Jurr.tlou City , Kanwrs 70 years old the other day , and the anni versary ivas celebrated by her friends gath ering nt the church in the evening , There wore choice gifts , Rood wishes , music , poems and all that nukes a birthday a tlmo ot pleasant remembrance. Religion is a somewhat changeable habit with South Sea Islanders , but a party of Seventh Day Uaptlsts from this country Is reported to have converted a large majority of the natives of Pltcalrn Island to that form ot belief with such zeal that it IB likely to remain the state religion , eo to speak , of the 1'ltcalrners. At the close of the war , less than thirty years ago , the Methodist Episcopal church numbered 1,000,000 members , owned 10,000 churches and 3,300 paisonages. worth In tlio aggregate 434,000,000 , It has now , at the end ot 11 period usually assigned to ono gci.eratlan ( In round numbers ) , 2,500,000 members , and owns over 21,000 churches and nearly 10,000 parsonages , worth In the aggregate about $12&000.000 | , According to an article In the August Forum , the Methodists ot this country col lect for current expenses , principally the salaries ot their ministers , aUut jl 1.000,000 yearly ; the episcopalians snout J13,000,000 ; the Presbyterians $12,000,000 ; the Daptlsls $8.004.000 , and the Congrcgatlonallsts J7.000- 000. The overage salary of the Methodist minister Is estimated at $350. exclusive of fees and donations ; of the Congregatlonallsl minister $1,050 ; of the Presbyterian some thing more ; of the Episcopalian still more. Rev. John S , Eberlle , a Baptist minister of dlendale , Pa. , cats only ono meal n day. For about thirty years he has eiten a hearty meal at noon , but faita during the other hours ot the day. In the morning , In stead of a nutritious breakfast on eggs , chopa and hot cakes , IHJ goes to the well , draws a pltchor ot cold water and drlnka copiously. In the evening no salads ur luscious fruits grace bis table. Instead , ho again fares sumptuously upon odd water. When Phllidelphla fell Inti tlie hands ot tha DrltUh , In .1777 , the timid rector of the old Christ church. Rev. Jacob Duche , won an unenvlabls Immortality ( or himself by writing a letUr to General Washington urg- ATTENTION , PHYSIOIANNS and CHEMISTS. Ladles nnd Gentlemen : Mine. M. Yale , that most nonderful woman chemist , has discovered a medicine that will remove Freckles from any face In three days. Hark ye. doubting Thomases , every twtlle Is Guaranteed nnJ nioncf will promptly refunded In case of ( allure. It re. moves Tan nnd fiunljurn In ons application. II matters not II the Freckles have been from childhood to old nse La Kreckla wllj clear them In every ease. Trice $1.00. Sent to any part ol the world. Manufactured by MME. M. I'ALE , Ileauty and Complexion Specialist. US Stale St , Chlcaso. FOR SALE 1)Y ALL FIRST CLASS DRUGGISTS. Ing him to lay down his arms and with draw from the Held. Mr. Ducho had been chaplain of the continental congress and had made the opening prayer , but the sight ot the red coats alarmed him into a sudden lory conversion. The identical letter to Washington has never been found , but ( ho autograph draft of that celebrated epistle haa been discovered among the valuable collec tion of the late Colonel Charles Colcock Jones. Georgia's hUtorlan. "If this letter should find you In council or in ileld , " It starts off , "before you read another sentence , I bes you to take the first opportunity of retiring. " The following figures represent the capacity of the various European churches for the standing multitude , as only In a few cases are ther seats provided : St. Peter's church , Rome , 54,900 ; Milan cathedral , 37,000 ; St , Paul's , Rome , 32,000 ; St. Paul's , 1/mdon , 35- COO ; St. Petronlo , IJologna , 24,400 ; Florence cathedral , 24,300 ; Antwerp cathedral , 24,000 ; St. Sophia's , Constantinople , 23,000 ; St. John's , Laternn , 22,900 ; Notre Dame , Paris , 21.000 ; PIza cathedral , 13,000 ; St. Stephen's , Vienna , 12,400 ; St. Dominic's Ilologna. 12,000 ; St. Peter's , IJologna. 11,400 ; Cathedral of Vienna , li.OOO ; St. Mark's. Venice , 7,000 ; Spurgeon'a tabernacle , London , 7,000. The figures opposite Spurgeon's tabernacle mean the seating capacity. The total missionary gifts of Christendom for 18S3 nro estimated at $11,718,6 7. The official report shows that there la an enrollment of CI'J,718 pupils in the Sunday schools of Missouri. I had the good fortune to receive a small bottle of Chamberlain's Colic , Cholera and Diarrhoea Remedy when three members ot my family were sick with dysentery. This one small bottle cured them all and I had some left which I gave to George W. Daker , a prominent merchant ol the place , Lewiston - , ton , N. C , , and it cured him of the uama complaint. K , Dazemore. When troubled with dysentery , diarrhoea , colic or cholera morbus , give thla remedy a trial and you will bo more than pleased with the result. The praise that naturally follows Us Intro duction and use has made it very popular. 25 and 60 cant bottlea for sale by druggists. Tlio Sun CompariMl wltli Other I'limi'tn. Prof. Young gives an Interesting lablo In which the sun's mass Is compared with that of all the planets of the solar system. In the table theearth's mass is represented aa 1.000 : Smaller Planets I larger I'lancts . Mercury GSIJuplter JOO.SCO V nu > fSliHaiuni . . , t'i.VJi Knrtli , , . , . 1,000 Uramm ] 2 , > 0 Unr 118 Neptune Hi Aitrrolds (111 to- tetliei ) 100 Total Total , ? ,1CS I Grand total. . . , , . 4 JW Sun's masa on the tame scale , 315,000,0001 Oregon Kidney Tea cures backache. Trial alzo , 25 cents. All druggists. "Do you think , dear , that absence rnakts the hsart grow fonder ? " "Perhaps It does , love , " replied the maiden. "You might re in a In away on * whole evening and let u test It. "