TIIE OMAHA DAILY I.EE: TUESDAY. DECEMBER 8. 1003.
ration owes It very being, the veterans ferlng them Into service, and will pay dir
of th civil war. Bpelsl attcr.tlnn la aked consideration to that argument."
to the excellent work of the rnlon bureau I heartily congratulate the congress upon
In expediting and disposing of pennlnn the steady progresi In bulli'.lng up the
claims. During th n-nl yrsr ending Atneilren navy. We cannot afford a let-np
July 1. Iflr, the bureau settled ?I.nKl claims, in this great work. To atand atlll mean to
n average of S25 claims for each working i go back. There ahould be no cessation In
day of tho ycnr. The number of settle-
menta alnce July 1. 1903, haa been In -x-c'a
of Inat year'e average, approaching
1.000 claltna for each working day, and it
la believed that the work of the bureiu
will be current at the close of the present
flacai ' yea r.
Eateaslon of Civil Service Rales.
During the year ended June 30 laat 2E.B0S
peraona were appointed through competl
tlva examinations under the civil aervlce
rul-ss. Thla wu 12.ii72 more than during
the preceding year, and 40 per cent of those
who passed the examination. Thla ab
normal growth was largely occasioned by
the extension of classification to the rural
free delivery aervlpe and the appointment
laat year of over 9,000 rural carriers. A
revision of the civil service rules took ef
fect on April It laat, which baa greatly
Improved thetr operation. The completion
of the reform of the civil aervlce la recog-
niajd by good citizens everywhere aa a
matter ef the highest public Importance,
and the success of the merit system largely
dependa upon the effectiveness of the rules
and tbs machinery provided for their en
forcement. A t very gratifying spirit of
friendly co-operation exlsta In all the de
partments of the government In the en
forcement and Uniform observance of both
the letter and spirit of the civil aervlce
act. Executive orders of July 8, 1902; March
W, ISO, and July I. IWij, require that ap
pointments of all unclassified l.-iborena, both
In the departments at Washington and In
the field service, shall be made with the
assistance of the T'nlted States Civil Serv
ice commission, under a system of regis
tration to teat the relative fitness of ap
plicants for appointment or employment.
Thla system la competlve, and Is open to
all citizena of the I'nltsd States qualified
in reapect to age, physical ability, moral
character. Industry, and adaptability for
manual labor; except that In case of vet
erans of the civil war the element of age
Is omitted., This system of appointment in
distinct from the classified service and does
not classify positions of mere laborer under
the clvll-servlce act And rules. Regulations
In aid thereof have been put In operation
In aeveral of the departments and are being
gradually extended In' other parts of the
service. The results have been very satis
factory, aa extravagance has been checked
by decreasing the number of unnecessary
position and by Increasing ths efficiency
of the employes remaining.
Dlstrfat of CeJambla Charities.
Tbs congress, as the result of a thorough
Investigation of the charities and reforma
tory Institutions in ths Ijlstrlct of Colum-
la, by a joint select committee of the
two houses which made Its report In March,
ISM, created In the act approved June 6,
1900, a board of charities for the District
of Columbia, to consist of tlva residents
of ths District, appointed by the prrsldent
of the United States, by and wit a the Hd
vlce and consent of the senate, each for a
lerra oi inree years, to serve wunoui com
pensatlon. President McKlnley a ppolnted
five men who had been active nml promi
nent In the public tharltles of 'Washington,
all of whom upon taking oT.ce July 1, 1900,
resigned from the different charities with
which they had been connected. The mem
bers of the board hnve t een reappointed In
successive years. The board cava Its first
year to a careful and impartial study of
ths special problems before It, and bas
continued that itudy every year In the
light of ths best practice In publlo charities
elsewhere. Its recommendations In Its an
nual reports to the congress through ths
commissioners of ths District cf Columbia
"for the economical and efficient adminis
tration of ths charities snd reformatories
of tho District of Columbia," ss required
by the act creating It, have been based upon
ths principles commenod by the joint se
lect committee of the congress in Its re
port of March, 189S, and approved by the
best administrators of publlo charities, and
maka for the desired ystematlxatl)n and
Improvement of the affairs under Its super
vision. They are worthy of favorable con
sideration by ths congress,
,, vTka Jtravv . i '
' The effect of the laws providing a genet al
tail for the army and for the more effect
Ive use of ths national guard, haa teen ex
cellent. Great Improvement has been made
In ths efficiency of our army In recent
years. Such schools ns those ereciet. at
Fort Leavenworth and Fort lUley snd ths
Institution of fall maneuver work aceom-
pllsh satisfactory reaulta Ths good effect
of these maneuvers upon the national guard
la marked, and ample appi oprlatlon uhould
bs mads to enable ths gnanlMtnen of the
several states to share In the b-meflt. 7 he
government should as soon as possible e
cure suitable permanent cainp sites for
military maneuvers In ths various sections
of the country, Ths service thereby ten
dered not only to the regular army, but to
the national guard of ths several states,
will b so great as to repay many limes
over the relatively email expense. We
ahould not rest satisfied with what haa
been dona, however. The only people who
ars contented with a system of promotion
by mere seniority ars thoss who are con
tented with the trlumrh of medljcrlty over
exoallenoe. On the other hand u system
which encouraged ths exerouo of social or
political favoritism In pturoctl n would
bs even worse. But It would surely be
easy to devise a method of promotion from
(Tads to grade In wh'c.A ths .opinion of ths
higher officers of the servlse upon ths
candidates should be danslve- pon ths
standing and promotion of ths latter. Just
suoh a system now obtains at West Point.
The Quality of each year's work deter
mines ths standing of that year's claaa, the
man being dropped or graduated Into the
next class In ths relative position which
his military superiors decide to be war
ranted by his merit. In other wrrda,
ability, energy, fidelity, and all other simi
lar qualities determine ths rank cf a man
year after year In West Point, and his
standing In the army when he graduates
from West Point; but from that tlms on,
afl effort to find which man ta beat or
worst, and reward or punish him accord
ingly, la abandoned; no brilliancy, no
amount of hard work, no eagrnse In ths
performance of duty, rsn advance Mm, and
no slackness or indifference that falls
short of a court-martial offense ran retard
him. Until this system 1 -hanged ws can
not hops that our officers wtll bs of as high
grade as ws havs a light to expect, oon
- slderlng the material upon which ws draw.
Moreover, when a man rsnders such serv-.
Ice as Captain Pershing rendered laat
spring In ths Moro campaign, it ought to
be possible, to reward him wlth.-Mit at once
jumping him to ths "grade of brigadier
general. Ts Ravy.
Shortly after ths enunciation of that fa
moua principle of American foreign policy
now known aa the "Monroe' doctrine."
Prealdent Monroe, In a special meaaage to
conjreaa on January SO, 1824, spoke as fol
lows: "hs navy is the arm from which
our government will always dorlve most
sld In support of our rights. Every
power engaged In war will know the
strength of our naval power, the number
f our ships of each class, their condition
and the promptitude with which ws may
adding to the effective units of the fighting
rtrenath of the fleet. Meanwhile the Navy
department and the officers of the navy
are doing well their part by providing con
stant service at sea under conditions akin
to those of actual warfare. Our officers
and enlisted men are learning to handle
the battle ships, crut'era and torpedo boats
with high efficiency in fleet and squadron
formations, and the standard of marfcman
ahlp Is being steadily raised. The best
work ashors la lndl.pns?ble, but the high
est duty of n naval officer 1 to exercise
command at sea.
The establishment of a naval bane In the
Philippine ought not to be longer post
poned. Such a base la desirable In time of
peace; In time of war It would bo Indis
pensable, and Its lick would be ruinous.
Without It our fleet wouM be helpless.
Our naval experts are agreed that Bul l?
bay Is the proper place for the purposo.
The national Interests require that th
work of fortification and development of
a naval station at Sublg bay be begun nt
an early date, for under the best conditions j
It la a twork which will consume much
It Is eminently desirable, however, that
there should be provided n naval general
staff on lines similar to those of the gen
eral staff lately created for tho army.
Within the Navy department Itself the
needs of the servlc have brought about
a system under which the duties of a gen
eral staff are partially performed; for th
bureau of navigation has under Its direc
tion the war callage, the office of naval
Intelligence and the board of Inspection,
and has been In close touch with the gen
eral board of the navy. But though under
the excellent officers at their head these
boards and bureaus do good work, they
have not the authority of a general staff,
and have not sufficient scope to Insure n
proper reaClne for emergencies. We need
the establishment by law of a body of
trained officers, who shall exercise a sys
tematic control of the military affairs of
the navy, snd be authorized advisers of
the secretary concerning It.
1st km la a Canal.
By ths act of June ffl, 1902, the congress
authorized the president to enter Into
treaty with Colombia for the building of
the canal across the Isthmus of Panama,
It being provided that In the event or fail
ure to secure such treaty after the lapse
of a reasonable time, recourse ahould be
had to building a canal through Nicara
gua. It has not been necessary to con
sider this alternative, as I am enabled to
lay before the aenate a treaty providing for
the building of the "anal across the Isth
mus of 1'anama. This was the route which
commended Itself to the deliberate judg
ment of the congress, snd we can now ac
quire by treaty the right to construct the
canal over this route. The question now,
therefore. ' te not by which route the Isth
mian canal shall be built, for that ques
tion has been definitely and Irrevocably
decided. The question Is simply whether
or not we shall have an Isthmian canal.
When the congress directed that we
should take ths rauama routs under
treaty with Colombia, the essence of the
condition, of course, referred not to the
government which controlled that route,
but to the route Itself; to the territory
across which the route lay, not to the
name which for the moment the territory
bore on the map. The purpose of the law
was to authorise the president to make a
treaty with the power In actual control
of the Isthmus of Panama. This purpose
has been fulfilled.
Some Isthmian History.
In the yesr 1818 this government entered
Into a treaty' with New Granada, ths prede
cessor upon me isthmus of ths Republic
of Colombia and of thb preaent Republlo
of Panama, by which treaty It was pro?
vkied that the government and clttxena of
the United States should alwsys havs free
and open right-of-way or transit across
the Isthmus of Panama by any modes of
communication that might be constructed,
while in return our government guaran
teed the perfect neutrality of the above
mentioned isthmus, with ths view that the
free transit from the Ons to ths other sea
might not . be Interrupted or embarrassed
The treaty vested In tho United States a
substantial property right carved out of
the rights, of sovereignty and property
whloh New Granada then had and dos-
sessed over the said territory. The name
of New Granada has passed away, and Its
territory has been divided. Its successor.
ths government of Colombia, has ceased to
own sny property In the Isthmus. A new
republic, that of Panama, which was at
one tlms a sovereign state, and at another
time a mere department of the successive
confederations known ss New Granada and
Colombia, has now succeeded to the rights
which first one and then the other for
merly exercised over the Isthmus. But ss
long aa ths Isthmus endures, the mere geo
graphical fact of Its existence, and the
peculiar Interest therein which Is required
Dy our position, perpetuate the solemn con
tract which binds ths holders of ths ter
ritory to respect our right to freedom cf
transit across It, and binds us In return
to safeguard for the Isthmus and ths world
ths exercise of that Inestimable m-ivilere.
The true Interpretation of the obligations
upon which the United States entered In
this treaty of 1S4 has been given repeat,
edly In ths utterances of presidents and
secretaries or state.
Posit Is a of the Government.
Secretary Caaa In 185S officially stated
the position of this government as follows
"Ths progress of svents has rendered ths
Int-iroceanlo route across the narrow por
tion of Central America vastly Important
to ths commercial world, and especially to
tbe United States, whose possessions ex
tend along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
and demand the speediest and eaalest modes
of communication. While the rights of
sovereignty of the states occupying this
region should always bs respected, ws shall
expec( thait these rights bs exorcised In a
spirit befitting the occasion and the wants
and circumstances that have arisen. Sov
ereignty has Us duties as well ss Its rights,
and nons of these local governments, evert
If administered with more regard to the
just demands of other nations than they
havs been, would be permitted. In a spirit
of eastern Isolation, to close the gates of
Intercourse on the great hlghwaya of ths
world, and justify the act by the pretension
that these avenuea of trade and travel
belong to them and that they choose to
ahut them, or, what Is almost equivalent,
to encumber them with such unjust rela
tions aa would prevent their general use."
Seven years later. In 1&U6. Mr. Seward In
different communications took the follow
"Ths United Statea have taken and will
take no Interest In any question of Internal
revolution In the State of Panama, or any
stats of ths United States of Colombia, but
will maintain a perfect neutrality In con
nection with such domestic altercations.
The United States will, nevertheless, hold
hold themselves ready to protect the tran
sit trade across ths Isthmus sgalnst in
vasion of either domestic or foreign dis
turbers of tbs peaoe of the State of Pun
ama. Neither the text nor the
spirit of the stipulation In that article by
which ths United States engages to pre
serve the neutrality of the Iathmus of
Panama, Imposes an obligation on this gov
ernment to comply with ths requisition (of
the president of the United States of Co
lombia for ft force to protect the Isthmus
of Panama from a body of Insurgents of
that country). The purpose of the stipu
lation was to guarantee the Isthmus against
eel sure or Invasion ! a foreign power
Attorney General Speed, under date of
November 7, 18K5. advised Secretary Sew
ard as follows:
"From this treaty It cannot be supposed
that New Granada Invited the Unltel
States to biome a pm ty to the Internecine
troubles of that government, nor did the
United Statea become bound to take sides
In the rtomertlc broil of New Granada.
The United States did guarantee New
Granada In the sovereignty and property
over the territory. This was as against
other and foreign governments."
Pl.'.n of Centuries.
For four hundred yesr, ever since shortly
sfter the discovery of this hemisphere,
the canal across the Isthmus has te-n
planned. For two score years It haa len
worked at. When mado It Is to Inst for the
ages, it In to alter the geography of a
continent and. the trade routes of the world.
We have shown by every treaty we have
negotiated or attempted to negotiate with
the peoples In control of the Isthmus and
with foreign nations In reference thereto
our consistent good faith In observing our
obligations; on the one hand to the peo
ples of the Isthmus, and on the other hand
to the civilised world whose commercial
rights we are safeguarding and guaran
teeing by our action. We have done our
duty to others In letter and In spirit, and
we have shown the utmost forbearance In
exacting our own rights.
Repudiation of Treaty by Colombia.
Last spring, under the act above re
ferred to, a treaty concluded between the
representatives of the Republic of Colom
bia and of our -government was ratified by
the senate. This treaty was entered Into at
the urgent solicitation of the people of
Colombia and after a body of experts ap
pointed by our government especially to go
Into the matter of the routes across ths
Isthmus had pronounced unanimously in
favor of the Panama route. In drawing up
this, treaty every concession was made to
the peopli- and to the government of Co
lombia. We were more than just In deal
ing with them. Our generosity was such
as to make It a serious question whether
we had not gone too far in their Inter
est at the expense of our own; for In our
scrupulous desire to pay all possible heed.
not 'merely to the real but even to the
fancied rights of our weaker neighbor, who
already owed so much to our protection
and forbearance, we yielded In all possible
ways to tier desires In drawing up the
treaty. Nevertheless the government of
Colombia not merely repudiated the treaty,
but repudiated It In such manner as to
make It evident by the time the Colombian
congress adjourned that not the acantlest
hope remained of ever getting a satisfac
tory treaty from them. The government
of Colombia made the treaty, and yet when
the Colombian congress waa called to rat
ify It the vote against ratification was
unanimous. It does not appear that ths
government made sny real effort to secure
Ererjr woman cotcu a
shapely, pretty figure, and
many of them deplore ths
lost ot heir girlish forms
iter marriage. The bearing
of children U often destructive
to the mother's shapeliness.
- All of this can be avoided,
however, by the use of Mother's Friend before baby comes, as this
great liniment always prepares the body for the strain upon it, and
preserves the symmetry of her form. Mother's Friend overcomes all the
danger of child-birth, and carries the expectant mother safely through'
this critical period without pain. It is woman's greatest blessing.
Thousands gratefully tell of the benefit and. relief derived from the
Ose of this wonderful
book, telling all about
this liniment, will be sent free.
Hi Br3sf.6li) Re.tUtsr Ca AK..11, Ca.
Rcrolntloa la Panama.
Immediately after the adjournment cf
the congress a revolution Lroke out in
Panama. The people of Panama had long
been discontented with the Republlo of
Colombia, and they had been kept quiet
only by the prospect of the conclusion of
the treaty, which was to thsm a matter of
vital concern. When It became Wldent
that the treaty was hopelessly loat, the
people of Panama rose literally as one
man. Not a shot was fired by a single man
on tne isthmus In ths Interest of the Co.
lomblan government. Not a Ufa was lost
In ths accomplishment of the revolution.
Ths Colombian troops stationed on the
Isthmus, who had long been unpaid, mads
common cause with ths people of Panama,
and with astonishing unanimity ths new
republlo was started. .. The duty of the
United St ilea In tho premises was' clear.
In strict accordance with the principles
laid down-by Secretaries Cass and Seward
In ths cfllclal documents abovs quoted, the
United States gavs notice that It would
permit- ths landing of no expeditionary
force, . ths arrival of .which-would mean
chaos and destruction along the line ot
ths railroad and of the proposed canal.
and an Interruption of transit as an in
evitable consequence. Ths defacto govern
ment of Panama was recognised in the
following telegram to Mr. Bhrman:
"The people of Panama have, by appar
antly unanimous movement, dissolved their
political connection with the Republlo of
Colombia and resumed their independence.
When you are satisfied that a de facto
government, republican In form and with
out substantial opposition from Its own
people, has been established In the state
of Panama, you will enter Into relations
with it as the responsible government of
the territory snd look to It for all dus
action to protect the persons and property
of citizens of the United States and to
keep open the Isthmian transit. In accord
ance, with the obligations or existing trea
ties governing the relations of ths United
Statea to that territory."
The government of Colombia was notified
of our action by ths following telegram to
"Tho people of Panama having, by an
apparently unanimous movement, dis
solved their political connection with the
Republic of Colombia and resumed their
Independence, and having adopted a gov.
ernment or tnelr own. republican in form,
with which the government of the United
Estates of America haa entered Into rela
tions, the president of the United States,
In sccordance with the ties of friendship
which hsvs so long and so hanrrtlv existed
between ths respective nations, most earn
estly commends to the governments of
Colombia and of Panama the peaceful and
equiiBDie settlement or all questions nt
Issue between them. He holds that he is
nouna not merely by treaty obligations,
but by the Interests of civilisation, to see
that the peaceful trafflo of the world across
the Isthmus of Panama shall not longer
be disturbed by a co-.stant succession of
unnecesrary and wasteful civil wsrs."
Disturbances en Isthmus Mines 1840.
When these events happened. Cfty-revon
years had elapsed sines ths United f'tates
Haa entered Into Its treaty with New Gra
nada. During that time tha governments of
new uranaaa and of Its successor, Colom.
bla, havs beeen In a constant state of flux.
Jhs following Is a partial list of tha die.
turbances on ths Isthmus of Panama dur.
Ing the period In question aa renorted to
us by our consuls. It Is not possible to give
a complete list, snd soms of the reports
that apeak of "revolutions" must mean un
..V V.V '"'-Outbreak; two Americans
kiiipu. vnr vessel aemanded to quell out
October, 1SC0 -Revolutionary plot to bring
about independence nt the lsthmna
July K. 1S61 Revolution In four southern
J I tj V ( .
November 14. 1851. Outbreak at Chagrea
Man-of-war reuueeted for ( h
June 17. 1S53. Insurrection at Bogota, snd
conaequent disturbance on Iathmus War
May 'a. ISM Political disturbances. War
June 28, 1K54 AttemDted revolution
October U, 1854. Independence of Isthmus
ueiuauuru oy provincial legislature.
April, ISiS. Riot, and maasacrs of Amr-
May 4. 185fl Riot.
May 18, Ubd. Hlot.
June 3. 1 KM. Riot.
October X lNoti. Conflict between two na
tive parties. United Statea forrea lanrfxl
December 18. 168. Attempted secession of
September. IWjO Outbreak.
Octobt-r 4. ISM. Landing of United States
forces In consequence.
May IS. 10a. Intervention of ths United
States fifrces required by Intendente.
October f. UaX Insurrection and civil
April 4. 1W Measures to prevsnt rebels
June IS. uttii Mosquera's troops refused
admittance lo P-vnama.
March. lStxi. devolution, and United
cuiies iroo landed.
August. !&. Riots; unsuccessful attempt
iu mvauv ranama.
Starch. 1-xit Unsuccessful revolution.
April, 1W7 Attempt to overthrow govern
August. 1367 AtlemDt at revolution.
July 6, lt68 Revolution; provisional gov
August 'i, 1M8 Revolution; provisional
April, 1871 Revolution; followed appar
any Dy counter revolution.
April, 1873 Revolution and civil wa
which lasted to October. 1B7&.
An-rv-v ItCS ClvU wajr whloh lasted an til
December, 17 Revolt.
April, 17 Revolution.
June. 187 Revolution.
Mav, 18S.1 Riot.
June. UW Revolutionary attempt.
December 1 Revolutionary attempt.
Junuarv, 1W5 Revolutionary disturbances.
March," IS Revolution.
April, 1RS7 Disturbance on Panama rail
road. November, 18S7 Disturbance on 11ns of
January. 1R1& Revolution which lasted
Marr-h. 1H Tn'-endlsry attempt.
October, 1W Revolution.
February, 1900, to Julv. IMP Revolution.
January. 1 1 Revolution.
Julv, 1ni Revolutionary disturbances.
September, lnl City of Colon taken by
March. 1902 Revolutionary disturbances.
July, 19D2 Revolution.
Only a Partial Mat.
The above Is only ft partial list of the
revolutions, rebellions. Insurrections, riots
nd other outbreaks that have occurred
urine the period In question; yet they
umber fifty-three for the fifty-seven years.
It will be noted that one of them .lasted
for nearly three years before it was
quelled; anotner lor nearly a year, in nioii,
the experience of over naif a century nas
hown Colombia to he utterly incapaDte or
keeping ordr on the Isthmus. Only the
ctlve Interference or tne united amies
has enabled her to preserve so much as a
semblance jat sovereignty. Had It not been
for the exercise by, the United States of
the rollce oower In her Interest, her con
nection with the Isthmus would have been
sundered long ago. In IK, In 1S80. In 1878.
In lR8i. In 1901 and again In 1908 sailors and
marines from United States warships were
fnroed to land In order to patrol the istn-
mus, to protect life and property and to see
hat tho transit across rne lPtnmus was
Vent ..nren. In 1W1. In 18RZ. in 1!Q& ana in
lfloo th Colombian government asked that
he United States government would lann
troops to protect Its Interests and maintain
order on the Iathmus.
Colombia's latest Offer.
Perhsns the most extraordinary request
Is that which has rusi oeen receivea ana
nrhlrh runs BS follows:
'Knowing that revolution haa sireany
commenced In Panama (an eminent Colom
bian) ssys that If the government or tne
t'nlted States will land troops to preserve
Colombian sovereignty, and the transit.
If requested by Colombian charge d'af
faires, th Is government win declare martial
law; and, by virtue of vested constitutional
authority when nubile order Is disturbed.
will approve by decree the ratification of
the canal treaty as signed: or, ir tne gov
ernment of the United States prefers, will
call extra session of the congress with
new and friendly members next May to
annrove the treaty. (An eminent Colom
blan) has tho perfect confidence of vice
president, he siys. and If ir became neces
sary will go to ths Isthmus or send repre
sentative there to sdlust matters along
above lines to the satisfaction of the people
This dispatch Is noteworthy from two
standpoints. Its offer of Immediately
guaranteeing the treaty to ua Is In sharp
contrast with the positive and contemptu
otis refusal of the congress which has Just
closed Its sessions to ronslder favorably
such a treaty: it shows that the government
which made the treaty really had absolute
control over the slttmtlon, but did not
choose to exercise this control. The dls
patch further calls on ua to restore order
and secure Colombian supremacy In the
Isthmus from which the Colombian govern
ment has Just by Its action decided to bar
us by preventing the construction of the
Importance to t'nlted Statea.
Ths control. In the Interest of the com
meres and traffic of the whole civilized
world, of ths means of undisturbed transit
across the Isthmus of Panama has become
of transcendent Importance to the United
States. Ws have repeatedly exercised this
control by Intervening In the course of
domestlo dissension, and by protecting the
territory from foreign invasion. In 1851 Mr.
Everett assured the Peruvian mJnlstea-that
wo should not hesitate to maintain the
neutrality of the isthmus In the case of
war between Peru and 'Colombia. In 1864
Colombia, which has always been vigilant
to avail Itself of Its privileges conferred by
tha treaty, expressed ns expectation that
In the event of war between Paru and
Spain tho United' Stares' would carry Into
effect the guaranty of neutrality. There
have been few administrations of the State
department In which thla treaty has not,
either by ths one side or the other, been
used as a basis of more or less Important
demands. It waa said by Mr. Fish In 1S71
that ths Department of State had reason to
believe that an attack upon Colombian
sovereignty on tho isthmus had, on several
occasions,- been averted by warning from
this government. In 1888, when Colombia
was under ths menace of hostilities from
Italy In ths Cerruti case, Mr. Bayard op
pressed tho serious concern that tho United
States could not but feel that a European
power should resort to force sgalnst a sla
ter republlo of this hemisphere, as to ths
sovereign snd uninterrupted use of a part
of whose territory ws ars guarantors under
ths solemn faith of a treaty.
Establishes by Facts.
The above recital of facts establishes be
yond question: First, that tho United
States has for over half a century patiently
and In good faith carried out Ita obliga
tions tinder the treaty of 1S46; second, that
when for the first time It became possible
for Colombia ' to do anything In requital
of the services thus repeatedly rendered
to it for fifty-seven years by ths United
States, the Colombian government peremp
torily and offensively refused thus to do
Its part, even though to do so would have
been to Ita advantage and Immeasurably
to the advantage of the State of Panama,
at that tlms under Its Jurisdiction; third,
that throughout this period revolutions,
riots and factional disturbances of every
kind have occurred one after the other In
almost uninterrupted succession, soms of
them lasting for months and even for
years, while the central government was
unable to put them down or to make peace
with ths rebels; fourth, that these disturb
ances, Instead of ahowlng any sign of
abating, have tended to grow mors numer
ous and more serious In the immediate
past; fifth, that the control of Colombia
over the Iathmus of Panama could not be
maintained without the armed Intervention
and assistance of the United States. In
other words, the governmert of Colombia,
though wholly unnble to maintain order on
ths isthmus, haa nevertheless declined to
ratify a treaty the conclusion ot which
opened ths only chance to secure Its own
stability and to guarantee permanent peace
on, and the conatructloij ot a canal across,
Only Trao Conrso.
Under such circumstances ths govern
ment of the United States would havs been
gutlty of folly and weakness, amounting
In their sum to a crime agalnat the nation,
bad It acted otherwise than It did when
ths revolution of November 8 lsst took
place In Panama. This great enterprise of
building ths lnteroceanlo canal cannot bs
held up to gratify the whims, or out of
respect to the governmental Impotence, or
to the even mors sinister snd evil political
peculiarities of people who, though they
dwell afar off, yet against the wish of ths
actual dwellers on the isthmus assert an
unreal supremacy over the .territory. The
possession or a territory fraught with such
peculiar capacltlea aa the Isthmus In ques
tion carries with It obligations to man
kind. The course of events has shown
thst this canal cannot bs built by private
enterprise, or by sny other nation than
our own: therefore It must bo built by ths
Every effort has been made by ths gov
ernment of the United States to persuade
Colombia to follow a course which was
essentially not only to our Interests and
to tho interests of ths world, but to ths
interests of Colombia Itself. These efforts
havs failed; and Colombia, by her per
sistence In repulsing ths advances that
havs been insds, has forced us, for ths
saks of our own honor, and of ths Interest
nd well-being, not merely of our own
people, but of ths peopls of ths Isthmus
of Panama and ths peopls of tho civilised
countries of tbs world, to take decisive
stsps to bring to an end a condition of
affairs which had become intolerable. The
new Republic of Panama Immediately of
fered to negotiate a treaty with ua This
treaty I herewith submit. By it our In
t (treats are better safeguarded than In ths
treaty with Colombia, which was ratified
by ths sanato at its last session. It ta
tetter la lis term thaa ths treatise cX-
Test for Yourself the Wonderful
Curative Properties of Swamp-Root
To Prove What Swamp-Root, the World-Famous Kidney, Liver nttd Bladder
Remedy, Will do for YOU, Every Reader of The Daily Bee
May Have a Sample Bottle FREE. '
I I .:.': ' : ' . i,rr . -f T;;.- . . . . Ill ill - "V.'.-T s.'ff'ia W
A ' ..rv'a ' J I!
- " f : t .111
Vni WILLIAM MOORE, II
L CMirr -J
4 :.. "";-:V -
M W. HE
tW JV. H.FREDENBURG.MJC "
JAj7 L 1QUN O B M A IM. Jw
Gentlemen: Home two years ago I was so run down that I lacked strength, had no appetite
and could not sleep nights. Sometimes it seemed as though my back would break in two after
stooping. I had to get up many times during the night to urinate and go often through the day.
After having thie best physicians prescribe for me without relief, I decided from my symptom3
that the medicine I needed was Dr. Kilmer's Swamp-Iioot,' the great kidney, liver and bladder
remedy. After trying a sample bottle with good results, I purchased six bottles of the regular
size and after taking them was entirely cured. Swamp-Root is a wonderful remedy when a man
is not feeling well, after exposure or Iors of sleep and irregular meals. It is also a great medicine
to tone up a man's system. Other members of the Police force are using ,and recommending
Swamp-Root. They, like myself, cannot say too much in praise of this great remedy.
The Officers (whose signatures accompany this letter), as well as myself, thank you for the
good you have accomplished in the compounding of Swamp-Root. v
We remain; yours very truly, .
To Dr. Kilmer & Co.,
BlnKlinmton, X. T.
SXsC- J'o-tn Chief of Police.
Officers of the niivKhamton, X. Y., I'ollce Dopartrnent,
If j-on are sick or "feci badly," bepln taklrtft the famous ; tlurlnst the nlfiht. (Unhealthy kidneys cause rheumaOsm.
new discovery, Dr. Kilmer's Rwnmp-Root. because as r oon j Gravel, catarrh of the bladder. . pn in or dull ache in tho
as your kidneys are gottin totter, they will help nil thcl. J"'"" J'Mi1 '
i-ther or etuis to health. A trial will convince anyone.
Weak and unhealthy kidneys are responsible for more
sickness and suffering than any other disease, therefore,
when . through neglect or ether causes, kidney trouble lt
permitted to continue fatal results are sure to follow. Kid
ney trouble Irritates the nerves, makes you dizzy, restless,
sleepless and Irritable. Makes you pass water often
through the day and obliges you to get up many times
ache, causes Ir.dljrcstlon. rtomaeh and liver trouble; you
got a hallow, yellow romplerion. makes you reei as wougn
yon bad heart trouble: you may fcavo plenty of ambition,
but no strength; gt weak and weste away.
Swaiup-Koot !s pleasant to take and Is used In the lead
ing (hospitals, recommended by vhyslcians in their private
practice and is taken by doctors themselves, because they
recognise in It tiie greatest and most successful remedy
that has ever been dircovered.
EDITORIAL NOTICE Kwamp-Koot. the great kidney, liver iintl Madder remudy, la so smarkably i,cctssful that R
special arrangement has been made by which nil of our readers who have not already tried it may have a Bamplo
bottle sent absolutely free by mall. - Also a bdok tellinjr nil about kidney and bladder troubles and containing many of
the thousands upon thousands of testimonial letters received from men und women cured by Kwamp-Koot. In writing
be sure and mention that you read thla generous offer In Tho Omaha Dally Bee vhen ecrdlng your address to Dr.
Kilmer Co., Blng'iw niton, N. Y. " -
If you are already convinced that Swainji-Itoot Is what you need, you can purchase the regular flfty-cent and one
dollar size bottles at the drug stores everywhere. Don't make any mistake, but remember the name, Kwamp-Koot Dti
Kilmer's Hwamp-Root, and .'the address, Blughnmtou, X. Y., on every bottle. t
ill m Pm mMM)) tcli Lf& Pti
1 w $mm) wm tr ft Am f wm ft
fered to us by the Republics of Nlcarausra
and Costa Rlra. At laat the right to bogln
thla great undertaking; la mod available.
Panama has done her part. All that re
mains la for the American consress to do
Ita part and forthwith this republic will
enter upon the execution of a project
colossal in Ita site and of well-nlirh Incal
culable possibilities for the good of this
country and the nations of mankind.
Treaty with Paasma,
By the provisions of the trety the
United States guarantees and will maintain
the Independence of the Republic of Pan
ama. There la (ranted to the United States
In perpetuity the use, occupation and con
trol of a atrip ten miles wide and extend
ing three nautical iniiea Into the sea at
either terminal, with all lands lying; out
side of the sone necessary for the con
struction of the canal or for Ita auxiliary
works, and with the ialands In the Bay of
Panama. The citiea of Panama, and Colon
are not embraced In the canal tone, but
the United Etates aasumca their sanitation
and. In case of need, the maintenance of
order therein; the (United Statea enjoya
within the (ranted limits all the rights.
power and authority which It would possess
were It the sovereign of the territory to
the exclusion of the exercise of sovereign
lights by the republic. All railway and
canal property rights belonging to Panama
and needed for the canal paaa to the United
States, including any property of the re
spective companies In the cities of Panama
and Colon: the worka, property, and per
aonnel of the canal and railways are ex
empted from taxation as well In the cities
of Panama and Colon aa In the canal sone
and Its dependencies. Free immigration
of the personnel and importation of sup
plies for the.construction and operation
of the canal ore granted. Provision Is
made for the use of military force and
tha building of fortilratlons by the United
Statea for the protection of the transit.
In other details, particularly as to the
acquisition of the Interests of the New
Panama Canal company and the Panama
raJlway by the United States and the
condemnation of private property for the
uses of the caual. the stipulations of the
Hay-Herran treaty are closely followed,
while the compensation' to be given for
Jthet euitrged grants remains the same.
"Tear nr. i out'
'I am good lor 10 cents"
ii i sm i saiiai a sisal iMiirTi-sWsTTrirrn
10 Fa?es of Text 33 In Color
100 Dlustratlons 13 Short Stories
Mil wrwi-STins. rucr :
; IS CtatsH
"I Can't Go
VT9 such a terrible headache," Deed
nevch be said again. Dr. Miles' Antl
l'nin nils quickly care and positively
prevent headache and all bodily pain. No
opiates, non-laxative, never sold In bulk.
Guaranteed. All druggists. 13 doaea ti cenus
Vl MILKS MEU1CAU CO., IC'.kUart, lad.
being ten millions of dollars, payable on
exchange of ratifications; and, beginning
nine years from that date, an annual pay
ment of flSO.OOO during the life of the con
vention. THEODORE ROOSEVELT.
White House, I.'ecember I, Uut,
The Only Doubl
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