OCR Interpretation


Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, March 08, 1896, Part III, Image 20

Image and text provided by University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn99021999/1896-03-08/ed-1/seq-20/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for 20

IPPP
THJ3 OMAHA DAILY JJEK'SUNDAY : , MAKOII 8 , 1890.
When RabO was sick ,
< i *
gav < ?
When she was a Child ,
she cri d for
work there , making use of the same steam
twice. In the triple expansion englno the
same steam Is made to do work for all three
cylinders , they being constructed of Increao3d
diameters ; ao the stcain loses Its force the
Increased diameter of the next cylinder
makes up for tbe loss In pressure. On steam
ers having compound or triple expansion cn-
glnc'j , the exhaust steam Is condensed to
water again nad the water Io pumped back
Into the boiler. The Corlls englno differed
from other engines particularly In the man
ner In which Its speed was regulated. In
the old engines the ordinary flat slide valve
was used. In the Corlls engines the valves
were circular and made to onclllate- place
of sliding. The construction of the governor
on the Corllo cngino absolutely controlled
the amount ot steam admitted to the cylin
der. If the load was light a smaller quantity
was admitted ; If the work was suddenly In
creased by the starting- additional ma
chinery the governor Immediately responded
and admitted a larger quantity of steam to
take the Increased load , giving the engine at
all times a steady and uniform motion.
PRINTING PRESS EVOLUTION. ,
The printing press has shown remarkable
development since I860. . In 1835 the New
York Tribune had a printing press capable
of printing 1,500 copies an hour and three
men working from midnight until 6 In the
morning could turn out the whole edition.
After a long season of experimenting
the stereotyping proceys was applied to naws-
paper work. In 1861 W. M. Bullock of Pitts-
burg built the first web press , but it was
BDveral years before he produced the Im
proved press capable of turning out 10,000
poifect copies.an hour. In 1871 Richard M.
Hoe produced" press which turned out
18,000 papers per hour. Ho soon brought out
another press called the double perfecting
piczy , which turned out 30,000 papers per
hour. Ills next Improvement was a press
turning out 48.000 eight-page papers per
hour. This wotk Is done night after night ,
always producing the same result. This ma
chine folds the papers and automatically
counts them out In bundles ot fifty each.
The latest machine from the Hoe com
pany Is a pres'3 that prints , pastes , folds and
counts at the rate ot 90,000 four-page papers
'an ' hour , 48,000 six or clght-pago papers and
24,000 ten to sixteen-page papers per hour.
In the art of printing the new typemaklng
and setting machine Is considered a man el.
By Its use the melted metal Is run Into a
typo , set up and ready for the column before
leaving the machine. The New York Tribune
has a man at one of thcso machines who
has made and pet up 80,000 "ems" In one
day.
day.An ordinary day's work on one ot these
machines Is 48,000 , made and set up ready
for the press. Tim types are- not used a
second time and after being used once are
not distributed In the ordinary way , but are
melted up and used over.
To America belongs the credit ot the first
successful sewing machine. Ellas Hqwo ,
employed In a machine shop at Boston , con
ceived the Idea ot making a sewing ma
chine. For five years ho planned and worked
at It. In 1845 bis first model was made and
In 1846 he secured a patent to use It. In
1847 ho took the machine to England , where
ho tried to Introduce It , without success.
On returning to Boston ho found parties had
constructed machines after his patent. After
numerous law suits ho secured his rights In
the invention. At the expiration of his
patent his invention had netted him $2,000-
000.
ADVENT OF THE RAILROAD.
The railway industries of the United States
date from 1826 , when the first railroad , two
miles long , was built at Qutncy , Mass. It
wau operated by horses. Originally the rails
wore made of wood. Afterward they were
covered with an Iron plate. The Introduction
of locomotives met with a great deal of op
position and the suggestion that they would
eventually pull a train of cars twelve miles
an hour was considered the talk of a crazy
man. From 182C to 1840 only 2,197 miles of
rallioad had been built. In 1870 48,000 miles
were In operation and In 1895 180,000 miles.
Tbe present mileage of the United States
Is nearly one-half of the total mileage of the
world , being 45 per cent. The Interstate com
merce report , 1891 , says ; "There are $10f > 06-
235,410 Invested In the railways of the United
States. " No other enterprise lias grown BO
rapidly. Tito total earnings for the year
ended June , 1893 , were $1,15 ,187.071. divided
at follows : Passenger earnings , $301,491,816 ,
freight earnings , $ $29,053,861 ; tbo balance ,
about $23,000,000 , represents the earnings for
mall and express. This service requires
873C02 employes , 1,300,000 freight cars , 32,000
passenger cars and 35.000 locomotives , also
3,206 Bleeping cars. Nine thousand locomo
tives are engage ! In passenger service , 19,000
In freight service , 4.SOQ in switching service
and 2,200 In miscellaneous service.
Tbe growth ot the locomotive and freight
she clung to
Exactr Size of5 Bottle.
Preparation for As
similating ( he Food and Rcgula
tint ! the Stomachs and Bowels of
SSSlflifflSlSTERI
Promotes DijjeslionChrerful'
ness and Rest Contains neither
Opium Morphine nor.Mineral ,
NOT NARCOTIC ,
Xret
Bi rttSc
H'ttm J
Cttnfaft ' Suya
Apcrfcct Remedy TorConslipn-
lion. Sour Stomach. Diarrhoea.
\Vorms.Convulsions.Fcvcrish-
ncss and LOSS OF SLEEP
D
= .
INVENTIONS OF A CENTURY
J. H , McDonnell's Lecture Before the Metho
dist Ohautauqua College. ,
AMERICA HAS MOVED UP TO THE FRONT
Detailed HlNinry of the Improvement * *
Miidu in Mcelmiiiciil AiM > llniieeH
by the Skilled Workmen
in Thin Country.
At the Chautauquoi college of the First
Methodist Episcopal church , held last Mon
day night , J. II. McConnell , superintendent
ot motive power and machinery of the
Union Pacific railway system , delivered a
leoiure on "American Industries and Inven
tions of the Nineteenth Century. " In dis
cussing the oubject , Mr. McConnell said :
When wo Investigate the growth of Ameri
can Industries and Inventions In the nine
teenth century , from a mechanical stand
point , the first to attract our attention Is Ful-
ton'u steamboat on the Hudson river. In the
year 1807 the Clermont was completed and
made the first trip on Friday , August 4 ,
from New York to Albany in thlrty-olx
hours. The return trip was made in thirty
hours. i
While Robert Fulton was not the first man
to construct a steamboat , ho was the first
man to make a success of the steamboat , as
all other attempts previous to 1807 were
failures. The Clermont , after the first trip ,
was established as a regular passenger boat
tetween New York and Albany. During the
winter of 1808 she was enlarged and In the
JollowluB spring began running again as a
regular boat. In 1812 Fulton built two steam
ferry boats for crowing the Hudson river
and one for the East river. In 1814 Fulton
propowd plans for a war vessel to bo pro
pelled by steam. Congress passed an act
the same year authorizing the building of
one or moro floating batteries for coast de-
tense. Fulton wan appointed the engineer
for the constructlcn of the first vessjl. in
June. 1814 , the keel was laid , and In October
the boat was launched. By May , 1816 , her
engine was put aboard. July 4 , 1815 , the
first otoam man-of-war eveqr built made the
trial trip to the ocean and back , a distance
of fifty-three mllN , In eight hours and twenty
minutes by the force of steam.
In Septnnbor the complete armament was
placed aboard and another trip was made ta
the ocesn and back , the vessel going at the
rate of five and one-half miles per hour ,
The vesiel was nnmeil the Fulton , the First.
In 1811 Fulton built Jio steamboat Orleans.
The first trip was mai3 - to New Orleans In
1812 , time fourteen days. Ho alno built at
Plttsburg in 1814a steamboat called tht
Vesuvius. While Fulton was bullaing hit
Clermont John Stevcno was building tbo
Phonlx In Now Jersey. It was completed
shortly nftw the Clermont commenced her
regular trips. Fulton having been granted
a monopoly ot steam navigation on the Hud-
won , the Phenlx could not run on that river ,
Elevens , however , was bold enough to take
his vesoel out to sea In order that it might
bo put In ecrvlco on the Delaware river , and
John Stevens was the first man to navigate
the ocean by steam. The first trip across the
ocean by utcamvao made by the Savannah
In 1819 from Savannah , Ga. , to Russia by
way of England. She returned direct from
6U Petersburg , Hunsla , to New York In
twenty-six days ,
A RACU ON THE HUDSON.
In 1809 a company was formed In Albany
as an opposition steamboat line to Fulton's
beat , and In September the first vessel waa
advertised to leave at the same tlmo as Ful
ton's. Incitement ran high , Both vessels
left Albany together , each capta'n deter
mined on reaching Now York first. For a
long distance the contest was even and It
waa not until New York was almost reached
that Fulton's proved Itself to be the fastest
beat. On bsard the Clermont was Prof.
Kemp ot Columbia college and as It left the
other behind after a thirty-hour struggle ,
the profeuor held out a cell of rope to Cap
tain Stout , offering to tow htm Into port ,
Conilder the feelings of the passengers ,
wrought up to the highest pitch by the In-
tcnua excitement , and what a sigh ot relief
must have escaped them as they pauod the
slower boat and the race was won. Can
you Imagine those two boats tearing- down
ihi Hudwi , river at the tremendous speed
r
ot flvo miles an hour ? Fulton Is therefore
entitled to an Invention which has ccst a
great many lives and destroyed an Immense
amount of property steamboat racing. As
new boats were placed In service on the
Hudson the- speed was Increased. In 1820
the tlmo was reduced between New York and
Albany to twenty hours ; in 1825 to fourteen
houro and thirty minutes ; In 1870 to seven
hours. The Daniel Drew , In 1860 , on the
Hudson river made twenty-two miles an hour
against tbo tide.
Previous to 1815 It required four months
to make the trip on a flat boat from Now
Orleans to St. Louts. The steamer Enter
prise , built In 1815 , made the trip from New
Orleans to Louisville In twenty-five days
two hours and forty minutes ; In 1819 the
steamer Paragon made the run In eighteen
days and 10 hours ; In 1834 the Tuscorrora , in
savon days , sixteen hours ; In 1840 the Ed
Shlppen In five days , fourteen hoursand In
1853 the Eclipse In four days , n'nc hours and
twenty minutes. In 1844 the J. M. White
made the run from Now Orleans to St. Louts ,
distance of 1,218 miles , In three days , twenty-
three hours and nine minute ? . This was
not equalled until the famous race In 1870
between the R. E. Leo and tbo Natchez ,
when the former boat rnade the run In three
days , eighteen hours and fourteen minutes ,
beating the Natchez by six hours.
For Inland service American steamboats
arc superior to any In the world.
THE FIUST TELEGRAPH LINE.
In the year 1832 , while returning from a
voyage to England , Prof. Morse conceived
the idea of the electric telegraph. After a
great many experiments and discourage
ments In Now York In 1835 he put In opera
tion hlii first model. The matter was
brcught before the public In 1837 , when he
secured his patent. In 1838 a bill was In
troduced In congress to appropriate $30,000
to construct a telegraph line between Haiti-
more and Washington. The proposition
was looked upon as wild and visionary and
ridiculed by the American people. After
somg delay the bill passed and the line was
completed In May , 1844 , when the first mes-
lage was sent a few days later. May , 27 ,
1844 , a message was sent from Baltimore to
Washington saying :
"James K. Polk has been nominated for
president by the democratic convention In
session , "
An evening paper published the dispatch
and It was everywhere ridiculed. When the
morning train from Baltimore brought the
confirmation of the message Morss's triumph
and fortune were assured ,
The Improvement In the stationary engine
In the United States was not very marked
until about 1850. Engines were not con
structed with any particular view to fuel
economy , Some were running , consuming
twice the quantity of fuel necessary to do
the work. The Corlls engine , invented by
George II , Corlls of Providence , U. I. , created -
ated a revolution In stationary engine build
ing and It has. been extensively copied all
over Europe. When the first Corlls engines
wore built Mr. Corllo offered the proprietors
of the James mills at Nowburyport to re
place their engines with Corllo engines and
toke for his pay $10,000 Incash , or live- times
the price ot the fuel his englneu uvcd In
one year over those In operation. They be
ing considered very economical oh fuel , 10,483
pounds of coal per day wag the averaga
amount used for flvo years. It was decided
to accept the proposition on the fuel saving
baslj. The now Corlls engines were run one
year from December 3 , 1855 , and It was
found that the average amount of fuel used
per day wag 5.G90 pounds. The coal being
reckoned at $0 per ton. Mr. Corlls received
for his engines 119,734.22.
HIGH SPEED ENGINES.
In 1852 Mr. Corlls contracted with Crocker
Bros , of Taunton , Map ? . , to furnish them with
an engine to do the same work with two tons
ot coal per day that they were doing with
five tons , and agreed to pay them $1 per
pound for every pound of coal hl engine
consumed over two tons per day , Ills con
tract was Buccesjfully carried out. The In
troduction of the electric light lias produced
a largo number of what are termed high-
sped engines , particularly adapted to fact
.running machinery. Dy their UN a email
engine running at a high rate of speed Is
msdJ to develop the same power as a much
larger engine running at a dow speed ,
The high-speed onglneo run at a rate ot
frrm 300 to 350 revolution ! per minute , while
old typo of engine ? ran from tfxty to ninety
revolutions per mlntc. The Immense amount
of power required In large manufacturing
ostabllrhmenU and the large ocean uteamers
has brought out the compound and triple
expansion engine. The compound engine bas
one high and on low pressure cylinder.
After the steam nan done Its work In the
high pressure cylinder It enters the low
pressure cylinder and perform * the tame
car Is nn Interesting study. The first loco
motives weighed about four tons , and did not
Increase mucb.abavortwcnty tons until after
1850. , From" 1850 tos 1870" there wao a
marked increase In the size and weight. En
gines were built In 1S70 weighing sixty tpns.
In 1892 a number were built weighing eighty
tons. Tills ueight does not include the ten
der. One of the latter engines , with tender
full of watar and coal , weighs 130 tons.
The flr t locomotive , with tender , did not
weigh to exceed seven tons. Previous to
1850 the ordinary freight car weighed five
tons and carried a load of five tons.
The modern freight car weighs 35,000
pounds , and carries a load of GO.OOO pounds.
The former car and load weighed 20,000
poundo , while the modern car and load
weighs 95,000 pounds. /
Since 1870 the transportation of fruit , vege
tables , dressed beef , and other perishable
goods has brought the refrigerator car Into
use. It has Insured the successful trans
portation of Irult from California to New
York. Meat can bo carried with safety long
distances.
COST OK SOME CARS.
The furniture car is of recent date. Some
ot these ? are are fifty feet long and are used
for the transportation of furniture , wagons ,
agricultural Implements and articles of
large bulk and light weight. The transpor
tation of oil In bulk now requires a tank car
holding 5,000 gallons. Special stock cars
for cattle and horses are nowIn common
use. All of these special features have in
creased tbo cost. A refrigerator car costs
from $925 to $1,000 , furniture cars about
$625 , the modern box car about $525. The
lncreai'3 In size and capacity of the modern
equipment has been occasioned by competi
tion , decrease in rates and the transporta
tion of perishable freight , which could not
be transported long distances until these
cars were provided. The refrigerator car
has concentrated the packing houoes In a
few largo cities. The passenger car equipment
has Increased In size , weight and magnifi
cence In the last twenty-five ycais. Previous
to I860 there were not many sleeping cars
In service. After their Introduction the
public dema'nd required their adoption en
all trunk lines. When first introduced they
weighed CO.OOO pounds. This weight has
been Increased to 100,000 pounds. Originally
they coet $12,000 , ar.1 a number are In serv
ice today coating $28.000. A modern pawan-
ger car or tleeplng cir has gaa light , steam
boil , hot and cold water , and are a perfqct
palace compared with cars Ucnty-nvp years
ag'o. With better equipment the speed lias
been Increased. In 1870 twenty-two miles an
hour was the average speed of a passenger
train. It required slx days and twelve hours
to go from New York to San Francisco. The
trip Is now made In about four dsyoj three
days from Chicago .to San Francisco and
cmo day from New York to Chicago.
In 1870 the Journey from Omaha to Ogden
required fifty-two hours ; It Is now made In
thirty hours. With Increased speed and
comfort the public gets cheaper faro and
still they want It. for less.
The first American locomotive was built
at the West Point foundry In 1830. After
uinnlng a short time It blew up and an
other was built by the same company , m
January , 1831 , the naltimoro & Ohio railroad
offered $4 000 for the best anthracite coal
burning locomotive , weighing three and a
halt tons , capableof drawing fifteen tons ,
fifteen mllew an hour' ' on a level. In Janu
ary 1833 , M. W- Baldwin of Philadelphia
built the old Ironildc. This engine
W
AMEmCANLOCOMOTIVES THE BEST.
In 1833 Richard Norrls of Philadelphia built
a locomotive that hauled 19,200 pounds up a.
grade 3C9 feet to the rnlle The engine
weighed BSvwi tonj.l The performance of this
engine attracted attention la EngUnd , Sev
eral of this class vrtrei ordered nd tnnt over ,
where they performed > very successfully. As
the railroads Increased the locomotlva facto
ries Increased. Tlis Baldwin Locomotive )
works of Philadelphia Is today the oldest and
largest In the country ; They hove a capacity
for turning out J.00 ? "ew locomotives per
year. They have eent them to all parts of
the world. This ytar they are rending to
IluEsla forty locomotives for the Russian gov
ernment. Last yer the Brooke Locomotive
works sent sixty1 locomotives to Brazil. The
locomotive works of the United States liavo a
capacity of 2,500 locomotives iwr year. The
American locomotive Is superior to any built
In the world and \ a UUtlnct type.
There Is a similarity In all the European
engines , nearly all arc copied from English
manufacturers. Previous to 1870 a large portion
tion of the locomotlvco In service * In the
United Blat.'a were about thirty ton engines.
The IncreaseIn the size and weight of trains
has resulted In engine * for freight : wrvlce
weighing sixty , seysntj and eighty tons , while
the Increased speed demanded for paiosnger
trains requires fifty and sixty ton engines for
Uiat service.
Th limited tralni belwftea N w York and
Chicago , making about 1,000 miles In twenty-
four hours , are no longer considered fast.
Tbo Empire State express between New York
and Buffalo runs at the rateof lifty-two miles
an hour , including stops. On short runs a
speed of 112 miles an hour has been attained.
An ordinary eight-wheel locomotive weighing
fifty tons costs about $8,000 , while the heavier
engines cost from $10,000 to $11,500. From
18G1 to 1808 thcra was a great demand for
locomotives. As high as $26,000 was paid for
the same Iknd of locomotives that can now
bo purcf.iased for $7,000. The Introduction of
ste l rails In place ot Iron commenced about
1860. They coot $120 per ton and were Im
ported from England. When the manufacture
of steel pills commenced under the protective
tariff In the United States , the- price declined.
During the year 1SD5 steel mils' were eold In
the United States for $20 per ton.
MILES AND MILES OF CARS.
The weight of a rail is given as so much
pr yard. A seventy pound rail means sev
enty pounds per yard. Rails are thirty feet
In length. Some years ago twenty-six feet
was the length , but now thirty feet io stand
ard. The average life ot a st l rail Is about
thirteen yeara In the last twenty years the
Increare In the > weight of engines and cars
haq made It necessary to entirely replace all
the bridges and rails on all the trunk lines tf
the United States. In fact , there Is practically
nothing left of the railroad of twenty years
ago.
ago.Englneo , cars , bridges , rails and ties have
all been replaced with new. As the ties last
about flvo years , they have been replaced
four times.
The WestlnghouBS air brake Is pne of the
Important American Inventions of the last
thirty years. It Is now In use on railroads
In all parts of the world. Its application to
passenger trains commenced In 1869. For
five years It advanced slowly. Railroad com
panies were disposed to be conservative In
adopting It. After 1875 It was rapidly ap
plied to all pamcnger equipment. By the
use of It on passenger cars the Increased
safety In handling trains led to its appli
cation to freight cars.
Increased speed of all trains brought out
the brake applied to the driving whee-ls of
the locomotive. In the railroad service ot
the United States there nro 410,000 freight
and pawcnger cars and 28,000 locomotives
with air brakes. The cost of an air brake
on a passenger car IB $100 , on a freight car ,
$40 , and on a locomotive the equipment of air
brake and driver brake cost about $600.
It was not until 1850 that horse cars were
used In the United States. After their SUC
CESS was' established here they were adopted
m England. The fir ft English Direct car line
was built at Berkenhead , England , In 1860
by George Francis Train. In 1869 horse cars
were Introduced In Liverpool. In 1873 the
first cable street railway In the world was
put In operation on Clay street , San Fran
cisco. U was built by A. S. Hallldie. His
friends refused to assist him , as the enter
prise was looked upon with derision and con
sidered visionary ,
DECLINE OF THE HORSE CAR.
Notwithstanding the opposition , the line
was completed and put In operation In
August to the surprise of everybody but Mr.
Hallldlo , ItYBS a success. After three
years service other lines were established In
San Francisco. In 1879 Robert Glllham of
Kansas City turned his attention to the prac
ticability of a cable line for that city , but
met with marked opposition from the people
there. Receiving the money and Influence of
eastern capitalists he built the first cable
line and put It In operation In Kansas City
In 1885. It was considered that while It
might do for a country where there was no
winter , It would he Impossible to operate It
in winter time , as frost and snow would pre
vent Its operation ,
Kamus OHy and Chicago demonstrated to
the world that a cabe | line could be operated
successfully In winter weather. The cable
syptem waa finally adopted In England In
1883. At Ihe present time there are 857
street lallwaye In operation In the United
States , with a trackage of 13.176 miles , rep
resenting a capital of $520,745,823 , with 45-
353 horses in service , 2,607 dummy cars , 12-
663 motor cars and 30,857 passenger cam.
The rapid Increase of electricity applied to
street car service has displaced 145,000 horooa
since 1891.
The first successful steam flro englno was
built at Cincinnati in 1852 and tested before
A committee of the city council. At the
teot , steam was raised from ccld water , the
engine started , and water discharged from
tbe nozzle to the dlitance of 130 feet through
350 feet of hose In four minutes and ten
seconds from the time smoke was seen to
Issue from the stack. The city council con
tracted for an engine of the same character.
When delivered It was placed in charge p < a
company organized * ud paid by the city ,
When she had Children ,
she gave th tn
This is the first record of any paid flro
department In th'o world.
In the year 1837 , In Connecticut , the first
clock with a braaa movement was manu
factured. It ran thirty hours. The first
brass eight-day clock was not manufactured
until after 1841 , when all parts of the clock
were made by machinery. In 1853 and 1851
880,000 clocks were manufactured each year.
The Yankee clock is sold all over the world.
Tbo first watch made In the world , entirely
by machinery , was made at Roxbury , Mass. ,
In 1853. The parties forming the first com
pany were A. L. Denlson , E. Howard , D.
P. Davis and Samuel Curtis. The location at
Roxbury was unfortunate on account of the
fine dust from the clay soil. The company
afterward built an extensive plant at Wal-
tham , Mass. , called the American Watch
company. It turned out annually 80,000
watches.
A machine for the manufacture of solid
head pins was Invented by L. W. Wright of
Massachusetts. He carried It to England , and
In 1833 the first solid head pins were sold.
In 1840 John J. Howe patented another
machine for making pins. In 1846 a number
ot pin machines were Invented. Few suc
ceeded In doing good work. There la a firm
In Waterbury , Conn. , having an Improved
machine for making pins , that turns out
8,000,000 pins each day. The wire Is run
Into the machine from a reel , cut to the
right length , headed , pointed and dropped
Into the hopper of the sticking machine.
This machine arranges them and sticks them
In papers , and they come out ready for the
market , and wo wonder what becomes of all
the pins.
HERE THE REAPER CAME IN.
In 1834 Cyrus H. McCormlck obtained a
patent for his reaper. No machines were
made for sale before 1840 , as ho found It
needed a number of Improvements. For six
years ho worked at the machine , Improv
ing It after each harvest , each one built by
hlmrclf In his father's blacksmith shop at
Walnut Grove , Va. when ho was finally
able to build one machine per week. In
1844 the first consignment was shipped to
Cincinnati , where a factory was started the
same year. In 1846 he moved to Chicago.
In 1855 , In a trial of American reapers
against the world , near I'arls , thrco ma
chines were entered , one American , one Eng
lish and one Algiers , each machine to cut
and rake one acre of oats. The American
machine did Its work In twenty-two minutes ,
the Englloh In sixty-six minutes , and the
Algerian In seventy-two minutes. At a
subsequent trial ot three other machines of
English , French and American manufacture ,
the American machine cut Its acre In twenty-
two minutes , while the others failed. The
contest was finally narrowed down to three
machines , all of American manufacture.
Each performed tbo work to the astonish
ment and satisfaction ot the Judges. In 1867
at the Parts exposition , In a field trial , tbo
McCormlck reaper defeated all competitors
and demonstrated on two occasions the su
periority of the American reaper against the
world.
The Bell telephone was patented May 8 ,
1876 , and was first exhibited at the Cen
tennial In Philadelphia by the Inventor ,
Alexander Graham Bell. At first It was
considered a toy and the American people
did not take to It. In 1877 Bell took It to
England and could not dltposo of one-half
the European right for $10,000. March 1 ,
1880 but 183 telephones were In use In the
United States. Three years later 890 were
In use. They have become &o common now
everybody has them.
O. L. Sholes of Wisconsin IB the Inventor
ot the present typewriter ,
B. B. Hotchklss of Connecticut Invented
the breech-loading cannon. Meeting no
success In the United States ho took It to
Europe where It met with favor and he a
fortune.
The gimlet-pointed pcrew was Invented by
Thomas W. Harvey of Providence , R. I. , In
1838.
1838.Thcmas Blanchard of Massachusetts In
vented tbe lathe for turning Irregular shapes ,
such as gun stocks , wagon spokes , ahoe lasts ,
hat blocks , ax handles and many other Ir
regular forms. After working six years he
Invented and patented a machine that made
500 tacka per minute.
THE AGH OF ELECTRICITY ,
In 1876 Charles F. Brush of Cleveland , 0 , ,
patented a dynamo which has made the
present system of arc lights succzEsful. He
also Improved the arc lamp , making the
Brush are light the first successful cne In
this country ,
During tbe early part ot this century an
Invention was perfected which has made the
Inventor famous ; the date Is not clearly
stated. The patent office contains no record
of Ita having been patented. Jt seems to
have been given to the world for the benefit
of mankind. History does not say the
inventor realized a fortune from It. While
U falls to glv * tbo Inventor , U speaks ol
the Invention as the wooden nutmeg ol
Connecticut.
The preesnt Incandescent electric llgh't !
the result of the labor of Thomas A. Edison ,
who worked and experimented for several
years before he produced the present lamp.
The phonograph is another of his inventions ,
lie also constructed an electric locomotive.
Since 1880 electricity has been applied to
n great variety of work formerly done by ,
steam power. Some mines arc operated
entirely by It , furnishing power for hoisting ,
lighting , running pumping machinery and
drills. Small shops are operated by dyna
mos In place of steam engines. It Is alaa
used to run sowing machines , passenger elo
valors , and It Is successfully used for heat
Ing and cooking. The expenpo of the cookIng -
Ing apparatus so far has prevented Ita
general use. With the storage battery It la.
used to propel small boats. In street car
service over 12,000 cars are operated by it In
this country alone. In the last five years a
number of electric locamotlves have been
built. The Brooklyn Elevated railway 1
now snitching trains with electric locomo *
lives In place ot steam. Th's system MB
also been adopted on one of the elevated
roads In Chicago. Last year the Baltimore *
& Ohio railway placed In operation an elec
tric locomotive In the Baltimore tunnel. It
Is successfully handling freight and passen
ger trains and It Is claimed does bettor
work than steam locomotives of the same )
wclsht.
Last summer the Nantasket branch ot tbo
New Havetj railway was operated by an
electric , locomotive. On one of the trials !
It was claimed a speed of eighty miles an
hour was obtained. A now cngino has just
been completed by the-Baldwin Wcstlnghousa
company , which Is expected to haul a greater
lead and make greater fpced than any steam
locomotive now In service. ,
The construction of the electric power plant
at Niagara Falls will eventually make Buffalo
a great manufacturing city. When wo see
what has been accomplished by electricity In
the last fifteen years wo look with Interest
and anxiety to the future to know what !
In store for us.
ItHMGIOUS.
In all the world there Is but one man
that can read the translation ot tbo blbla
Into the language of the aborigines , which
was made by a Mr , Eliot In what Is now.
Paxton , In 1649. That man Is the well
known antiquarian and scholar , Trumbull
of Hartford , Conn.
Bishop Churchill Julius ( Anglican ) ot
Christ church , New Zealand , has becomq
noted for his nccentrlclties. A few yeard
ago he Insisted on personally laying tbe lost
ntono on the restored spire of his cathedral ,
and now ho Is eurpris'iig iood : churchmen
by riding a tricycle In public.
The London Telegraph says : "His ex
cellency , Hon. T. K. Bayard , the Amer
ican ambassador , has fixed Monday , Juna
29 , for the laying of the foundation Rtona
of the John Robinson Memorial church.
Galneborcugh , tbe original homo ot man/
of the Pilgrim Fathers. The deputation
ot American Congrcgatlonallttu who , are to
visit England tills summer will take part In
the proceedings. "
Albert Seeman of Wllkesbarro , Pa. , h-a
a ring which ho believes to bo the wedding
ring of Martin Luther , It purports to bo one
of the two which the Kurfurst of Branden
burg had made symbolical of the life and
the crucifixion of Christ , and which were
presented to Martin Lutlicr and his wfa ! on
their wedding day. U came Into possession
of the Secmans In 1867 , while they were at
Stockholm , Sweden.
A Gardiner , Me , , religious spelety , which
waa BO unwise as to go Into the postage ,
etamp collecting business , has found out
that It does not pay , The pastor of the
church succeeded In accumulating 91,000
( stamps , which he sold for $10 , but ho Is now-
kept to busy answering letters from persons
who wish to know how ho did It that ha
expects to be obliged to spend all of hla
hard-earned $10 for new stamps.
A titrong movement Is being planned by
the Congregational , Prctbytcrlan , Baptist ,
EpUcopal , MothodUt and some other min
isters In Brooklyn ugalrU'V the cuttom of
conducting nervlceu at the grave after the
regular funeral exercises In the tiouto of
church , A statement was read from many ,
pulpits on Sunday , and the reasons for the
' *
cha'nge In practice were given , It Is aeeertedi j
that the presant cuutom Is a needless
upon the strength and health of clergymen. /
It Is a fact that services at tbe grave are *
not as frequent an formerly , but tbe old J *
cut/torn llngera. It U prcbablo that many , . '
people wlli be disposed to crltlclwj the mlu
Isteri , but their view ID pretty certain ta
prevail IB the end , '

xml | txt