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TOT. OMAHA. DAILY BEE: srXPAV. Amil. 18. 11M15.
In the Field of Electricity Niagara aa Mon- Mukfr. I HE f ,': ilh which state lcgisl.i- t n its and city government grant franchises of grrat value with out compensation Is a subject of comment and criticism far from creifiiable to thi American system of gov ernment. Nearly fifteen years ago the state r,f New York granted the first fran c III.- fur utilizing the wat r power of Niagara fallH, resulting lii the development of fleet rle power of far greater commercial value than was considered possible at that time. iJefendcra of the free franchise sys tem in this cane point to the benefit! con ferred on the community In Industrial prog ress, and the great advantages nearby communities, such as liuffalo, dcrivo from cheaper power us sufficient compensation for the privilege granted. The argument serves its purpose In soothing discontent largely because the public has no immedi ate remedy. Our easy give-away methods, as Illustrated nt Niagara falls, serves to make a sharp contract with the methods of the Canadian authorities In driving a bargain with electrical power companies on the Canada side of the falls. The nineteenth annual report of the com missioners of Victoria paik, the. free plena urn ground on the Canadian sldo at Ni agara, has mil "h In it of Interest to the industrial d-jl elopment on the New Yolk Sr"i lion about the fall of Niagara, as well aa to the I'rovlnce of Ontario. In fact, the showing it makes as to what great power companies can afoid to pay for the rights to develop power from a stream la of iltal concern to every section of the country where water powers uro available for de velopment. Tho Cunadian Niagara Power company has paid the commissioners the surprising sum of $24,G77."s, and today has only 30,'spi) horse-power available, its Initial generator having been started on January 2 lust. In time it will have ll',0"0 horse power, but in addition to its annual rental it wilt have to pay a tax on every lioise powcr developed abovt 10,00. Tho Ontario Tower company, the second to secure rights in the park, but which has no pawer yet developed, has paid 1 W.0's to tliw commissioners. The Ontario Power company has located its power house at the water's edge In the gorge, ami will develop M),lio horse-power, the first of which will probably be ready for use this , slimmer.,' The Klectrlcal Development company of Ontario, limited, has paid $'1,0" to the commissioners, and its tunnel and wheel pit arc now being lined. It will be the latter part of the present or the first of the next year before It will have power for aula. Thus, the power companies have paid 3tH,777.7R to the commissioners, and are not yet utilizing the services of the rights they piirchaHed. Since It was started, the elec tric railway that runs through the park has paid them no less than JliC'.Mn, while the photographic privilege bus contributed 1103,70". Added to this amount we have the amounts paid for the other concessions, and it is found that the commissioners have received a revenue of $tiJo,777.7l from the privileges granted, nil but one having to do with the use or development of elec trical power In the park. Blmtlur privilege on the American i-Ule pay nothing. Standardising Klectrlcal Machinery. At u meeting of the Institution of Klec tricul Engineer in London, the other day, K. II. Itayncr submitted a paper, communi cated by Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, F. R. 8., re porting on temperature experiments on electrical materials curried out ut the Na tional Physical laboratory. The Investiga tions described In tho paper, summarized by the Huston Trunscript, were undertaken ut the request of a subcommittee of the Engi neering Standard'! committee. In gtandard iziag, electrical , nmc,hlncri tv , tempera ture af which It la permissible to run the machinery Is an Importunt factor, and the committee wished detailed information us to the value that It would be right to give in their regulations for this temperature. This temperature clearly depends on the properties of tho Insulating materials used In the coils of the muchines, such as cotton, varnish, press-spnhn ami the like, and a.s the object was to investigate the electrical and mechanical properties of these sub stances at the normal temperature, and ut various high temperatures, temperatures of about 75 degrees, lol) degrees und I2T de grees C. were selected, and the materials which were supplied to the committee by the firms using them, were exposed for some three months to these temperatures. The dl-electric und resistance properties were measured in the usual way, nnd the results are shown in the tables accompany ing the paper. To measure the mechanical properties, the force required to punch he materials with a punch having h circumference of one-half Inch was carefully measured, and the ef fect of bending the materials round cylin ders of gradually decreasing radius was also observed. In this way an estimate was formed of the reliability of the various materials used, und It appeurs from the tables that most of the properties except, perhaps, the llexlbllity, ure improved by heating at 7!S degrees, that the fall. If any, in the insulating properties is not marked nt ion degrees, but when temperatures of 125 degrees are vouched the mechanical properties In most cases show grave de terioration. It would appeal' from tho re sults thut temperuturc of from 100 degrees to 110 degrees may be employed in the ma chinery without i ink. Durlnir the course of the Investigation several Interesting revolts as to tho effect of moisture on these materials were observed, and Mr. Rayner was uble to show un ex periment Illustrating the changes that take place In the Insulating properties of cotton as the moUtur Is driven out and the cotton llnully carbonized. For the purposes of the committee it was nul sufficient to know what teniperututrs the muterlul used, would stgml, but. In addition, the actual temper, ture that mlglit be rsuehed at any point if the machine required Investigation. There are vurlnus means of measuring avrrago temperature of th Held coll of a dynamo, but very tittle Information was available to determine by how much the temperature at any one point might exceed the uverag. To determine the temperuture at various points within such colls, tlicrmo-Juiicllons and lion-euieka wire were Inserted, and Mr. Ha) tier was thus aula In plot the tempera ture curve throughout the substance of the coll. The rolls were in all rasea run ut the National Physical laboratory. They were then taken to the makers' works and a further series of Investigations of tempera ture, distribution, etc.. were made with the coll on the machines running under vatlous conditions of load. The mean temperature of the coils Is determined by their electrical lesistanc. and thus It is possible to tabu late series of pellicular giving among oilier information the differences between the maximum temperature obtained at any one point In the coil and the mean tem peruture. The maximum difference varies considerably with the conditional of work ing, but it would appear that It rarely ex ceeds ii degreea C. The results achieved will, it la hoped, enable the engineering Ptandards committee to specify the condi tions of tests (or motors and generators In the future. A aeries of testa surh as those described could only be carried out by the co-operation of a central Institution such as the National Physical laboratory and the various makers who have supplied the ma chinery, and any value that the tests may have Is greatly Increased by this co-operation. New York's Mglit Signs. Tirnadway Is made uncommonly brilliant at night by electric lights. There I nothing to equal this show In any other city In the world. The electric signs play a big part In making Broad way the brightest street In the world at night. Yet appearances are deceptive regard ing these electric lights. They are ac conspicuous, ao eye-filling, that there ap pear to be many more than there really are. On llroadway between Twenty-third und Forty-fifth streets there are about fifty signs, averaging about two to a block. You'd think there were five times that number, ao assertively do they atare and glare at you from everywhere. They se em to take up so much space, to be ao ever present. Not only ere the signs fewer than they nppe.ir to be at a Blanco, but the number of Incandescent lights used In them will strike the layman r.s being surprisingly small. Instead of a myriad of the small globes, there are in reality only S.CKif) In round numbers In the signs In the terri tory. Hlx thousand of these are In the ater signs alone. The biggest elcctrle sign In the world sends a Hood of light to tln westward from one of the ts 11 buildings below Four teenth street. It Is visible from Newark. Tho first letter of the sign Is sixty feet high and the others fifty feet, and there are nine letters. And yet there ure only l.:00 individual lamps hi the whole sign. Moreovor, the lamps are very small. Kach Is orly four randle power. These small globes have hern found to work bet ter In this particular sign than globes of sixteen candle power. The expense of maintaining the gigantic sign Is only $1 nightly. One district of electric lighting takes In that part of the city between Eighth and Fifty-ninth street and from liver to river. About :S0,OuO globes ure used for the signs In the whole district. There are something; over Ltwl signs In. the district. The large display for the small number of lamps Is a striking feature. No less conspicuous than the signs them selves are the many forms they take, ad mitting a wide ranye of decorative efferts from plain to fancy. The talking sign, where the light runs along from letter to letter is worked by means of perforated rolls on cylinders, the mechanism being run by o small motor and doing the light ing of tho required Idlers automatically. Wireless In a Home. A New York electrical engineer has equipped his home with a miniature wire less telegraph system with which ho com municates all his wishes from the dining room to the kitchen. On the dining room table Is a dr.inty transmitter and pole con nected by a flexible cord with a battery tinder the table, and In the kitchen Is an other transmitter and receiver connected with nn electric bell. The transmitters are no larger than ordinary paper weights. Messages are transmitted from dining room to the kitchen through the walls, und the bell lings, and through the agency of a simple system of signals anything desired lii the dining room can be called for. Another Kleetrle Lamp. Although the world has hud at least two fairly satisfactory means of utilizing elec tricity for purpose of Illumination for at least a quarter of u century, inventors hive long felt that perfection had not been reached. New types of apparatus are being devised from time to time, and It Is evident that evolution Is still In progress. The latest candidate for favor has made Its appearance in Berlin, and It was de scribed before a technical society in that city only a few days ago, Hcglnnlng where his predecessors left off. Fays the New York Tribune, F.dlsnn first attempted to make a durulile lamp In which tho glowing filament consisted of platinum. Not until he substituted carlion for that I material did he accomplish much. Never theless, u number of subsequent experi ments have been made with metals. It was reported u few years ago, for In stance, that osmium, which is closely re lated to platinum, had been successfully trlod, but as nothing more has been heard of the mutter It is probable thut the an nouncement was premature. Cooper Hewitt, It will le remembered, uses an other metal, mercury, converting It into vapor before producing incandescence, in the Nernst lamp, which originated In Ger many, light Is derived from a tiny rod of magnesium thut is heated by the current passing through It. The Invention which Is now attracting in the rame country und which la the work of electrician named Hnlton and Feaerleiu, also represents a recurrence to mctul, but uuoxldiztfd and In a solid form. Tantalum, which is sixteen times as heavy as water, has been adopted. Owing to Its high conductivity it has been found Impracticable to make the nlanit.nt less than twu fret long, but as the thread can be conveniently colled into a aplial. no more space la required thuu la afforded by tho Edison bulb. Th muet thut can be said in behalf of the tantalum lamp ut present Is thst U yields mors light for tho same amount of current than does onu of the old kind. In this respect Its ethclency is twice thai of the established favorite. It appears to be no more durable, however, Its construc tion is more complicated and the first ciuu At Peep of Mom I us-TC'l ITH hunger unborn He tempts his appetite With.Armoiirs "Star" Ham, Cooked just right V "Just right" means a slice of the juicy ham done to a turn with fresh eggs fried to your liking, tastefully garnished, and served sizzling hot. , Armours "Star" "the ham of hams," carefully selected, scien tifically cured -always of uniform, superior quality. To insure getting Armours ask the grocer to show you the star burned in the skin. Nothing finer produced than Armours Sliced "Star" Ham and Bacon neatly packed in 1 lb. tins. Convenient economical. So trimmed that all wast is removed, and me chanically sliced much thinner than can be done by hand. THE HAH WHAT AM" msiirirBoss Every woman covets a bhapely, pretty figure, and many of them deplore the lots of their pirlish forms after marriage. The bearing of children i often destructive to the mother's shapeliness. All of this can be avoided, however, by the use of Mother's Friend before baby comes, as this reat liniment always prepares the body for the strain upon it, and preserves the symmetry of her form. Mother' Fricn J overcomes all the danger of child-birth, and carries the expectant mother safely through " this critical period without pain. It is woman's greatest blessing. Thousands gratefully tell of the benefit and relief derived from-the use- of this wonderful remedy. Sold by .11 H7 M9 1 druggist at fi.uo per ie ft bottle. Our little UJL book, telling all about this liniment, will be sent free. Til Bn.li'i Regi-liftr Co., Atltnti, El I J illi Mi If F 1 Vi ': 2 LL U U U Kl2J should certainly be much greater, although nobody scema to ba in a position to say just how much. These drawbacks more thun counterbalance the' one merit of the new device, apparently, and commercial success is fur from being assured. One of the great German houses which manufac ture electrical upparutus. Siemens & Halslte, has taken the lump up, and the latter could not well make its appearance under better nnuueial auspices. It will un doubtedly receive a thorough trial In the next year or two, but at the end of that time It may be regarded us nothing more than a sclentinc curiosity. Ilrltish lew uf Aiuerlcau l'roareaa. Lieutenant Colonel II. K. B. Crompton of tlm Knmliali electrical engineer corps glvea lua impressions of America in the anniversary issue of thu Elactrinal Maga aine of Ixmdnn. Ha says In part: ,-I did noj And that our American friends were nhend of us In any marked degree, aa many ICnglish Journals, technical as well aa nou-teclinlcMl, would lead the linglish public to suppose On the contrary, I found that although no doubt America could show ii very laie number of largn lustiill.'itUin, nnd consequently there Is u considerably larger field for the employ ment of engineering talent on thut sldo thun there Is over here, us regards general engineering ahllltv, managing und organiz ing isiwer. I think our Krglish engineer were In all respects the equals of the Americans; in fact. In some respects, no tably in the question of economies In the working of eleetrieil supply systems. Iha sevetw competition by g.is whldl prevails In this country has rendered our h'uglish central station engineers rather more effi cient In these respects t'iuu the Americans. Next its to manufacture. The Americana, of course, manufacture on a nm h larger scale thnu we do n this country. Their home market is of itt-elf many times larger, but I do not think the individual organiza tion or laying out of the electrical fac tories, or of similar factories where nie cl.anlcnl engineering of approximately tlm s in e clnss is helnif earned on, is notablv, fiituiiea In tliU country; In fact, I think if at h 11, superior to the same class cf the proportion of u-lo-Uulo (aclorlea htr Is as great as It is In America, and con versely the proportion of out-of-date old time, shops that still exist is as great in America us here. In I'uet, not a few of the shops that I had no opportunity of visiting would, if reported on by the Eng lish technical pres. be said to lie awful examples of ill-t line practice. There is one point, however, on which I think all who took piut In the tour are agreed, and that is the immense superiority of the American telephone system in all their towns, to anything we have in lOnglund. The telephone In America was a delight and a luxury which one feels all the more us soon as one returns to the miseries of the London system." ItHIIUIOt H NO'I KS. Rev. Frederick Mender, a wealthy priest of Denver, has decided to build a church at a. cost of Jlno.imi' in a district of the city no without church Hcconmiodatioiis. Archbishop Mesmer of Milwaukee has had to axk police protection against the Importunities of beggars, following an arti cle in a local newspaper telling of his lib erality us u L'ivei . Kx-Muyor lw of New York, who has Income a religious enthusiast, i planning for great revival servli-Ms under canvas. A number of rich men have Joined with him and have agreed so to bounce the under taking that the plate will not iiuvu to be passed ut any of the meetings. Rt v. K. U. Hron n. one of ihr editors of the Western Christian Advocate, lias re signed and will re-enter the ministry, lie will be succeeded by Hev. Robb Zaring of lndimuoulis. Tho pastor of Holy Name Cutholio ehill-. ll ui nueuoygan. is., is trying to stop pro iniscuous dancing by getting pledges from bis 3,iio purWhioin-i to utteiid oniv dances Very Rev. M. K. Fallon of ilolTalo, pro vincial of the oblate Fathers, "as been in Washington, where he purchased fifteen acres of land for the pui pi .c of erecting this summer a house of studies lor the members of bis order. The late Thomas l Clark, bishop of Rhode Island, widely known us a wit and scholar, in bis own home life in Providence preferred the turnout simplicity compatible Willi comfort. Having on on occhMoii a distinguished Knglish divine as a visitor, tlie latter was considerably Impressed, nut to say astonished, st Hie lack of ceremony obxrrved In the Fplsi'opal ma noon, ltu upon retiring hesitatingly inquired if ha should leave his stiors outside bis door. "Certainly, If you like." repllsd the bishop, willt coidialuj, uobvdy'U tooth 'am." if THE WHISKEY WITH A REPUTATION QUAKER MAIB MYE Awarded the GOLD MEDAL at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition for Superior Quality, Purity and Perfection of Age rOH ACl: AT A 1.1. I EAIUKti Rill, CArrS AMD VHVQ STOKES) S. HIRSCH (0, CO. f KANSAS CITY, MO.