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S f f T FilFfTllFfiT 8" i in) Ipi i substitute for mule power on the V.rim ronsl mntn ftltnttnn nn the practicability of the new motor for the purpose Intended, and provoked an acrimonious discussion of the motive of the test. The test was made a few days before the election at which the voters of New York state approved the proposition authorising the widening and deepening of the canal so as to accommo date barges, the cost being estimated at tHrtOOO.W, and that the purpose was to dis credit the proposition by showing that with electric power the present canal would subserve public Interests ss well ss a btirge canal and save the state a tremendous debt. Whatever the motive was, it Is evident from the details of the test that the so called "eiertrle mute" Justified the cMms of its owners. Four boats, loaded with ISO tons of sand, were used. First two lionts were started from each end of the track to demonstrate the ease with which the boats and mules puss. Then tests were made with one mule. One, two, three and four boats won? drawn against the current. The mule took the fmir boats at a speed of five miles an hour. The average speed with horses or muloa is a mile and a half an hour and about two miles an hour with steam. For the demonstration an elevated trac tion way was constructed a mile and a half long, on the outside of the towpnth. one rail being placed above another so that the motor cars might pass and repass without Interference. The structure la so arranged as not to Interfere with barges being towed by animal power. In operation the so-called "electric mule" rests on two wheels, which groove about the top rail. Beneath the locomotive are under wheels, also grooved. The under wheels by means of powerful springs clamp tightly against the under rail, allowing the mnchlnes to run along on the single rail. Under the present method of towing by mules a cargo of IfiO tons to each boat is considered very heavy going westward against the current. In the trial in nuta tion the electric locomotive readily hauled four canal boats, each loaded with cargoes of 2S0 tons, against the current at a speed of five miles an hour. Achievements fa Electrical Chemistry. At a meeting of the American Philosoph ical society in Philadelphia recently Prof. C. F. Chandler of Columbia university re viewed tlie most remarkable achievements in electrical chemistry during the past twenty-five years, all of which were due to the inventive skill of young Americans. Prof. Chandler said that Niagara Falls was the center of electro-chemical indus try in this country, and that -various processes were carried on there with most profitable results, which until a few years ago were regarded as impossible. For thousands of years, and until the last cen tury, the only agent which the human race was able to use for bringing about chem ical change la metals was fire. In 1S36 Ja cobl Invented the art of electro-metallurgy, and in 1839 Dagnerre introduced chemical change brought about by means of light. Electricity was not a very practical iigent in chemistry until the rynamo was in vented. This made possible the use of electric force developed by water power, and afforded the means of Immense ad vances. Young American chemists took up electrical chemistry, and in some respects have led the world in this branch of sci ence. Borne of the most brilliant discov eries are duo to Hamilton T. Casslner, who first cheapened the production of aluminum. He was followed by Charles M. Hall, a student of Oberlln college. little more than boy, who Invented a process wtiich re duced the cost of the metal from 16 to M cent a pound. CassJner had meanwhile created a great factory, and had millions el capital behind him. He proceeded to Improve his processes, by which metallic sodium and caustic soda had first been made with sufficient cheapness to enable him to make aluminum for the commercial market. He developed the manufacture of peroxide of soda, for use as a bleaching agent, and cyanide of potassium, used in extracting gold from poor ores. Then he utilized a discovery made by Sir Humphrey Davy In 1807, whereby metallic decomposition was effected by electricity. He Invented an apparatus in which the electrical beat could be kept at a certain point, and thus solved a problem that had pussled chemists for 180 years, the pro duction of caustic soda and chlorine freo from salt. Casslner found It necessary to produce something to resist the corrosive reaction of'the liquids in his apparatus. In this way artificial graphite came Into use. Dr. Chandler told of the early experi ments by the old German professor, Ileln-rk-h Rosa, in the production of aluminum with alumina and cryolite more than fifty years ago, and how Hall, employing elec tricity, devised a cheap and rapid process of reaching the same result. He humor ously touched upon the granting of a pat ent upon this process to snother man, through a decision of the United States Court of Appeals, long after Hall had ob tained his patent, when, as a matter. of fact, the first credit of the Idea belonged to Sir Humphrey Davy, the great English chemist. An interesting description of tho process of .manufacturing carborundum, the hard est substance in existence next to the dia mond, was given. The specimens of car borundum shown glittered almost like com pacted masses of black gems. In the pro cess from 8,000 to 20,000 degrees of heat Is used. The same process produces artificial graphite, the crude material being anthra cite coal. The discovery and process of making acetylene were described. The lecturer also told how the secret of pre paring artificial fertilisers, suitable for certain plants, was learned from a study of the bacteria Inhabiting the nodules on the roots of vegetables Larice Water Ptnn Plaat. Ore of the largest waterpower plant in the country la now nearing completion at Spier Falls, on the Hudson river, about eight miles southwest of Glens Falls, N. T. The river here, caught between two spurs of the Adirondack, la, by means of an Immense masonry dam, raised fifty feet above its old level and a fall of eighty feet made available for the turbine wheels. The watershed of the Hudson above this point amounts to 27,000 square miles and gives a mean annual flow over the dam of between t,0OO and 7,000 cubic feet per second. The dam, which was begun tn June, 1900, is 1,820 feet long, and In some places nearly 100 feet In height. It is carried down to bedrock, built of solid masonry and an chored at each end In the ledges of the mountain sides. The power is obtained by ten pairs of turbine water wheels running on'horlsontal shafts; eight pairs each hav ing a capacity of R.0O0 horsepower and two of J.tOO horsepower each, so that the wheels have a combined capacity of 46,809 horsepower. Each pair of wheels is di rectly connected to a 2,600 kilowatt electric generator, except the two smaller one's which run 2,000 kilowatt machines. The electrical output is thus 32,000 horsepower. The water la carried to the wheels through ten steel tubes twelve feet In diameter. The current is generated at about 2,000 volts and raised to W.000 volts for trans mission. This Is dons by thirty trans formers, designed to operate at either 15, 00S or 30.001 volts. The brick power house, which is of the most substantial con struction. Its foundation being concrete masonry bedded In the rock, is U feet In length and seventy feet wide. Although only the foundation and floor are now completed, the demand for power has been so sharp that the 2.000 kilowatt generators and one of the 2,500 kilowatt machines have been set under temporary sheds and are regularly supplying current. The gen erators, owing to the large excess of ra pacity of the turbines, are carrying the loads satisfactorily, although only sixty feet of head Is yet available. The triangular section between Glens Falls, Schenectady nnd Albany, contain ing a population of about 300,000 and many large manufacturing enterprises, Is the market which the Hudson Illver Water power company will supply. They already own several local electric companies and one of the first uses of the water power current will be to replace the expensive steam driven local stations. Another water power station Just below Mechanlcvllle, on the Hudson, owned by the company, has a capacity of 7,000 electrical horsepower. Their total available electrical power is thus 39,000 horsepower. Thirty-five thous and of this has already been contracted for, one concern alone, the General Electrlo company, taking 10.000 horsepower, so that the financial success of the installation is already assured. Power is also being supplied at several sub-stations of the Hudson Valley Electrlo railway, which runs from Troy to Glens Falls. The Hewitt I .am p. That electric lamp which Peter Cooper Hewitt invented Is appearing In New York factories and composing rcoms these days. In Boston it is rapidly coming Into pop ular use. It was the general opinion that tbe lamp, when it was fir3t cal'ej to the attention of scientists by the son of iho late Abram S. Hewitt, was merely a sci entific toy, with which the wealthy young man had passed a few of his leisure hours. Now it is being used by hundreds of per sons who have never stopped to inquire who invented it. Nobody would use the lamps In a place where dress amplcs are matched, for It has no red rays, and It may give a totally different Idea of colors from those which really exLH.Its hardly the kind of illumi nation for ballrooms or for lighting the Interior of private bouses, but for other purposes Boston has found It Just what It has long sought. Tbe light has a violet tinge, which shades Into a pale greenish hue. Its general effect la rather ghastly at first, but for places where men have to have bright illumination while they work over machines, drills and type cases it has proved Its value. In Boston It Is being used In warehouses, machine shops, fac tories, . printing offices and places where great accuracy of sight Is required. The lamp is much used by photographers, who say that they can take pictures by It much more rapidly than they can by daylight. One of the advantages of the light Is that It makes use of a current of high voltage, yet gives a steady Illumination, where with another system the effect would be almost blinding. On account of its absence of red rays It is easy on the eyes and la well - adapted to the use of those who work at night, provided their tasks have nothing to do with fine discriminations between colors. Mr. Hewitt, the Inventor, returned a few days ago from Europe and has resumed work in his laboratory in Madison Square garden tower. He is experimenting with wireless telegraphy, for he hopes to make some of the principles of his electric light useful In the transmission of electrlo waves through the air. In principle the Hewitt light la very sim ple. The electrlo currents flow Into a sealed tube. In which there Is a mercurial vapor. At either end of the tube are electrodes, positive and negative. When a high cur rent Is turned ou tbe resistance is broken down by the presence of the vapor and the tube Is filled with light. Correal Notes. Another recent trial on the Marlenftilde fcossen rsilway In Germany resulted In a spent of 131 S miles an hour being ob tained. An electric railway will shortly be opened In Italy, which will serve ss a feeder to the existing ruble railway on Mount Ve suvius, says the ICIoclrtelan. I.mlnn. It connects the lower terminus of this moun tain railway with the small town of lte sina. The total length of the line Is 7.5 km., the dlflerpnoe In altitude between tho termini being 7U0 meters. A resident of St. Paul. Minn., bv the name of Hrenemnn Is said to have Invented a machine which he calls the electroscope, and by means of which a person may sea another at a distance. The apparatus con tains two lenses, behind whlfh are rcienliim cells. We have heard of similar inventions before, nnd trust this one will prove mure successful than pome of the others. A communication from Mr. Klchnrd Guenther, consul-general to Frankfort, Germany, states that successful experi ments have been made In various forests of France In cutting trwn by means of electricity. A platinum wire is heiteil to a white heat by an electric current and used HUe a saw. In this manner the trees are felled much easier and quicker than In the old way; no sawdust in produced, and the slight carbonization caused by the hot wire acts as a preservation of the wood. The new method Is said to require only one-eighth of the time consumed by me old sawing process. A correspondent of the Scientific Ameri can tells of a free electrlo current he has been uslnp, as follows: "I was working on bell work In Tromont, N. Y., In a new building, and wis to find out where the trouble was which had Riven the men so much annoyance. Testing out, I got in cir cuit a Croton water load pipe and also a New York telephone lead cable, and to my surprise I received a current of six volts and about ton amperes. The current I found strong enough at times to run nn Kdison dental battery motor. Now I be lieve this lost current is coming from a trolley line In Its return circuit, or It may be the discovery of tapping the earth for current. I notice the current becomes stronger when a trolley car Is coming near, nlso that It Is a steady current night and day, ss I have the motor running all the time now." New and Old Wonders The seven world wonders of antiquity were: The Pyramids. Babylon's Gardens, Mall eolus' Tomb, the Temple of Diana, the Co lossus of Rhodes. Jupiter's Statue by Phi- -dlas. and the Phaios of Egypt, or, as some substitute, tbe Palace of Cyrus. The seven wonders of the middle ages were: The Coliseum of Rome, the Catacombs of Alexandria, the Great Wall of China, Btonehenge, tbe Leaning Tower of Pisa, the Porcelain Tower of Nankin and the Mosque of St. Sophia at Constantinople. How will these compare with the seven wonders of the modern world T Perhaps there may be a difference of opinion as re gards the latter-day wonders, but permit me to name these: The Steam Railroad, the Telegraph, the Telephone, the Wireless Telegraph, the Ocean Steamship, the Submarine Man-of-War and" the Airship. We of the new world have a few won ders, seven of which are: The Brooklyn bridge, the Underground railroad, including tunnels to Jersey City and Brooklyn; the Washington monument, tbe capltol at Washington, with its dome, weighing 8,000,000 pounds; the modern steel skyscraper, the Echo mountain searchlight of 275,000,000 candle-power, and the United States Steel corporation. We are speaking of things made by man; of those wonders given to us by God the seven are: Niagara Falls, the Mammoth cave. Old Faithful, the tireless geyser in Yellowstone park, the big trees (Sequoia) of California, the Grand canyon of the Colorado, the great fresh water lakes and the Great Bolt lake. New York Press.