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Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, April 16, 1905, HALF-TONE SECTION, Image 48

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TOT. OMAHA. DAILY BEE: srXPAV. Amil. 18. 11M15.
In the Field of Electricity
Niagara aa Mon- Mukfr.
I HE f ,': ilh which state lcgisl.i-
t n its and city government grant
franchises of grrat value with
out compensation Is a subject of
comment and criticism far from
creifiiable to thi American system of gov
ernment. Nearly fifteen years ago the
state r,f New York granted the first fran
c III.- fur utilizing the wat r power of
Niagara fallH, resulting lii the development
of fleet rle power of far greater commercial
value than was considered possible at that
time. iJefendcra of the free franchise sys
tem in this cane point to the benefit! con
ferred on the community In Industrial prog
ress, and the great advantages nearby
communities, such as liuffalo, dcrivo from
cheaper power us sufficient compensation
for the privilege granted. The argument
serves its purpose In soothing discontent
largely because the public has no immedi
ate remedy. Our easy give-away methods,
as Illustrated nt Niagara falls, serves to
make a sharp contract with the methods
of the Canadian authorities In driving a
bargain with electrical power companies on
the Canada side of the falls.
The nineteenth annual report of the com
missioners of Victoria paik, the. free plena
urn ground on the Canadian sldo at Ni
agara, has mil "h In it of Interest to the
industrial d-jl elopment on the New Yolk
Sr"i lion about the fall of Niagara, as well
aa to the I'rovlnce of Ontario. In fact, the
showing it makes as to what great power
companies can afoid to pay for the rights
to develop power from a stream la of iltal
concern to every section of the country
where water powers uro available for de
velopment. Tho Cunadian Niagara Power
company has paid the commissioners the
surprising sum of $24,G77."s, and today has
only 30,'spi) horse-power available, its Initial
generator having been started on January
2 lust. In time it will have ll',0"0 horse
power, but in addition to its annual rental
it wilt have to pay a tax on every lioise
powcr developed abovt 10,00.
Tho Ontario Tower company, the second
to secure rights in the park, but which has
no pawer yet developed, has paid 1 W.0's to
tliw commissioners. The Ontario Power
company has located its power house at
the water's edge In the gorge, ami will
develop M),lio horse-power, the first of
which will probably be ready for use this ,
The Klectrlcal Development company of
Ontario, limited, has paid $'1,0" to the
commissioners, and its tunnel and wheel
pit arc now being lined. It will be the
latter part of the present or the first of the
next year before It will have power for
Thus, the power companies have paid
3tH,777.7R to the commissioners, and are not
yet utilizing the services of the rights they
piirchaHed. Since It was started, the elec
tric railway that runs through the park
has paid them no less than JliC'.Mn, while
the photographic privilege bus contributed
1103,70". Added to this amount we have the
amounts paid for the other concessions,
and it is found that the commissioners
have received a revenue of $tiJo,777.7l from
the privileges granted, nil but one having
to do with the use or development of elec
trical power In the park. Blmtlur privilege
on the American i-Ule pay nothing.
Standardising Klectrlcal Machinery.
At u meeting of the Institution of Klec
tricul Engineer in London, the other day,
K. II. Itayncr submitted a paper, communi
cated by Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, F. R. 8., re
porting on temperature experiments on
electrical materials curried out ut the Na
tional Physical laboratory. The Investiga
tions described In tho paper, summarized by
the Huston Trunscript, were undertaken ut
the request of a subcommittee of the Engi
neering Standard'! committee. In gtandard
iziag, electrical , nmc,hlncri tv , tempera
ture af which It la permissible to run the
machinery Is an Importunt factor, and the
committee wished detailed information us
to the value that It would be right to give
in their regulations for this temperature.
This temperature clearly depends on the
properties of tho Insulating materials used
In the coils of the muchines, such as cotton,
varnish, press-spnhn ami the like, and a.s
the object was to investigate the electrical
and mechanical properties of these sub
stances at the normal temperature, and ut
various high temperatures, temperatures of
about 75 degrees, lol) degrees und I2T de
grees C. were selected, and the materials
which were supplied to the committee by
the firms using them, were exposed for
some three months to these temperatures.
The dl-electric und resistance properties
were measured in the usual way, nnd the
results are shown in the tables accompany
ing the paper.
To measure the mechanical properties, the
force required to punch he materials with a
punch having h circumference of one-half
Inch was carefully measured, and the ef
fect of bending the materials round cylin
ders of gradually decreasing radius was
also observed. In this way an estimate
was formed of the reliability of the various
materials used, und It appeurs from the
tables that most of the properties except,
perhaps, the llexlbllity, ure improved by
heating at 7!S degrees, that the fall. If any,
in the insulating properties is not marked
nt ion degrees, but when temperatures of
125 degrees are vouched the mechanical
properties In most cases show grave de
terioration. It would appeal' from tho re
sults thut temperuturc of from 100 degrees
to 110 degrees may be employed in the ma
chinery without i ink.
Durlnir the course of the Investigation
several Interesting revolts as to tho effect of
moisture on these materials were observed,
and Mr. Rayner was uble to show un ex
periment Illustrating the changes that take
place In the Insulating properties of cotton
as the moUtur Is driven out and the cotton
llnully carbonized. For the purposes of the
committee it was nul sufficient to know
what teniperututrs the muterlul used, would
stgml, but. In addition, the actual temper,
ture that mlglit be rsuehed at any point if
the machine required Investigation. There
are vurlnus means of measuring avrrago
temperature of th Held coll of a dynamo,
but very tittle Information was available to
determine by how much the temperature at
any one point might exceed the uverag. To
determine the temperuture at various points
within such colls, tlicrmo-Juiicllons and
lion-euieka wire were Inserted, and Mr.
Ha) tier was thus aula In plot the tempera
ture curve throughout the substance of the
coll. The rolls were in all rasea run ut the
National Physical laboratory. They were
then taken to the makers' works and a
further series of Investigations of tempera
ture, distribution, etc.. were made with the
coll on the machines running under vatlous
conditions of load. The mean temperature
of the coils Is determined by their electrical
lesistanc. and thus It is possible to tabu
late series of pellicular giving among
oilier information the differences between
the maximum temperature obtained at any
one point In the coil and the mean tem
peruture. The maximum difference varies
considerably with the conditional of work
ing, but it would appear that It rarely ex
ceeds ii degreea C. The results achieved
will, it la hoped, enable the engineering
Ptandards committee to specify the condi
tions of tests (or motors and generators In
the future. A aeries of testa surh as those
described could only be carried out by the
co-operation of a central Institution such
as the National Physical laboratory and the
various makers who have supplied the ma
chinery, and any value that the tests may
have Is greatly Increased by this co-operation.
New York's Mglit Signs.
Tirnadway Is made uncommonly brilliant
at night by electric lights.
There I nothing to equal this show In
any other city In the world. The electric
signs play a big part In making Broad
way the brightest street In the world at
Yet appearances are deceptive regard
ing these electric lights. They are ac
conspicuous, ao eye-filling, that there ap
pear to be many more than there really
are. On llroadway between Twenty-third
und Forty-fifth streets there are about
fifty signs, averaging about two to a
block. You'd think there were five times
that number, ao assertively do they atare
and glare at you from everywhere. They
se em to take up so much space, to be ao
ever present.
Not only ere the signs fewer than they
nppe.ir to be at a Blanco, but the number
of Incandescent lights used In them will
strike the layman r.s being surprisingly
small. Instead of a myriad of the small
globes, there are in reality only S.CKif) In
round numbers In the signs In the terri
tory. Hlx thousand of these are In the
ater signs alone.
The biggest elcctrle sign In the world
sends a Hood of light to tln westward
from one of the ts 11 buildings below Four
teenth street. It Is visible from Newark.
Tho first letter of the sign Is sixty feet
high and the others fifty feet, and there
are nine letters. And yet there ure only
l.:00 individual lamps hi the whole sign.
Moreovor, the lamps are very small.
Kach Is orly four randle power. These
small globes have hern found to work bet
ter In this particular sign than globes of
sixteen candle power. The expense of
maintaining the gigantic sign Is only $1
One district of electric lighting takes In
that part of the city between Eighth and
Fifty-ninth street and from liver to river.
About :S0,OuO globes ure used for the signs
In the whole district. There are something;
over Ltwl signs In. the district. The large
display for the small number of lamps Is
a striking feature.
No less conspicuous than the signs them
selves are the many forms they take, ad
mitting a wide ranye of decorative efferts
from plain to fancy. The talking sign,
where the light runs along from letter to
letter is worked by means of perforated
rolls on cylinders, the mechanism being
run by o small motor and doing the light
ing of tho required Idlers automatically.
Wireless In a Home.
A New York electrical engineer has
equipped his home with a miniature wire
less telegraph system with which ho com
municates all his wishes from the dining
room to the kitchen. On the dining room
table Is a dr.inty transmitter and pole con
nected by a flexible cord with a battery
tinder the table, and In the kitchen Is an
other transmitter and receiver connected
with nn electric bell. The transmitters are
no larger than ordinary paper weights.
Messages are transmitted from dining
room to the kitchen through the walls,
und the bell lings, and through the agency
of a simple system of signals anything
desired lii the dining room can be called
Another Kleetrle Lamp.
Although the world has hud at least two
fairly satisfactory means of utilizing elec
tricity for purpose of Illumination for at
least a quarter of u century, inventors
hive long felt that perfection had not
been reached. New types of apparatus are
being devised from time to time, and It Is
evident that evolution Is still In progress.
The latest candidate for favor has made
Its appearance in Berlin, and It was de
scribed before a technical society in that
city only a few days ago,
Hcglnnlng where his predecessors left off.
Fays the New York Tribune, F.dlsnn first
attempted to make a durulile lamp In which
tho glowing filament consisted of platinum.
Not until he substituted carlion for that I
material did he accomplish much. Never
theless, u number of subsequent experi
ments have been made with metals. It
was reported u few years ago, for In
stance, that osmium, which is closely re
lated to platinum, had been successfully
trlod, but as nothing more has been heard
of the mutter It is probable thut the an
nouncement was premature. Cooper
Hewitt, It will le remembered, uses an
other metal, mercury, converting It into
vapor before producing incandescence, in
the Nernst lamp, which originated In Ger
many, light Is derived from a tiny rod of
magnesium thut is heated by the current
passing through It. The Invention which
Is now attracting in the rame country und
which la the work of electrician named
Hnlton and Feaerleiu, also represents a
recurrence to mctul, but uuoxldiztfd and In
a solid form. Tantalum, which is sixteen
times as heavy as water, has been adopted.
Owing to Its high conductivity it has been
found Impracticable to make the nlanit.nt
less than twu fret long, but as the thread
can be conveniently colled into a aplial.
no more space la required thuu la afforded
by tho Edison bulb.
Th muet thut can be said in behalf of
the tantalum lamp ut present Is thst U
yields mors light for tho same amount of
current than does onu of the old kind.
In this respect Its ethclency is twice thai
of the established favorite. It appears to
be no more durable, however, Its construc
tion is more complicated and the first ciuu
At Peep of Mom
I us-TC'l
ITH hunger unborn
He tempts his appetite
With.Armoiirs "Star" Ham,
Cooked just right
"Just right" means a slice of the juicy ham done to a turn
with fresh eggs fried to your liking, tastefully garnished, and served
sizzling hot. ,
Armours "Star" "the ham of hams," carefully selected, scien
tifically cured -always of uniform, superior quality.
To insure getting Armours ask the grocer to show you the star
burned in the skin.
Nothing finer produced than Armours Sliced "Star" Ham and Bacon neatly packed
in 1 lb. tins. Convenient economical. So trimmed that all wast is removed, and me
chanically sliced much thinner than can be done by hand.
Every woman covets a
bhapely, pretty figure, and
many of them deplore the
lots of their pirlish forms
after marriage. The bearing
of children i often destructive
to the mother's shapeliness.
All of this can be avoided,
however, by the use of Mother's Friend before baby comes, as this
reat liniment always prepares the body for the strain upon it, and
preserves the symmetry of her form. Mother' Fricn J overcomes all the
danger of child-birth, and carries the expectant mother safely through
" this critical period without pain. It is woman's greatest blessing.
Thousands gratefully tell of the benefit and relief derived from-the
use- of this wonderful
remedy. Sold by .11 H7 M9 1
druggist at fi.uo per ie ft
bottle. Our little UJL
book, telling all about
this liniment, will be sent free.
Til Bn.li'i Regi-liftr Co., Atltnti, El
I J illi Mi If F 1 Vi ':
2 LL U U U Kl2J
should certainly be much greater, although
nobody scema to ba in a position to say
just how much. These drawbacks more
thun counterbalance the' one merit of the
new device, apparently, and commercial
success is fur from being assured. One of
the great German houses which manufac
ture electrical upparutus. Siemens &
Halslte, has taken the lump up, and the
latter could not well make its appearance
under better nnuueial auspices. It will un
doubtedly receive a thorough trial In the
next year or two, but at the end of that
time It may be regarded us nothing more
than a sclentinc curiosity.
Ilrltish lew uf Aiuerlcau l'roareaa.
Lieutenant Colonel II. K. B. Crompton
of tlm Knmliali electrical engineer corps
glvea lua impressions of America in the
anniversary issue of thu Elactrinal Maga
aine of Ixmdnn. Ha says In part: ,-I did
noj And that our American friends were
nhend of us In any marked degree, aa
many ICnglish Journals, technical as well
aa nou-teclinlcMl, would lead the linglish
public to suppose On the contrary, I
found that although no doubt America
could show ii very laie number of largn
lustiill.'itUin, nnd consequently there Is u
considerably larger field for the employ
ment of engineering talent on thut sldo
thun there Is over here, us regards general
engineering ahllltv, managing und organiz
ing isiwer. I think our Krglish engineer
were In all respects the equals of the
Americans; in fact. In some respects, no
tably in the question of economies In the
working of eleetrieil supply systems. Iha
sevetw competition by g.is whldl prevails
In this country has rendered our h'uglish
central station engineers rather more effi
cient In these respects t'iuu the Americans.
Next its to manufacture. The Americana,
of course, manufacture on a nm h larger
scale thnu we do n this country. Their
home market is of itt-elf many times larger,
but I do not think the individual organiza
tion or laying out of the electrical fac
tories, or of similar factories where nie
cl.anlcnl engineering of approximately tlm
s in e clnss is helnif earned on, is notablv,
fiituiiea In tliU country; In fact, I think
if at h 11, superior to the same class cf
the proportion of u-lo-Uulo (aclorlea htr
Is as great as It is In America, and con
versely the proportion of out-of-date old
time, shops that still exist is as great in
America us here. In I'uet, not a few of
the shops that I had no opportunity of
visiting would, if reported on by the Eng
lish technical pres. be said to lie awful
examples of ill-t line practice. There is
one point, however, on which I think all
who took piut In the tour are agreed, and
that is the immense superiority of the
American telephone system in all their
towns, to anything we have in lOnglund.
The telephone In America was a delight
and a luxury which one feels all the more
us soon as one returns to the miseries of
the London system."
Rev. Frederick Mender, a wealthy priest
of Denver, has decided to build a church
at a. cost of Jlno.imi' in a district of the city
no without church Hcconmiodatioiis.
Archbishop Mesmer of Milwaukee has
had to axk police protection against the
Importunities of beggars, following an arti
cle in a local newspaper telling of his lib
erality us u L'ivei .
Kx-Muyor lw of New York, who has
Income a religious enthusiast, i planning
for great revival servli-Ms under canvas. A
number of rich men have Joined with him
and have agreed so to bounce the under
taking that the plate will not iiuvu to be
passed ut any of the meetings.
Rt v. K. U. Hron n. one of ihr editors of
the Western Christian Advocate, lias re
signed and will re-enter the ministry, lie
will be succeeded by Hev. Robb Zaring of
Tho pastor of Holy Name Cutholio ehill-. ll
ui nueuoygan. is., is trying to stop pro
iniscuous dancing by getting pledges from
bis 3,iio purWhioin-i to utteiid oniv dances
Very Rev. M. K. Fallon of ilolTalo, pro
vincial of the oblate Fathers, "as been in
Washington, where he purchased fifteen
acres of land for the pui pi .c of erecting
this summer a house of studies lor the
members of bis order.
The late Thomas l Clark, bishop of
Rhode Island, widely known us a wit and
scholar, in bis own home life in Providence
preferred the turnout simplicity compatible
Willi comfort. Having on on occhMoii a
distinguished Knglish divine as a visitor,
tlie latter was considerably Impressed, nut
to say astonished, st Hie lack of ceremony
obxrrved In the Fplsi'opal ma noon, ltu
upon retiring hesitatingly inquired if ha
should leave his stiors outside bis door.
"Certainly, If you like." repllsd the bishop,
willt coidialuj, uobvdy'U tooth 'am."
Awarded the GOLD MEDAL at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition for
Superior Quality, Purity and Perfection
of Age
rOH ACl: AT A 1.1. I EAIUKti Rill,

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