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TITE OMATTA DAILY KEE : SUXDAT , D.ECEMI5EK 25 , 18 8.
REAL FEATURES OF CHRIST Ooiwntlonal PSctnro Bclioved to Be a Trna Likeness. SEARCHING OLD RECORDS OF ART Famous Frencocii of the Catnoonihn n < l the lllntorr They Ilcvenl , Ancient nnil Moilcru I'or- trallH Cuinpnrcd. The Christian world has for centuries recognized a likeness of Christ which has become as clear and definite as a true portrait trait could be. Yet , no doubt because Christ's humanity , In our minds , disappears before Ills divinity , few among us have ever thought of the possibility of that tra ditional figure being a true portrait. Christ's mission , his teaching , the whole spiritual ldo of his life , have so absolutely over shadowed the purely human side of his life that -we have not tried to Imagine how Christ really looked. When wo stop to con sider this subject wo realize that theio Is DO possibility of lib ) having been different ID his appearance from ordinary men , al though we know that there could not but have been a something about him \\hlcli revealed what lay beneath the external en velope. In his eyes window a of the soul Ills disciples who knew and loved htm , the poor people of the villages of Galilee who saw htm but once passing , must have seen the light of the perfect Inner life , whose purity and beauty men of all ages alnce have vainly tried to grasp completely. And the expres sion of bis countenance , hLs sternness and his smile , his kindly and unselfish bearing , could not but have revealed what ho really was. was.This This wo feel , but a most Interesting book , Just published , for the first time takes up In a modern , scientific way this subject of the probable likeness of Christ Its author , Sir Wyke Bayllss , presents the facts with re * rarakable clearness and force. < ) III cut Hi-cord * Are Tlionc of Art , The first point to bo considered Is that the direct teaching of the story of the Christ was , at least for the first 1,000 years of the church history , committed to art rather than to letters. Slnco the Invention of printing the written -word has taken the place of pictorial representation , but forty generations had lived and died and the world bad become Christian before the sacred text was In the hands of the people and the people educated to read It for themselves. In the preface to the revised version It Is stated that the earliest manuscript of the Old Testament of which the age Is certainly known bears date A. D. , 016 , and that , In the case of the Now Testament , nearly all the more ancient of the documentary au thorities have become known only within the last few years. This establishes the Im portant feet that , If the nearness of the record to < he event counts for anything , the famous frescoes In the Catacombs have an Advantage over the bible In that respect of Dearly 1,090 years. Against this fact theologians from Ire- naeus to the present very reverent dean of Canterbury have generally held the opinion that the world and the church have lost for ever all vestige of trustworthy tradition con- cernlng the aspect of Jesus on earth , mainly because the authorities upon which they have drawn are not historical , archaeological or artistic , but always solely theological , and also because the church has never really touched the possible verisimilitude of Uie likeness of Christ , but has dealt only with the question whether any representation , true or false , should be endorsed or per * nvitted by tbo church. Certain of the the ologians of the second , third and fourth centuries of the Christian era objected to the attempts of artists to portray the like ness of Christ , Early Portrait * Ar ne Reality. These first pictures of Christ In the cata combs were indeed ugly , which Is In Itself strong evldenco that they were honest at tempts by Inefficient artists to represent one whom they had seen or whoso portrait they had seen a Ad whoso typo they know well , and not Ideal creations of their own Imagina tions. Out wMlo these early fathers ob jected because the ugliness of the outward form seemed to them a slur upon the dt- . \ ENAMEL FROM THE CATACOMBS , NOW IN THE VATICAN MUSEUM. vlnlty of Christ , to us who see in that fresco of tbo catacomb of San Callsto ( hero repre sented only a trifle larger than the original ) there Is no ugliness of the outward form , but , In splto of the weather-beaten , spotted and half effaced image , we cannot but dis cern the spiritual beauty. This Callstlan portrait , the most precious of the old images of Christ , has been enatched from "the cruel tooth of tlmo" by a most careful and beautiful drawing by Mr. Hcaphy , which Is preserved In the British museum. When that was made , fifty years ago , the original was a faint shadow on the wall. It Is all gone now. What a pity thatl Xo photograph was t krn of It , ns would undoubtedly be the case at the present tlmo , but In the ex plorations which are constantly going on In that extraordinary city of the dead these catacombs thnt extend under the whole Roman city and a part of the Campania , with their galleries above galleries , where part by part are opened up and closed again and their sacred relics taken away to the Vatican , we may confidently hope for new examples of early portraiture of Christ. I'orlrnlM In lh < - CiitniMimlin. All of these ancient portraits In the cata comba , on glass , In morales or frescoes , which are to be found In the churches of Rome , are the earliest records wo have of the first Christians , and the fact strikes ono at once that there Is an extraordinary similarity In all these representations of our Lord. Full faces , full length figures , or heads alone , all have that same type. In any group of figures we can recognize at once that typical face of Christ. It was then , and U now , the only likeness which wo recognize at once , which Is common to every form of art , to the mosaic , to the glass , to the enamel and to the fresco. It Is a fixed type , which no clumsy hand has boon nblo to alter bejonil recognition. Tills showa conclusively that the likeness of Christ which wo find In the paintings of the Renaissance , that marvelous drawing of Leonardo da Vinci , hero reproduced , and which Is a study for the head of Christ In the Last Supper , although without the tradi tional board , was not Invented at the period of the Renaissance , but that It al ready existed. It was not simply a matter of tradition , either. The great masters , Raphael , Michael Angela and Titian , could not but recosnlzo that In It was something greater , something truer and more definite than they could themselves create , nnd In splto of the fact that they were men of marked Independence of thought nnd strong national feeling , they were content In this , the mnbt Important function of their art , to lay aside their Invention , their Inde pendence and their nationality , and to b ns ono In accepting humbly from other hands the likeness of Christ. From the fourth to the seventh century the artists who wrought in mosaics In the basilicas Inherited that likeness from the catacombs. They wcro Byzantine artists , who reproduced withslight differences of style a plainly marked and characteristic likeness , transmitted , as all tradition , from generation to generation. It was fortunate that the chief characteristic of that Byzan tine art should have been the perpetuance of a certain model carried out In every detail In a perfectly formal and hieratic way. U is to the limitation of the materials out of which the beautiful mosaics of the basilica wcro designed and to the artists who made them that we are Indebted for the preservation of the likeness during the dark centuries of the middle ages. Serene , solemn , dignified , they are a priceless In heritance to the Christian and to the artist. I'ruof In n lioolc of llnlr. When there became two centers of au thority , at Rome and at Constantinople , the Greek church prohibited the making of Images of Christ and sanctified the likeness only In the form of paintings. These old , smoky , black Icons that we sro yet In the monasteries of Russia and European and Asiatic Turkey have all como down to us from this period. In the Roman world the Images of Chrlat In nil forms wore always allowed and the curious and significant fact Is that both Greek and Roman churches retained the eamo likeness of our Lord from some common typo. The fact that In the Greek pictures there -Invariably a slender lock of hair detached from the rest and falling In the center of the forehead DRAWING FOU THE HEAD OF CHRIST I N "THE LAST SUPPER. " BY LEONARDO DA VINCI ONE OF THE TREASURE S OF THE ACCADEMIA-MILAN. shows that there was a traditional like- nofs frpm which no artist dared to depart even In detail. Now It Is obvious that this traditional PORTRAIT OF ST. PAUL , ENGRAVED ON GLASS FOUND IN THE CATACOMBS. likeness must , of necessity , have been based upon something tangible. When the Greek and Latin artists made their pictures of Christ they had to satisfy a people who be lieved devoutly In some older likeness they possessed and with which they were familiar. The people wouM have been no more con tent with a now Invention to represent ther Christ than their forefathers would have been content to receive Ideal heads from the Greek sculptors they emplojcd when they aslted for portraits of their C.iesars Clearly the traditional likeness was derived from the catacombs. The dark corridors of these underground bancUiarles were the records of the llfo of generations of the earTy and per secuted Christians. The pictures that covered the walls of these chapels and graves , made for the eyes of these Christians , are of one doing the acts that Christ alone did nnd bearing the attributes that Christ alone bore , pictures that to them at least represented their Lord. MiiNt Wonderful of All. The most beautiful and , at the same MOSAIC IN BASILICA OK SS. SOSMA E DAMIANO. time , the most dlvlno and most human of them all is the Callstlan portrait. This love-lle-Jt and most precious of the re membrances of our blessed Lord , Is , accordIng - Ing to most competent authorities , the work of a Roman artist , a portrait painter , who must have himself seen Christ. But the authenticity of the cornmonry received like ness depends upon no ono particular ample. There are frescoes In the Vatican FROM A MOSAIC OP THE CATACOMBS. and In the Lateran museum In the cata combs , of 63 Archill , n Nero of about the same period , whloh exhibit teJiactly the tame striking type. It Is touching to think that these likenesses wcro painted over the graves of the martvrs BO that the face of their Redeemer might overshadow the place where they lay until once more they should see him as they had seen him before they fell asleep. Besides frescoes and mural engravings the catacomba are rich In anagrams , chalices , paterae of gloss , lu has reliefs , in mosaics , enamels and cloth pictures , these last most fragile shadows upon linen. I glvo here examples of each ono of these. The cloth picture , which is now one of the most precious relics of the Church of San Bartolomeo , Genoa , is said to have been drawn by St. Luke , who was an artist , and sent by the Lord Himself to Agbarus. the King of Edessa , to recover him of his sick ness. The history of this picture goes back at least to the mlddlo of the second cen. turj- , and we have records to show that it was believed then to bo authentic. An other and more probable story In connection ' with this likeness is that when St. Peter I was a visitor at the house of Pudens , a senator of Home , the daughters of Pudens , Prassed and Pudenzlana , asked him what the Lord was like , and that the apostle with his stylus drew on the handkerchief of one I of the sisters the simple outline which we see in this picture. That story is not only possible , but probably true. There Is a third story to follow , which Is the well known legend of St. Veronica. It Is said that , when on the way to Calvary our Lord fell beneath the weight of the cross , the woman , St. Veronica , moved with pity , gave Htm her handkerchief or herself wiped the sweat from His face and that thus the Im print of Ills features was left miraculously and vividly on the piece of linen. llkvniM on a Knee Cloth. The Veronica likeness , of which there are many , was simply a face cloth which had been laid upon tbo dead. These face cloths were sometimes marked with a sacred ana-I gram or with Rome emblem of the resur rection , but there can bo no doubt that , In many Instances , the sdme desire to Identify this with Christ nnd to express their hope and expectation of his second coming led men to paint his face upon their graves and led them also to cover with It the faces of their beloved. This likeness attributed to St. Peter or said to have been sent to Ag barus may have been drawings rondo on linen for this purpose , but never actually used , for they show no stains of the grave. But there are many , among them the ones In the Church of San Sllvcatro and In St. Peter , which have undoubtedly been dark ened In the valley of the shadow of death. The darkness of the Veronicas , ns thcso face cloths arc called , Is really the- Imprint of a face , the dead face on which la was laid. The likeness desccrned through the Imprint Is a drawing made originally on the cloth and It Is the likeness of Christ. Thcso are a few of the many witnesses which tell the same story. There are many more of them , all showing that the likeness which the Christians of the fourth century "CHRIST BRINGING AGAIN THE TRUIT OP THE TRCD OP LIFE" GLASS IlELIC OF THE CATACOMBS. delighted to emblazon on the walls of their baslllcus was not a new Invention , but It had been the consolation of their forefathers during the dark period of their persecution. The pale , beautiful face that had over shadowed the graves of the martyrs , which had looked down upon multitudes of wor shipers In the stately basilicas , was the same face that Christ had borne Into the grave three davs before his resurrection. So this verisimilitude of him ha'd been In the cata combs for three centuries before It arose to live forever. Adopt I'orlrnlt I'nlntern. In looking over the treasures brought from the necropolis of Antlnoe to Paris last year ono could feel himself transported Into the eoclety of those Romans in old Egypt. In deed the Roman world was devoted to the art of portraiture , and even In the lowest pictures of the decadence , even when there Is no art , thcro is always a graphic like ness. That the early Christians could not be any different from the rest of the Ro mans of that period Is shown by some of the precious relics of the catacombs bearIng - Ing very Individual portraits of the apostles. We publish hero ono of .tho apostle St. Paul engraved on a glass paterae. 4 There are many such examples of direct portraiture of men whose names were familiar to the Romans of the first century and who are mentioned in tbo epistles , which show that portraiture , as distinct from symbolic or Imaginative art , was not only lawful but was practiced by the Immediate followers of the apostles. Thus we had the people ac customed to commemorate by portraiture not only their heroes , but their friends and members of their family. When banded to gether In the worship of a now hero , ono greater than any they had known before end endeared to them by a stronger , tie that of love ono known personally ( o many of them nnd of whoso likeness they could have obtained authentic Information , how could they have helped find solace and comfort In preserving his cherished likeness ? And , Indeed , wo see thcso people , driven to the catacombs , proceed at once to cover the walls nnd engrave upon their sacerdotal ves sels , to bury with their martyrs , pictures representing the life , actions and attributes of their hero. It Is too much to ask us to believe that the likeness they painted on their walls , engraved upon their chalices and burled with their dead was a sham. As to the singular objection that has been FACE CLOTH OR "VERONICA. " PRESERVED AS A RELIC IN THE CHURCH OF S. BARTHQLOMEO , GENOA. raised regarding the authenticity of the likeness that In the early days of Chris tianity the belief In the dlvlno nature of Christ was so universal , so absolute and so overwhelming that men did not dare to represent him In his human form , but through emblems and symbols , It sems an absurd theory when ono confronts It with the facts which Sir Wyke Bayless enumer ates. No doubt at times the portrait of Christ as a man has been regarded with hus- plclon by the theologians , who were afraid that the full recognition of the divinity of Christ might bo Impaired by dwelling upon the human side of him and lead to Idolatrous practices. But , all the same , the likeness which never had been lost , but only ob scured by symbolism , was brought forth from the catacombs and stamped on the arches of the basilicas as a triumphant declaration in the sight of all men that It was to bo cherished forever as one of the essential elements in tbo evidences of the Christian religion. ' AUGUST F. JACCACI. A hot-weather beverage A piece of ice , BO mo sugar , lemon and a bottle of Cook'a Imperial Champagne , extra dry. A Maine farmer found a sheep missing from his flock during the rtcent snowstorm , find searched five days until he found U alive , under five feet of snow and not in bad condition. COJIl'ltliSSED ' AIR AS A MOTOR New York Street Railway Lines to Be Equipped with Air CHEAPER AND SAFER THAN ELECTRICITY Western Cltlen 1'rcpnrlnir in Adopt the f > Kit-in IntrrcntliiK Detail * ot Sltuili > .Miu'lilucrj- NEW YORK , Dec. 23. Within the next twclvo'months compressed nlr will bo put to use In operating suburban and street rallwa > s In Now York mid other American mid English cities. The question of power for the handling of such traffic has uar- lowed down to the alternative of com pressed air or electricity , and the decision in favor of ouo or the other of thcso Is likely to bo Influenced by local conditions. Tor some jears electricity has held the Hold without a dangerous rival , but there are abundant Indications that from this tlmo on It must share the honors with the ue\v motive power. The couiprctsed air plant now being es tablished by the Metropolitan Traction company In Now York Is nearly completed , and by the end of February forty air-motor cars will bu In operation on the company's Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth street crosstown line. Following this a belt line connecting the farrlcs and railway stations and covering the hotel and shopping districts will bo estab lished. If the present plans of the Met ropolitan company are carried out , all the ciosa-town Hues In New York City , with ono or two exceptions , will bo equipped with air motors In the course of the com ing two jears. Although the New Yoik line will be the first In this countty to be operated entirely by compressed air , It will not long remain the only one. Ouo of the Chicago lines Ute to be fitted with air power during the com ing summer , and negotiations for the equip ment of a part of St. Louis' system are nearly completed. The olllcers of the American Air Power company , who control the rights of the compressed air system , ha\o been In consultation recently with street railway men from a number of west- cm cities , and It Is expected that some of thorn will adopt air power soon on their lines. Morco\er , It Is possible that the success of the American sjstum , ns demonstrated by Its actual operation , may lead to Its adoption on the London underground roads. J. Allen Baker , an expert engineer who was sent over to this country , recently re turned to London and submitted his re port. Ho compaie- ) compressed air with the gas power now In use on the Blackpool line In London and his conclusions are decid edly favorable to the former. Mr. Baker finds that not only Is air power cheaper than gas , but It Is superior In cleanliness and Is noiseless In operation , two Important considerations on an underground line. On Itnllronil Snliiirlniii Line * . In addition to these developments , It Is said that the New York Central railroad Is preparing to use air-motor engines In Its yard operations and In hauling trains through the tunnel at the New York end of the road and on Its Putnam division. A compressed air engine has been used for some time In the yards of the Atchlson , Topekn & Santa Fe road at Topeka , for switching , and Is reported to have worked satisfactorily. When It U added that a company Is being formed In New York to utilize the nlr mo tor In running automobile carriages , It will bo seen that 1899 promises to bo a great year for compressed air In a number of ways. The American Air Power company , which controls both the Hnrcllo and the Hoadley motors , Is capitalized at $7,000,000 , and among those said to be chiefly Interested In It are P. A. R. Wldener , William C. Whitney and the other large stockholders of the Metropolitan Traction company , Colonel nel A. W. Soper of the Plntsch Light com pany , Henry D. Cook , Alexander McLeod , formerly president of the Reading system , and numerous men of Importance In the financial world. The use of compressed nlr as a motive power antedates electricity , although It Is only within the past few years that the sjEtcm successfully employed by the Amer ican Air Power company ban been developed. As far back as 1S79 nn air-motor car was run on the streets of New York. In the following year an Englishman named Colonel nel Beaumont operated a compressed-air engine nt Woolwich , but It did not meet with favor. In 1889 the city of Borne , Switzerland , adopted air for street traction , using what Is known as the Mekarskl sys tem , and In the allowing year a line was Installed In franco and another at Chester , England. In 189i Samuel E. Jarvls built nn ntr-motor car which was run on a spe cially constructed line In Detroit , and In the same year the Consolidated company of Toledo made eomo experiments with a car equipped with the Mokarskl system. None of these experiments were reported failures , but from none of those tried In this country did any Important results fol low. One dliflculty encountered was In storing enough air lo run the cars any con siderable dUtanco. The air was stored at low pressure and consequently the capacity of any ordinary car was sufllclent to carry It only about four miles. The compressing apparatus was far from perfect and tbo experimenters were troubled by the heating of the air during the compressing process and by Its freezing when expanded. The development of compressed air true- Itlon , as wo have It toj y , Is chiefly duo to Robert Hardlo , n mechanical engineer and inventor , who carried on his experiments In the use of compressed air at high pres sure for several j ars at Rome , X. Y. , where the first successful air-motor car constructed from the plans now In uao wne put In operation. The results of Mr. Hardle's experiments wcro embodied In the Hardlo engine , built for experimental us on the Manhattan elevated railroad , and In a street car con structed for the American Air Power com pany. The latter was put In operation on the Ono Hundred and Twenty-fifth strcot line In New York on Au gust 14 , 1SOO. Two others of the same pat tern wcro added a llttlo later and the three continued to run successfully for nearly a jcar. It was the practical test to which these cars wcro subjected by actual service that Induced the Metropolitan Traction company to adnpt the nlr motor system for some of Its lines. It was found that the cars ran smoothly , 'with ' less wear and tear to car and road equipment than the cables , that they were not affected by weather condlt'ons and that they wcro less danger ous than c.iblo or electric cars , as the entire tire2,000TJOund air pressure could bo ap plied to the brakes or the motor could bo reversed If necessary. The cost of opera tion was a llttlo greater than that of the other cars on the road. The Hardlo cars employed In this experi mental work were like ordinary cable cars In appearance , except that the space be neath the body of the car was protected by aprons extending along the sides. Behind these aprons , mounted on the car trucks , were the storage chambers , connected with the running gear by pistons similar to those employed In steam locomotives. An im provement on this driving apparatus was effected In what Is known as the Hoadley motor , described as an "Inside gear. " This Is tbo ouo now In use and In cars of this pattern none of the operating machinery Is oxoosed to view. UottlliiNT the Air. In the air power plant now building at West Twenty-fourth street and Eleventh avenue , New York , the power is developed by what IB described as a three-stage com pressor. In the first chamber the air Is driven up to a pressure of about 100 pounds to the square Inch. It Is then cooled by a water Jacket and enters a second cylinder where th * pressure Is Increased. The coolIng - Ing process la repeated and the air passes to the third chamber , where It Is driven up to the pressure of 2IJOO pounds to the square Inch , nt which It Is to bo used. For the third time the air Is subjected to the cooling and drying process , after which It Is conveyed to a borles of connected Mannesmann steal flaska , where It Is etored awaiting use. The purpose of the water Jackets Is to do away with the heat which naturally accompanies the compression. Each of the air motor cars Is fitted with n Mnnnesmann steel "bottle" extending lengthwise beneath the floor of the ear. This bottfo Is a long steel tube with a capacity of fifty-one cubic feet. Before being placed In the car It Is tested to a resisting strength of 5,000 pounds to the square Inch. So that there will bo no danger of breakage under service conditions. The empty cars arc run up to the charging stand In the power house and connected with the main storage chambers. Air Is admitted to the car flask until the desired pressure 2,000 pounds la registered by the storage gauge. Then the connection 1s ) broken , the air In the chambers being prevented from escape by a check valve , and the car Is ready for a Journey of from fifteen to twenty miles. The whole process of charging occu pies only two minutes and In the event of hnsto can be completed In less than a min ute , so that It win not cause delay even with a congested traffic. Whllo this charging process la going on connection IB established with another chamber beneath the car and llvo steam Is Introduced to this compartment until a temperature of 300 degrees Fahrenheit Is registered. This device Is one of the most Important Improvements In the development of compressed air traction. It makes possible the reheating of the air before It Is used , thereby Increasing HB efficiency 100 per cent and making It posslblo for air to compete with electricity In the Item of expense. As the cold air leaves the bottle beneath the car It passes through an automatic valve which reduces the pressure from 2,000 pounds to 150 , the latter being the pressure at which It Is applied to the motor. The nlr passes through the reducing valve to the hot water chamber , the heat thus ap plied to It causing nn expansion which nearly doubles Its working power. That Is to say , each cubic foot of air , after being heated , carries the air twlco as far aa It could if It remained cold. Machinery U Simple. The motor mechanism consists of two link-motion , reciprocating engines , having cylinders seven Inches In diameter and a fourtecn-lnch stroke. The power In applied by connecting and parallel rods direct to the crank pins of the four driving wheels. The entlro weight of car and apparatus Is mounted on elliptic springs , which give a smoothness of motion not obtained In the ordinary car. At the point where the air Is finally set frco , the pressure Is so slight that there Is no sound of exhaust. The only way In which the escaping current manifests Itself Is by a little puff of steam , euch as is caused by one's breath on a frosty morning. This , of course , Is duo to the difference In temperature between the atmosphere and the air operating the motor. According to its advocates , compressed air possesses many points of superiority for street traction over any other power nt present In u&e. Edward E. Pettec , the con sulting engineer of the Air Power com pany , says : "Street railway engineers have long de manded an Independent motor one that should make each car automobile so that an accident at a central power station might not result In tying up a whole sys tem. This Is provided by compressed air , and may bo described as ono of Its chief engineering advantages. Perhaps Its great est recommendation from the point of view of tbo public Is Its safety. In ease of con trol , It excels any other system that I know of. The high pressure air Is always nt command to set the wheels and can bo ap plied by a slrnplo wrist movement by the motorraan. "Tho entlro mechanism Is simple and does not require any special skill to oper ate. There Is no noise , smoke nor odor. The Installation Is much cheaper than that required by electric power , thus effecting a saving In Interest charges. It U never necessary to tear up the streets in order to extend the power. The cars can bo run wherever tbero arc tracks. In all these particulars I believe compressed air to bo the most satisfactory power yet developed. " Whatever advantages compressed air pos sesses on the score of safety or esthetic qualities , the point which li likely to deter mine Its final acceptance or rejection by railway capitalists Is the matter of cost as compared with other forms of power. If It costs the railway company less for each car mlle run by compressed air than It does with any power at present employed , com pressed air will bo Installed sooner or later. Coat iif the % etr H > nil-Hi. On Uils point It Is impossible to make a convincing comparison , for tbo reason that air has never been employed on a. largo bystem , and on such a road the cost of op eration for each car mlle la likely to bo less than on a small lino. For electricity , cable , gas and animal power approximately exact figures are to bo had. In the following table the comparative cost per car mile Is shown from figures complied In New York and I/indon. The figures given for air power are computed by A conservative engineer from the showing of the air motor cars In thcli trial service. Animal Cnblo I. ! " ! " " ; 17 n Electricity ( umli'riirouml ) . , . 12 Elootrlrlty ( overhead ) ( u ) Gnu ( Ixmclrii ) n Comprojisicd nlr lOtolJ The cost of operating the thrco nlr-powcr cars run In Now York was 20 cents per car mile , as follows : CCHll JOM53 \\ulor DIM Oil Illl'l VVH U > ( H)1.T ) l'o\v < r plant labor o > 3J Conductor and tnotoriunn t ' > s Repairs oas Total J0201S The Item of furnishing power nt the sta tion would be reduced from 8 cents to about 3 cents with a larger plant , and the coat of conductor and motormau would lie ma terially reducexl with longer runs. On th saving In these Items , and on the improve ment In the cfllclcnoy of their apparatus , the olllcers of the Air Power company bass their expectation of rlvnllng the trolley In chropness of road operation. Many rallroid men bollovo that they will shortly prove their case by actual demonstration. At any rate , compressed air Is likely to tnko its place ns ouo of the great motlvo powers. Overcome evil with good. Overcome your coughs and colds with One Minute Cough Cure. It cures croup , bronchitis , pneumonia , grlppo and all thro.it and lung disc-as en. wmsiv omens FAR. OOWHTTMP > DOCTORS Searles & Searlea. PECIALISTS. Gaaratitev to cnre poedlly and radl * llr all N12IIVOU8 , CHIIOMC AND PHIVATB1 dUaniiB of men and vromea WEAK MEN SYPHILIS BRXUALLY. cured for life. Night Emls Ion , Lost Manhood , Hjr- racele , Verlcocele , Gonorrhea , Olfet , Sypb- fll . Stricture , l lle , Fistula and Reettt Ulcer * , Dlabete * . Brlght'i Dliease cured. CONSULTATION FREB. Stricture * * * new method without pain or cutting. il on or addriu with stamp. Treatment ' Krctltli i > Umon4 HrM < . ENNYROYAL PBLLS -4 7V Orlclnal and Only GrnnliKw A. > t/V\ rc- ! " > MlUllr. LADIIS . , V jV > MU. ' ' " rtle r ri.jli.li Ma > ! \ \ fc J SWNn , J ran4 In Hrd inA tieH m.t.llle\\jW " } -v ; T > il.llxiIt < iftl l wllb btuo tllihon T.L.W Strong Drink is Death DR. CHARCOT'S TONIC nrntbftonljposltlTPly mwrnntrrd rrmcrtjfor ttie prink Mkblt. > orrouiness and Melancholj cauied brntionzilrluk WK MITAHANTKR FOl'tt IIOXG8 U cure any case 1th n potltlvo M 1 1 1 ln Knur- nut < - or refund tb * money , anil to doitroy the appetite for Intoilcntlng liquor" . THE TABLETS CAN BE (1IVEN WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE OF THE PATIENT ? . ' HinI npaih. Un < iu recrlct c.r 10 CO we will mall jrou four f4 ] boies unclposl. tlvo nrlileii cmtrnntvc- cure or refund "Ineli | MV , O < > Meyer * , Dillon llr UK Co. , Sole Agcuti Kith mill Fnriiiiin , Oinnhii. Noli. ALWAYS USE COCOA PURE ! HEALTHFUL ! ! Patronize Home Industries IIy Pnrchoilnir IJootU Mnile nt the Fol. lowing Ncbruvku I'"actorlcm CORNICE WORKS. a. F. Ki'E.Mrrnu , HAfil.n COH.MCn WOHK4. Manufacturer of Galvanized Iron Cornices Galvanized Iron Skylights. Tin , Iron and Slate Roofing , Agent for Klnnuar's Steel Celling. 108-10-12 North Eleventh street. FLOUR MILLS. M. r. r.iiMA\ . Flour , Meal. Feed , Bran , 1013-15-17 North 17th street , Omaha , Nen. C. K. Black , Manager. Trlcphono 692. IRON WORKS. DAVIS A COWCIM , , IIIOV AVOUK9. Iron mill Ilr Fiiunilpm. Manufacturers and Jobbers M Machinery. General repairing a specialty. 1501. 1503 and 1505 Jackson street , Omaha , Neb. LINSEED OIL. AVOODM \ \ IIN K ii > Oil , WOIIK.4. Manufacturers old process raw linseed oil , kettle bolted Unseed oil , old process ground Unseed cakes , ground and screened rUxsied for druculsts. OMAHA. NED. BREWERIES. OMAHA HllP.WI.SfJ ASSOCIATION. Carload ahlpmentH made in our own ro frlgerator cum. Blue Illbbon , Elite Export , Vienna Export and Family Export dullv ered to all parti of the city. OMAHA OOILKIt WOIUCS. JOIIX It. : , ( > WHI2Y. Prop , Bolleri. Tanks and ao t Iron W rk ,