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THE O FAITA DATIAr HEE : WEDNESDAY , iJsOVEMIVER 1 , 1809. 0
1 * an illustrated , true atid concise history of the Special Pictures of the 1st Nebraska Raising "Old Glory" nt Pott Santa Ctaz , taflrone including the late Colonel Stotsenberg , Camp Mesa , the Hospital Reproduced from an ( limitation In " Ou to UanlU Illustrations taken pital and the fighting line a complete roster of the regiment , at the time by showing promotions , etc. White the Douglas , A Book war correspond- In order to give all the eilt of the SaM to be friends Francisco Exum- Pre of the First Nebraska an opportunity of havIMer' served ing a complete and correct history of the regi for 'V ment The Omaha Bee has at great expense placed this beautiful future The Old Bell ot Sttmriye. , Kadrone book within their reach no coupon required order quick as we Islands. Cast In iCSo. refer Reproduced front nn Illustration , In have only a limited number. " in to Manila " ence. On sale at the Circulation department of The Bee Sent prepaid to any address upon receipt of the price. The First American CTag Raised Over Mnnlla. Address , Omaha Bee. . History Department Reduced froui an Illustration In "On to Maulla. " DANIELS' ' PAEAN OF PRAISE Glowing Review of the Achievements of American Bailroads. SUPERIOR TO ANY IN THE WORLD I'atcnt Fnetorw in the Development ot the Country What They Did and Arc Iloliiu : The Modern and the Old-Time Train. The spokesman for the vast transportation Interests of the country at the International Commorclal congress , In Philadelphia , last Wednesday , waa George H , Daniels , general passenger agent of the New York Central railroad , and his theme was "American railroads , their relation to commercial , In dustrial and agricultural Interests. " The address was nn Instructive and exhaustive review of the development of the United States as reflected In the multiplication of ' railroad lines and their marvelous progress. L'jM Railroads invariably followed the pioneers and In many instances preceded them. Whatever buslnecs was to be had , or a fu ture prospect for It , railroads went there , and their construction and operation proved powerful factors in developing the material Interests of the country traversed. With menne of transportation assured , brawn and brain together attacked the storehouses , ol nature and revealed sources of wealth that have In a brief period of time made the 'United States the richest nation In the world. Progress was not confined to wealth alone. As Statistician Mulhall said In 1895 : "As regards the physical , mechanical and Intellectual force of nations , wo find noth ing to compare with the United States. " Mr , Daniels referred to the war between Japan and China and the later war which placed the Philippines In the keeping of Undo Sam , as potent factors In determin ing trade supremacy In the Orient. AH we supply locomotives for Russian and British railroads , bridges for Africa and tools and machinery for ail of Europe wo can defy competition In supplying China with modern tools of progress. American railroads , Mr. Daniels said , did much tn bring American wares to the attention o the world. The literature of the railroads has a world-wide circulation. Maps , pictures turos of scenery and of rolling ptock am descriptive matter brought visitors from all nations some to see and learn , others to Invest. Coming as skeptics , they re turned full of admiration. They fount American claims were not Idle boasta. Now they pay the country the flattering com pllment of Imitation , Besides the nations ordering American locomotives , Russia Germany and Japan are building "llmltci trains" on American plans. Mr , Daniels produced statistics to show tint canals have ceased to bo Borliua com pot 11 ors of railroads. The Erie canal , which originally cost $7,602,000 and on which $9 , 000,000 was squandered two years ago , car ried In 1872 6,073,370 tons of freight ; In 1897 there were only 3,617,604 tons carried. Tbo cause rf the decline were threefold ; Re duced freight rate * , marvelous development of motive power and quick transit. Less than a quarter of a century ago the capacity of the average freight car was 20,000 pounds and the capacity of a freight engine was from twenty to thirty of such cars to a train. Grain cars now carry frcm 00,000 to 65,000 , pounds and a locomotive at tlie latest typo will haul seventy-five to ninety ot euch cars leaded to their full capacity , A Century of MiirveU. Mr , Dante's cited .tho following examples of the achievements ot American railroads 'in a little moro than half a century , and many of them within the last twenty-fire " years : "Before the railroads were built It took a week to go from New York to Buffalo , nearly three weeks Irom New York to Chicago cage ; and at that time no man would have bought of making a trip from New York o the Pacific coast , except a few of the tardiest pioneers , and when on euch an occasion the goodbyes were said It was ex pected on both sides that It would bo for ever. If tomorrow night you should place a etter on the Pacific and Oriental mall train , which leaves New York at 9:15 : , you may be sure that your correspondent In San Fran cisco will be reading It next Monday night- lour days from New York. "Tho frnmers of our constitution would lave considered a man entirely 'beside ' him self who would have suggested such a pos sibility. "In 187B the states west of the Missouri river were sending food and clothing to the starving peopleof Kansas. "Thanks to the facilities afforded by the railroads , the corn crop of Kansas this vear la 340.000.000 bushels. "It seems 'but ' a very few years since [ made my first trip to Colorado and stopped on my way nt the home of Buffalo Bill , at North Platte , Neb. , on the Union Pacific. At Ogalalla , fifty-one mllca w'est of North Platte , the Sionx Indians wore roaming over the prairies and making moro or less Lroublo for the early settlers who ventured so far out of the beaten path of civilization. The 'Nebraska corn crop this year covers 8,000,000 acres and the yield Is 290,000,000 bushels. "Previous to the construction of the North ern Pacific , the Great Northern , Northwest ern. St , Paul , Burlington and other railways that , traverse that wonderful region known as the "wheat belt , " there was nothing to IJQ seen 'but prairie grass and an occasional band of untamed savages. "Minnesota this year will ship 90,000,000 toushcla of wheat , South Dakota 45,000OOC bushels , North Dakota 65,000,000 bushels and Montana 4,000,000 bushels. "In 1849 there came across the continent reports of the discovery of gold In Cali fornia , but the only means ot reaching Its Golden Gate was by sea around Cape Horner or the long and perilous Journey with ox trams across the plains , Including what was then styled In our geographies the American det > ert , and through the hazardous mountain passes of the western part of the continent "The completion of the Pacific railroads changed all this and opened new fields for all kinds of enterprises In An unexplorcc territory stretching over moro than 2,00 ( miles to the west , northwest and southwes of the Mississippi river , the products o which region wcro practically valueless un til the means of transporting them were provided by the railroads. "Without railroads Kanas , Nebraska Minnesota , North and South Dakota , Mon tana , Colorado , California , Oregon am Washington would still be the hctno o savaged. ScT lc-p of American Knllrntiil * . "It IB beyond question that American rail roads today furnish the best service in tb world , at the lowest rates ot fare , at th same time paying their employes very muc higher wageo than are paid for similar ser vice In any other country on the globe. "In the United States the first-class pas eenger fares Jast year averaged 2.14 cent per mile , although on tome largo railway the average was several miles less than cents per mile. In England tbo fir&t-claa fare is 4 cents per mile ; thlrd-clais fare fo vastly Inferior service ls " cents per mile but only on certain Parliamentary trains. "In Prussia the faro Is 2.69 cents per mile In Austria , 3.05 ceots per uille , and in Franc 3.3C cents per mile. "Our passenger cars : excel these pf for elgn countries In all that goes to make u the comfort and convenience of a journey. "Our sleeping and parlor car system Is astly superior to theirs ; our baggage sys- em Is Infinitely better than tholrs and rranged upon a much moro liberal basis. American railroads carry 150 pounds ot > ajBago free , while the German railroads arry only fifty-five pounds free. "The lighting of our trains Is superb , while ho lighting ot trains on most foreign lines s wretched. * Trade FollotTM the Finn. "If it is true that "trade follows the flag , " hen with co-operation and reciprocity be- wcen the great transportation interests of ho United States and the commercial and ndustrlal Interests of our republic , and with proper encouragement given to American shipping , our commerce should bo as di versified as are the products ot our soil , our mines and our mills ; and our export trade should reach every mart on the earth , and should flourish on every sea and river where vcieels ply ; for , since the almost miraculous events in Manila bay and oft Santiago we may paraphrase tbo sentiment ot Joaquln filler in regard to Colorado and say of our flag , 'It floats forever In the sun. ' " LOCOMOTIVES AHE THE FA8TBII. Higher Speed Made ivKh Steam Thau with I&lectrlcUy. "We'll fairly lly in the by and by , " Is the heading which we find attached to some re cent public deliverances on electricity as : he motor for the high-speed trains of the future , comments the Engineering News. It la a little curious how universally It ap pears to bo assumed that If It were desired to run trains nt speeds of , say , 100 miles per hour , electricity would bo the power adopted. In the present state of the art It must be said that nothing has ever yet been accomplished In the way of high speed on nn electric railway , even experimentally , Doyond what the steam locomotive Is doing In actual service week In and week out. The fast schedules on the New York Cen tral and on the Philadelphia & Heading' ) ! Atlantic City line have proved that loco motives can bo regularly run at speeds up to seventy miles per Hour and upward and that with safety and regularity. If It Is desired to increase these speeds to 100 miles per hour locomotive designers could bo found , wo are sure , who would undertake the work , assuming , of course , that the tralnload would also be lightened. U Is frequently said that the fact that the locomotive Is a reciprocating machine whlUi the electric motor Is a rotary one gives the latter an advantage In the matter of high upends. As an abstract proposition this la doubtless true , but the locomotive ) ma by no means reached Us limit In the matter of speed , Larger driving wheels , lighter re ciprocating parts and moro careful balanc ing are gomo of the means by which higher speeds could be made as feasible as are the speeds at present reached. It Is worth noting that none of our present-dtiy loco motives uses drivers us largo ns those In IIHO many years ago on some famous English locomotives of high speed. An other argument occasionally heard In that the high-speed plectrlc motor would bo much less severe nn the track than tliu locomotives , but this argument again is based on theory rather than practice. AH n matter of fact , the standard electric railway track now uses a rail nearly twlco the depth of the standard steam railway rail and this practice IIUH been forced upon the electric railways by the impossibility of keeping up their joints with any lighter construction. Evidently the clectrlo motor designers have also some problems to solve before they will bo ready to put In bids for a 100- mile per hour service , Th matter of cur rent collection , for example , might prove a hard nut to crack. The trolley Is , of course , out of the question and the heating of a castlron shoe sliding on a third car at u Hpeed of 150 feet per second might causa some difficulties. We must candidly acknowledge that the subject Is not a vital one at preiunt , for no railway to run trains at 100 miles an hour Is yet In sight except In the brains of Im pecunious promoters , KxiKtlng railway lines would Jlnd It very difficult for operat- Inc reasons to run trains of nuch high speed on their existing lines , and the pro posal to build a special hlghspeed elec tric Hue. even on such much-traveled routes as that between New York mid Philadelphia , has never yet been piosented to financiers In a way to command their support. It would probably bo a much easier tank to hulld either electric or pteam locomotives to make 100 miles nil hour over nuoli u line than it would bo to line ! sutllcient tralllo to make U u paying enter prise. WOMEN IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS Teaching the Young Idea Practically Monopolized by the Fair Bex. HOW IT WAS IN DAYS GONE BY Trannltion from the Era of Men mid the Hod Statistic * of vaulii School * ICi tloiiul Notc-H. James C. Boykln of the National Bureau of Education has reprinted In pamphlet form Ills paper on "Women In the Public Schools , " published In the September number of the Educational Review. Mr. Boykln's paper Is a brief history of the progress of women as teachers , tholr supremacy In the schools of today and the consequent diminu tion ot male teacher. Referring to the early obstacles and objections to the employ ment ot women , he sajs : "The beginning ot the public school system found the majority of the schools In the jands t/f men. The 'woman movement' had not begun and women had not then learned to leave their fathers' homes and go out Into the world to earn their own livelihood ; but that only In part explains the condition * ) that prevailed In regard to the schools. Teaching of Itself waa entirely respectable , and hail been for generations one of the few occupations which a gentle woman might enter with prop'rlety. Dut the regular school work was not favored , and educated young women who had to support themselves as a rule preferred to enter private families as governesses. 'Dames' schools' were not uncommon , though they wore generally , If not always , small , wore attended by only the youngest pupils and were not taken seriously by anybody. Hut there was little or no prejudice , social or otherwise , to keep women from the schools like that which debarred them from HQ many ether occupations that have since been opened to them. "Tha difficulty was that women were ac tually not physically able to do the. work BS It waa then required , In the flint place the school iloy was very long JIB compared to later standards. It began at S a. m. and lasiea until H oiien u p. m , wnero tno school was regularly taught It- was In ses sion practically the year round. Holidays wrro few , and even the practice of closing on Saturday has grown up with In the last fifty or sixty years. As late us 1812 the schools of New York City wore In session forty-nino weeks ; those of Chicago , forty- eight weeks ; the term In Drooklyn , Balti more and Cincinnati waa eleven months ; In Buffalo twelve months ; In Detroit 259 days , and In Philadelphia , Boston and Wash. Ington nearly as long. Applying tin * Hud , "Even If the modern Improvements lu methods , equipment and , more than all else , In boys , had existed then , It would have tested the endurance of the most robust woman to bavo withstood a siege of a single Bchool year. But the length of the term was not the greatest difficulty. That feature of teaching which presented the most ter rifying aspect to the timid novice was the mutter of discipline , for It waa only by drastic measures that a teacher co\ild \ hold hla own. The kind of discipline then prev alent Is Illustrated by the record made by an Eton bead-master who Hogged eighty boys In one night. Even ho waa not us con tinually and energetically active as old Hau- herlo , the Swoblan fcchoolmaster ot whom It Is so often told that during the fifty-one years and seven monttui of his official life be Inflicted 011,627 blows with a rod , 124,010 blows with a cane , 20,989 taps with a ruler , 136,715 blows with the hand , 10,235 blows over the mouth , 7,905 boxes on the ear and 1,118,800 raps on the head. Seven hundred and seventy-seven times he made boys kneel on peas and 613 times on a three-cornered piece of wood , made 3,001 wear the dunce cap and 1,707 to hold up the rod. "Nor is It to be supposed that such modes of discipline were confined to the schools. Flogging prevailed in the armies and navies ot the world until a comparatively recent date and It was even a rule of the English common law that a man might chastise his wife , provided he did Jt as a loving hus band should and without brutality. "So It was by universal custom and com mon consent that authority In any walk of life meant harshness , and discipline meant bodily pain. Corporal punishment , frequent and severe , was looked upon by parents , teachers and children as a necessary part ol school life. Accustomed to stern measures , the pupils had neither respect nor obedience to offer the teacher who was not ready and able to tallow up his command with a blow. A 'lock-out , ' a 'smoking-out , ' or a 'ducking' waa as mild treatment as he could hope for. As for a woman , It was absolutely Im possible for her to control a school unless she possepsed a degree of strength of char acter and an abundance of tact that arc given to tow. Ilrfcinniiiix of tinClifiiiprc. . The first change favorable to the employ ment of women came with the establish ment of graded schools. Public sentiment respecting discipline gradually changed. These , Mr. Boykln shows , were potent causes opening wide the doors of schools to women teachers. This was In the MCs. "As time passed , " Mr , Boykln writes , "tho public and pupils became more accustomed to women teachers and discipline became easier for them. They proved to bo moro sympathetic and at least as successful teachers of young children as men , and their numbers In creased still moro on that account. Then the civil war took many of the male teach ers awny , and the proportion of women grew still faster. Finally , the Impression pre vailed extensively that It was only neces sary that the principal of an elementary school be a man and nil the assistants might Just as well bo women. "Then , to como down to recent times , since the number of male assistants has been reduced to a minimum , tba supply of de- slrablo men for principals haa been all but cut off , and as women are always at hand who have had long experience Iri teaching and who show evidence ot some executive ability , princlpalshlps have been given to them. Here again the question ot economy enters Into the calculation , for when a w.omnn is promoted to a prlnclpalshlp she docs not , as a rule , receive as niuch as her male predecessor had been paid. The feel ing Is now , in many places , that experienced women teachers make the best principals that can bo Eecured under the present con ditions. Female principals , therefore , maybe bo considered a fixture. In Wilmington , Minneapolis and some other cities there arc no men whatever in the elementary schools ; in Atlanta there Is ono male grammar school principal only ; in Grand Rnplds there arc four male principals and Uonly-nlno women ; Louisville has nineteen women principals and ten men ; in St. Louis the sexes are about equally represented ; there are thirty- eight women to eleven men In charge of Jho schools of Cleveland. And this list might bo continued to a much greater length. In none of the cities I have mentioned Is tbero a single male assistant in any elementary school. Ill the Country. "I have taken all my Illustrations so for from cities , but the Increasing proportion of women Is by no means confined to them. In the United States as a whole men teachers have Increased In number only 18 per cent In the last twenty years , while women teach ers have Increased 80 per cent. The question naturally arises , Where is this going to end ? Is the tendency to con tinue until there are no moro male prin cipals of whom superintendents may bo made ? There are now two state superin tendents , sixteen city superintendents and 228 county superintendents who are women , and the number constantly grows. Are the schools to bo administered entirely by women ? To be sure there Is little prob ability that the change will progress to this I extent , but the Indications are that the end Is not yet reached , for there IB u growing inclination to consider elementary education the special province of woman. Conspicuous evidences of this may be found In the laws of many of the states , both in the east and In the west , permitting women to vote at school elections and at no other , in the cus tom of political conventions In woman's suffrage states of habitually naming women for the olllco of state ncliool superintendent and for no other ofllce , and In tbo action of the directors of the recent Transmjsslflslppl 1 Exposition at Omaha , who turned over their ' department of education to women and prac- i i AN INVENTIVE GENIUS. \ Miss JTvangeline Ain yo * 'fraid yo'll lose dat dinion stud wif burglars , Misto Wiffles ? Mr.Vifiles No indcedy , chile. Ebry time cr man tecbes dat stone , dis ycr 'lectric bell rings in mah pocket. tlcally confined their activities to that do * partment alone. " I'vittiNylvaitln SclinnlM. The report of the superintendent of publla Instruction of Pennsylvania for 1898 , which lias Just been Issued , furnishes some inter esting figures regarding the cost ot publla school education In Pennsylvania. Thera was a total enrollment of 1,113,100 pupils and an-average attendance of 864,62C. The total amount paid to 9,348 male and 18,732 female teachers was $10,332,739.27 , and the total school expenditures was $19,644,401.31. Tha expense per pupil per annum amounted to 117,03 , while the proportionate cost ot sal aries of teachers per pupil amounted to $9.03 for the year. Thcso figures take on an added Importance when compared with similar sta tistics for Now York state. The latest avail- nblo ones are for the school year ended In June , 1897. The total enrollment for that year was 1,203,199 , the total salaries pail amounted to $14,160.059.54 , and the t I school expenditures was $26,689,856.71. 'ma average annual cost of education per pupil was $22.18 and the salary cost per pupil was $11.7C. The average annual salary paid to teachers in Pennsylvania was $360 , while In Now York It was $495.93. SHU 1JKFKA.TKI ) SIX -MEN. Speech that IlroiiKht Her Apnlnii * and Election. When n new blcyclo wagon stopped lit front of the Auditorium in White Plains , N. Y. , at 2 o'clock October 6 , none of the crowd of politicians gathered on the side walk Recognized the handsome young wo man who drove up , but when she left at 7 o'clock everybody In White Plains , from tlio county officials down , knew Miss Bertha , Edith Berber ! , the nominee of the ropubn llcans for school commissioner In the Second end district ot Westchestcr county , Tha convention nt which olio was nominated lasted flvo hours , Fourteen ballots were taken , and on the last Miss Bcrbert secured ! the nomination. ' Although she came hero with only two delegates , oho signally defeated six men , all prominent In the county. As the politicians expected , the friends of Miller and Baker started In to fight It out. On the first three ballots each lacked a few votes. Tlion they tried to Induce Miss Her bert to withdraw , nut cho refused. Only her brother and another delegate voted for her , but she said she would dlo game. Then aim started to win. The- county officials and politicians of both parties heard of tha aurprlso caused by the pretty blonde of 27 years , and they left their work and hastened to the hall. As they came In sha Introduced herself and implored thorn to as sist her. So deeply were they Impressed that they Introduced her to the delegates. Sbo went through the hall begging , coaxing , teasing the delegates. She would not bi denied. Her chief victory was to win over the district attorney. "You make a speech , " he Bald to her , "and ny you won't marry the democratic candidate , and you'll get more vctcs. " She advanced to the stage , and when sba raised her hand every man became as bllent as a mouso. She nas the only woman pres ent and as she started to speak her face flushed , "Gentlemen , " she said , "some of you may bo afraid I might marry the demo cratic nominee. I'll state now that I would not marry the best democrat on earth. ( Ap plause. ) My word Is as good an my bond just an good as Mr , Baker's , and my check Is as good us his , I know just what ought to bo done , and will do It with credit to the party , " After she had finished , Supervisor Menzcr shouted : "Three cheers for Mlsn Berbcrt , " The clioera wore given vigorously. The con vention wax In an uproar , and she stam peded It. The vote stood ; Berber , 29 ; Hakor. 21 ; Miller , 1 ; Tlelden , 1.