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'. -V. ' x, pxax 'mmmmmMMrM XX -V X XX Xf-XX''. -- 'V. X'XXXX.;: -tfr r.:;; V...,. ; XV-7 0 kmr?VMm XlXXX 'ii X - ;X;X x aXX iiWi v , r v . ,. , ,- v. r-'v- " -i-i -"-.W'X... -J r,; v;"'' '.?'?i?-,'3.P?y X rjf'.- i ' .w;;.-.i X'?..-.X . p I - " ' .-.-"AC - .,. - - i-'- ...... M.TC" v y .. r-yr fTWf&' i'OA"oim,X I.. ... 1 Vk "; : ' fJCBR 'WA J.OHl-'vSZ4$ rk " : Utah; " i , 'vA V C0L0 ; 0 'A , -Wy -Vo ;il ; " ""' pfi'jI Ar'- -r1 X .i i i V"' A ( U f ? ii.vJvX i-,;vl'" .v,,.'. ....... : . --v''.".."''-4r'ft')S--'''J.-i'-' :-" -:i'vv '!!....'. 'x -:x':-V'-;-V X 'X'l ' -:-v. .-XXX'v' v.-.. Al " .v-'',-:X-';;X' .;.v.V;;x , M v Xv & '3 ' - ;, Xx4( -XX " ,0 M Wk, n mmmmm0 pi! 11. ,mj v. ;. -V;iixx liii i iimip ;& tex' ...r."-,.- Ait$v x" V -;mmMm ..;,.XxiX? lXSaXXXX:;X?:X;::- - rX ,v.'-v' .Vi.vu:-: x. X-X ." :- X5xX,X- -. ,'.-X;m. , .,v'-; . - -'''.-v;--:'--.X.-- -vX5vX:VX v;xX;'v-v. X- ;:;-'X;.--X' . , Xi: v v .1 V y':Vi r iX'-'- "' 'vv'r -' ' v i 'X V. ' X ., '.'(Vix,r' x xv .:----:--x,.Xw::-v sX V"v-', '(! XXX'vjr MVi, !.. .. ,tf !',;XXO f-:'X? t ;XXX;V - :"V ; V'A-'IXVX'. i'H' 'X ; - X - '" ' m telttttH- .-. -':XX.:;:':-'; vv XxXX-.XvxoXXX -?? .Ax-,. Xtfc . iXXX;X:,-:X;; ; :.-'XXrv,v; :. XXX: X ,:X-' XXX,,-4fe-: . Xv:xUxx 'XX x X'- xx- -'X-x-xxv. .:X'X ;;- " mr .V: Xfer?'. .:-.'.x x:x- -vj'fefe ikA . , ,y- : ;-.XXl'i ,X::X-vi7' .v; 1;X ' , i &p& -'fex 4 ::aX5X:;XiRW -J ' .-7 ,:;::'! t 'f'li-:ijei'--i. J' v ': ; : .- ' ?;iX -..-! . - 1 ' Xi if j. N eclipse of the run. vlsilili' t" a large part of I the NDrtli Anierii im continent, will take mJm I rl'T'e on the ni'irniiiR of Auk. IVI. The area y I from which the crlipse can be observed In cludes the eastern two-thirds of the United States, nearly nil the Gulf of Mexico, and the southern portion of the eastern half of f'an:id.i. The accompanying map Is lntendtd to Imlieute the course of the eclipse In America. The narrow baud shown the position of the "belt of totality." that (Ming the area to which the sun will ' completely obscured for the sp kCe of a little more than two minutes by tne moon's shadow. The belt sweeps eastward from near WinnlpeK to the southern part of James bay, and thence over the Labrador penlnsul t, which It leaves about 1m ihlles north of the eastern entrance to the strait of Helle Isle. From that point the "belt" crosses the Atlantic ocean, meeting no land till It reaches tiie north coast of Spain, crosses that country, passing about forty miles north of Madrid. Crosses Ocean Into Spain j It then crosses the Mediterranean, Kgypt, the Red sea. and Arabia, ending at sunset where the bouth coast of that country meets the Arabian sea, after having passed over Mecca, the "holy cltv " of the Mohammedans. The dark band of shadow aveianis nearly 140 miles in width, the greatest diameter of '.he shadow, perpendicular to its axis, at the point where it meets the earth, Ulng almut bd miles. The shadow pisses nv 'r about l."J degiees of longitude In nearly two hours ami fifty-five minutes, the longest time occupied in passing over any one point being three minutes j , Him UMij-ior M'niiun, ine iiiitjoiiimii point ucing in Kurope. The curve near the left hand side of the map passes through all those points to which the eclipse will end at sunrise. To all points farther west. Including the whide of the Pacific sloe. the eclipse will havt ended before the sun and moon reach the horizon. The middle line passes through all those points at which the middle of the eclipse occurs at sunrise, anl the right hand line of the three indicates the positions of .!! points in the I'nltcd Slates at which the eclipse will begin when the pun Is rising there. Visible Here in Early Morning. It Is easy to sec from the map that the phenomenon will have begun some time before the sun and moon rise here. The fact is that at about 3:15 a. m. the sun will ap pear (clouds not preventing), with a dished out hollow of darkness on his upper It ft. and from that time the obscu ration will Increase till the time of maximum, or middle of the eclipse, as seen from Chicago and vicinity, a Utile more than lhr e-quarters of the solar diameter being hidden by the moon. As the sun mounts In the heavens the moon Is carried relatively lower by the mo tion In her 01 bit, and thty part company at 6:-JX. the last thread of darkening being disk, us Indicated in the The amount of greatest tart of the world may tx: f-v.2L.-v:-.'. , ;;rXXXy:XXXsXX -xxx,x; xx ,. r:.:'-y:'Ay x .. ,i v.- ;" ''yy'y--'-K?:!"yx:yf'fii ;x--. d-;- . ...... . ' :x;-x;,:r-xxx. .ft) ST . , Vv-.-. Vf -.' 't-M. ,.V ;?-., '-:;. 'i . ' ' X' 'ft .ifX- X-x, : . -v - i-;y-,M;fr;y yy;'f y-:- pW . -xy, ix-v ';a um-aA-' : ;"V.rr .-:;.X7x.,..x;;p WtmS - XX - '-iJf"w.r- ivVVV--.i.,-'Vf-r" ;.v''?' ii'-.vtjr-v'.-v-..., - . '-j'-Lvt,,''- ltiP xxx;7--'::x:-X ' " i " v r?x&:fte?tf Xv ; ; 1 . ' J . x - xx i-A"V'-ik - . ',-f l w r ;" xr vx -f ' A ' 1 f x in. it, i : r Thus, the ellipse is total at .Mi degrees latitude, :ind fin peiiuinbia expends to L'o degrM-s n'rth Hence, if .-ill. tract the latitude at any point from :io Co initios Jo and ilnide the remainder by :to. tin resulting decimal will rcpicscnt the width of sunlight ut the time of great est oiiseuratloii. For Chicago this would give ."si minus to tie divided by :ei. uel'ig o.J'i nearly, or not far from one- n irter. as stat d. Of c ourse. It w ill be understood that the eurviiig of the earth's surface mnkes the computa tion loueh more complii ated than this if vie wisli to ar rive at precise results for any liano d point. Other Eclipses Seen Here. totality. The one next in Importance to dwellers In this Section was the one .if May L'li, ls.vi. and mat of July IN, iMin, which also orcii.tiil early In the morning, and pre sented the closest parallel to the one of Aug. .'in, Its belt of totality passing tluoiiKli Camilla, across the Atlantic, and thence over Spain and Kgyyt Discoveries in Astronomy Expected. (If course, it will he understood that the sight from any part of the l'niti d Sta'i s will be littl re than the grati fication of a furiosity; but that needs not to lie all Idle one, if It helps to an idea of the immense strides that have been made in astronomical I nuwledge since the days when cer tain astronomers in I'.ihylonia watt he. I three whole days lor an eclipse of the un without hcini: able to see it, and the times still farther hack when nobody thought such an event could be anticipated at .ill. Contrast this with tiie fact that the hei ming of totality at lies Moines oc curred within four seconds of the time thai had been com puted for it sonic days beforehand, and then say If the human intellect has not demonstrated Its ability to reach out al leat a long way towards a knowledge of the Infinite . . Lunar Motion Theory. And from this it may be Inferred that not much re mains to be done in perfecting the theory of the lunar mo tion. Hut even if so 'lu re still is much to be discovered, for which the study "f a total eclipse of the sun affords the best oppoi t unity. I mminent aniont! the Items of work which It is proposed to do on Aug. Hit are the search for an intraniercurial planet, the ntudy of the corona, and work with the spectroscope, the photometer, and the polariscope. The observing stations will be near the At lantic, on both sides of that ocean, the object being to have the sun at as great an altitude as possible, and these will be oci upicd by several parties of American and Karo pean aslronomei s. The starch for one planet or mole re volving around the sun el a less distance than Mercury was undertaken systematically in ls"V I'rof. Janus c. Watson, at a station in W .Miming, claimed to have seen one. and la wis Swift, at lienver. thought he saw two. but Mibsciiiciit search nas not vctiited these "discoveries," though close analysis of the planetary motions, particu larly those of Mercury, seems to lender il almost certain thai there must he some such planet or planets (perhaps many of tlieiui. or else we have to fall bat k on the hypo thesis that t In- force of attraction does not vary precisely ic the Inverse proportion to the square of t lie distance So. tin- space in tin' neighborhood of the sun will lie .scanned by many eager observiis. not only visually but by means of photor inhlo apparatus. The Recurrence of Eclipses. The eclipse cycle Is a period of eighteen years ten and one-third days, or el -en and one-thbd days, according as the scries contains live or four h ap Mats. In that time there are 'JIM new i ic i eis. and nearly- one revolution of the nodes, or points in which the orbit of the earth intersects that of the in. ion. ia lipsi s can occur only when the lumi naries, at the time if new or lull, ale within a few de grees of these points. '1'i.is permits Ihe otiuneuce of about seventy eclipses III each cyt le. t w ii I s 11 1 1 f which are of tin moon anil forty-one of the sun. but the latter arc much the less often wituessetl lr u any particular spot on tiie earth's surface, because 1:11 Ii of them is vis ible from a i. l.aiu ly small area, w hile the lunar eclipse can lie s. en from every point on that half of the earth's surface which is turn -d away from the sun. In one year there may be not more than seven eclipses, live of which will be solar, ami not b ss than two, boll of which will be solar. 'l"ui it cannot be more than three lunar e hpscs. ami may lie unite. Also, there s. hlotn are more than six of both kinds. In the picscnt instance the length of the mot'ii's conical shadow is about 7..VNI miles greater than her distance from the eai th's eentei ; hence the moon com plet. ly olisi ures the sun l aid. l the cond'tlous above stated. This because the moon's distance then will be about U.ooo miles less than the aeiae hut when, al the time ot a solar lipse. the cart li s distance from the sun be near tiie least ifossil.le. and that of tiie moon from us lie near tiie gnat. -st, the apex of the shadow ' di .s not ipiite reach the earth, and then the eclipse Is annular, the sunlight ex ti mill g all around the moon, lik : a ring dining a few set -otitis to those who are on the central line. Such an ei lipse ng on the lower left of the solar X''r-'4-V:X:-iA; . . 7:XX diagram. J.vXX'?'-' . V 5 iXX W-VXVX"X''f X X' .. , ". . ' est darkening for any paint In this ' . . 'i'-'C' ''-tr JjK--wXVf-1" -.Cli'-A-Jr --r. ','"' v 6 'i,' :X V - ' X ' ' The ichp.se will in' over before the ordinary times otV oicun.d March I of this year, the annular band passing rlsli g for many of the vople In Chicago and vicinity; but over south Australia, and the ocean west and east of it. It w ill b. well worth ..n extra I ffort to sec It (mlytwo It may be added that after the. lapse of the above named dip.-., s of the sun have occurred svithtr the last half e n cycle, another series of clipses occur In about the same or- lury which presented tire a greater amount of obseura- dir. and that the Metonic cycle, of nineteen years, iiieas- ti. ii and neither of them was total at Chicago Those arcs the duration of two hundred and thiity-hve lunations I.. I. 11 on Aug 7. ii'. and July LU. lv?S, the waiter visit- to wi'hin .ilniit an hour and a half: so that tin- moons ng 1 es Moit.es, la . and Iienve r. Colo., to obaeive them age- at any iiaine d da t e is I lie sa me at Inte rvals of iiiiiet. t n ii-peclivcly from stations near th. middle- of the belt of )iara.