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Automatic Telephone and Its Valuable Service to Society in General How the Independent Company Has Brought Relief in Reduced Rates and Increased Efficiency to Business Office and Home Si 4) THE OMAHA SUNDAY BEE: APRIL 5. 1903. ' ' 1 J? ' ,.- v ' -r 1 : - . : " 'man VwJ ;1 i M ,:.a in I i :- , - w u If . ' At .-.( 1 C-tlti't ! .7 i i l .Hill i BACK VIEW OF AN AUTOMATIC SWITCHBOARD. ui...iaii HE Iodensndent Telephone company of Omaha has ful f!'l:.(! every promise it r.nde," BaiU General Man r. 'rr A. P. Matthews of that Tliu;'3iay morninf.'. "We laVi: mado Kood in everytliins we have proiulscd. Tho plant 1b established and li; !n BUccesBful operation. We said we would have telephones in operation by December 1, 1907. We eid we would, have 8,000 'phones In operation by April J. 1908. We said we would have Ions distance connections by March 20, 1908. We said we would give Omaha the best telephone service in its history and at reasonable rates. We have fulfilled every one of these promises and more. ' "While wo do not care to do too much boasting, wo are exceedingly proud of the record we have made in keeping faith with the people of Omaha. "According to our franchise with the city, we are permitted to charge for service when we have 2,000 tele phones in operation. However, in or der to more strongly impress upon the public our desire to deal fairly with them, we are going to sacrifice the rentals for the month of April, which we are legally entitled to, and make no charge or . service before May 1. By that time we will have between 4,000 and 5,000 telephones in operation and there will be no ground for anyone to complain that the service is too limited to be worth the price. SaccfM Exrrrd Expectations. "In answer to your question as to whether or not we are satisfied with the encouragement slven us, I can only say that it is far in excess of anything we had any reason to ex pect. We are serving -practically every business interest of any magni tude in Omaha with very few excep tions; those few will soon find it to their interest to use our 1 telephones, and would be doing so now If they realized to what extent their busi ness is already being Impaired by the lack of Independent con nection." Mr. Matthews was asked for an ex planation of the phenomenal growth, of the Independent Telephone move ment throughout the country: "It is not generally known," said Mr. Matthews, "that In the states of Nebraska and Iowa there are three times as many Independent telephones in use as there are Bell 'phones. How ever, this Is the case and the ratio is rapidly increasing in favor of the In dependents. Owned by Loral People. "The chief reason for this phenom enal growth is found in the fact that the Independent companies are owned and officered locally. In many cities and towns as high as 90 per cent of the business men therein are stock holders in the local telephone com pany. This means that they are all boosters for the company, and this fact, together with the superior serv ice usually rendered, produces the re sult now in evidence in these two states, namely, a vast majority of In dependent telephones over the Bell. Such is the condition of affairs rapidly being manifested In Omaha. "We are urging the sale of our se curities here more for the securing of local moral support than from the necessity of securing local money for building. We offer an investment that pays excellent returns and at the same time is made absolutely safe by a first mortgage on the property. The wisdom of investing in the securities of our compc is borne out by ' the fact that many of Omaha's most care ful business men are putting their money into our securities. These men make this investment only after a thorough examination of the property and careful investigation Into the or ganization operating it. "The Omaha Independent Tele phone company Is largely a home en terprise Over a quarter of a million of the stock of the company is owned by Omaha citiiens. The president of the company is W. C. Bullard, presi dent of the Bullard, Hoagland & Den edict Lumber company of Omaha, and the next board of directors will be Omahan. (irevrtk for Sfil Year. "With a larpe line of local stock holders and the company officered by local business men. the Independent Telephone company will undoubtedly have within a year or so as many sub scribers as the Bell company has se cured in twenty-five years of monop oly. This statement is made reserv edly and based upon the experience of other Independent companies using the same methods that we are using. "The matter of rates is largely re sponsible for the encouragement we have received, and they are not any lower than is consistent with good business. Our automatic switchboards eliminate an expense of from $35,000 to $50,000 per annum over the old fashioned manual system. This factor in itself enables us to do business at a profit at much lower rates than could be granted under that system. "It is not the purpose of the Inde pendent Telephone company to cut rates, but simply to give everybody the opportunity to avail themselves of the best telephone service in the world at a moderate price. "We propose to make that service so valuable that everybody will have to use it if they use the telephone at all. The telephone Is an indispensable part of business and household econ omy, and its-usefulness is becoming more so dally. "For this reason the public demands the best and will have it. This not only applies to the local and district, but to the long distance service. Automatic Service tbe Solution. "The automatic 'phone is the crux of scientific achievement and absolute convenience. Its simplicity and ac curacy makes it indispensable in the home or business office. With the au tomatic 'phone the subscriber operates his own exchange and is assured of absolute secrecy in his conversations over the wire. There Is no breaking into conversations as is the case where party lines are in us., T He alks di- rectly with the person he wishes and the conversation Is as' secret as in the f 1 J -W VJ, tx i - Jfc f 1 I ' .S1- J I T"-"' w'1 J I ' T 'i5if: l -tt ';; - -. li i ' I : .- ' j I l wmwi' ; , v -v u i.y-; n" 4 f : k . - I I J a.-'" -"1 IT i I ' r i . i ' 1 ; t , Vi 11 i '4- -ft i K ' f ' . j - f 1 : r : f J i i j j i - ; GENERAL OFFICES AND MAIN EXCHANGE BUILDING, TWENTIETH AND HARNEY STREETS. 7- RECORDS OF INDIAN MUSIC Native Songs Have Been Preserved by the Phonograph. 0HTE IMPORTANT WORK FINISHED Allan Fletcher Flnl In the Music of the Modern Hed Men Heaem lilnnm nllh Modern C'omioera. privacy of his own home. "The defects formerly charged against the automatic system have all been eliminated by recent improve ments and they are now at the acme of perfect service. "The automatic connection is fault less, because it is immediate, thus do ing away with the tedious and vex atious delays incident to the exchange Bervlce operated by girls. "The only trouble we have experi enced thus far is in our inability to supply the demands for 'phones. We are securing all available expert auto matic Installers, but seem unable to keep pace with our orders. Connection with Conncll Bluffs. "I think at this time the public will be particularly interested in knowing something of our Council Bluffs and long dUtanoe service; the Council Bluffs service is especially a matter of pride because of its speed and ac curacy. By pulling BO, which. signi fies Bluffs operator, on the dial of the automatic 'phone, you are connected, automatically, directly with the Coun cil Bluffs exchange. The party call ing asks for the telephone number or name of the Bluffs party wanted and is given speedy connection therewith. This service will unquestionably be come exceedingly popular. We have fifty lines connecting the two cities, which should guarantee prompt serv ice. "We are now connected with all of Iowa, but the service is not yet as broad as it will be a little later. Per haps the most satisfactory service we have is that to Sioux City. "We do not wish the people to ex pect too much of us immediately, as it takes time to perfect connections and get everything to working smoothly. Hooking t'p with Lincoln. "Our lines are being built to Lin coln and as soon as completed will open up the entire state of Nebraska. By June 1 this service will(be inaugu rated and connections nfVd Avith Kan sas City and hundreds of points in Kansas.. "It is impossible to get away from the fact that our long distance busi ness will grow to immense propor tions, for the reason that throughout the surrounding states such a large percentage of the merchants and busi ness men generally are stockholders in independent companies. That they are bound to pay tholr tolls to the compan ies in which they are interested rather than to competitors is self-evident. With such powerful Influence working always in our favor, the success of the toll feature of the business is abso lutely guaranteed. "When all the facts outlined above are taken into consideration and sup plemented by the undoubted superior ity of the automatic service, it is not hard to understand the overwhelming success with which our company is meeting. "Of course there will be vigorous opposition from our competitors for some time to come, but it will prove as ineffective in stemming the on-sweep of our success as the same opposition and methods have been elsewhere." WASHINGTON, April 4. The phonograph hn recently town i ed by the bureau of cthnoloery to register the native songs of the Indians. Several hundred songs have thus been obtained and It Is designed to secure the most complete record possible of the vanishing melodies. These Indian song as transcribed from the phonograph ' records have elicited the Interest not only of the scientists but of professional musicians as well. Credit for 1 the records Is due to Miss Alice Fletcher, j an employe of the bureau, who for a num 1 btr of years has interested herself In tho ,1 subject of Indian music, j In the records of the talking machine Indian music has for the first time been 3 recorded In a satisfactorily authentic man i ner and the transcriptions which have been made from them are scientifically ac curate. The Indians have no musical no tation and apparently no theories of music. Their songs are handed down by tradition end the phonograph has opportunely proved of great value in perpetuating them. "Contrary to what 1 have fiund to be a general Impression among those Ignorant of the subject." said Miss Fletcher, "the songs of the Indians are not meaningless chants, devoid of sweetness, power and expression. Feature of the Music. "The Indian Is a natural musician. On transcribing a number of these songs, for Instance, a stilkirg circumstance was noted, namely, the use of the major chords of tho over third and under third. As you probably know this is one of the most notable characteristics of our modern ro mantic comiKjsers. "We find more or less of it In Iteethoven and Schubert, still more In Schumann and Chopin, most of all In Wugner and I.lsit. This fact shows, I believe, that the great romantic writers in going out slda of the accepted' harmonic limits mada a genuine discovery of natural harmonic relations. This has long been the belief of a number of musicians, but these In- j idlan songs afford strong confirmation of j the. Justness of the theory, for whatever i. else they are there can be no question that I they are absolutely natural. ' I "What may be called the opening of the Wa-wan or Pipe of Peace choral, reminds (one strongly of natural passages in Wag i ner. Yet It is perhaps more during than 1 any of that master's compositions, for It Is i a twelve measure song, beginning In U flat and ending In C. "tfuttly this composition Is worthy of the attention of every student of harmony as well as of the scientist. It seems a bold statement to make, but It is one amply Justified that all melodic an I harmonic resources to be found In our umslc, espt.- cailly ths most modern and advanced, are also to be found In this primitive music among a people who have no musical nota tion, no musical theorlrs, and. In fact, no systemlzed scientific knowledge of It whatever. 'Nor Is It In harmony alone that this Lladian music reminds us of the present day ultra romanticists as well as older masters. The Indian rhythms are frequently ak com plicated and difficult as any to be found In the works of Schumann and Chopin. Rhythm Like Mendelssohn's. "I have, for example, songs simulating precisely the rhythm of some of Mendols sohn'q 'Songs Without Words,' as well as of compositions by Schumann and pieces of the modern and most advanced school. One rhythmic peculiarity of Borne of tho songs Is the frequent use of a short note on the drumbeat, or emphatic portion of the measure, Just as we find in ancient Scotch music. Every tribe has hundreds of original songs which are its heritage. Many of them have been handed down through generations and embody not only the feel ing of the composer, but record some past event or experience among the tribe or clan. The people treasure them and great care is taken to transmit them accurately. "Wo- with our written music have a mechanical device by which a tone may be uniformly produced as by the vibrations of a chord of given length and tension this tone becoming the atandaid by which all others can be regulated. The Indians have no such mechanism for determining a pitch, and there Is no uniform key for a song, which can be started on any note suitable to the singer's voice. v "Yet the songs, as Is shown conclusively by some of the phonographic records which have been obtained from different singers, are repeated without any materail varia tion. Men with good voices take pride In accuracy of singing, and often have In their memories several hundred songs, Including many from tribes with the members of which they have exchanged visits. . "The Indians did not object to having the music of some of their solemn ceremonial rites reproduced by the phonograph, but on the contrary were kind enough to ac cede to my requests for the obtaining of good records. Perhaps that of the Calu met or Wa-wan ceremony Is the most no table of these specimens of what may be called sacred music, "The music Is dignified and Impressive throughout, in some parts strikingly beau tiful, although the phonograph has not been as successful here aa In Instances In which a single singer has made the rec ord. An accurate transcript has, how ever, been made from the machine of this wonderful melodic expression of 'Peve on etarth, good will toward men.' " Miss Fletcher's Own Story. It Is Interesting to hear Miss Fletcher tell how she came to acqulrs an Interest In Indian music. "The first occasion." she says, "on which I attended one of their ceremonies I was certainly not favorably impressed with the music. Indeed. I was nearly frightened to death by the whole arrangement, savsge and barbarous to the extreme to my un initiated eyes and cars. "Concerning the music I gleaned the Im pression that while it might posseos a cer tain degree of simple rhythm. It had little melody, the few tores being Iterative and almost If not quite lacking In expression. But some songs which I had heard before this did not coincide with this conclusion. "While I was living among my Indian friends I was stricken with a severe Ill ness and lay for months, ministered to largely by my companions of the Omaha tribe. As I was thus shut In from all the world, the Indians coming and going about me In their affectionate aolicitude, I would ask them to sing to me. Because I was weak, I suppose, they sang softly. There was none of the distracting drum, and. devoid of the barbarous noise which had displeased me, I realised the sweetness. the beauty and the meaning of these won derful songs. "CTulor and dramatic action form marked qualities of Indian music. Every religious, tribal and social ceremony, as well as per sonal experience, Is expressed In tht? melo dies, and there Is hardly a phase of life that does not find In a manner of speaking its representation In sound. "Strange to say, the funeral song Is ex pressive of Joy and hope. That of tho Omahas, of which I have a record and which Is the only one possessed by that tribe, shggests In Its major strains sun shine, birds and verdure, and has a fleet, happy movement. Nevertheless, there Is a ceremony. Music lias Powers, "Music, in the Indian's belief, has power to reach the unseen world. , They think the spirit of the dead man can hear the song as it leaves the body, and the glac? cadences are to cheer him as he goes from those to whom he was attached on earth, the mourners showing their grief by mu tilating their bodies. "From n purely scientific standpoint these phonographic records are 'very valuable. The songs of the Indian give us an Inter pretation of his character. Wo can discern from these melodic records his religious nature, his attitude toward the unseen powers that control him. "In a way, too, they are a revelation of his social and tribal relations. In no song is there mention of the father or the wife. The grandfather Is not alluded to as per sonal kindred, but as one whom age has made wise and fit to be trusted. Tht mother la only indirectly referred to. but the sister Is the representation of the fam lly, and personates the women of the tribe in many songs. "The explanation for all this is found In the peculiar structure of the tribe and in the nondevelopment of the family Idea as we understand It. In fact the only recog mzed relationship is the clan, or gens, a political subdivision of the tribe. "Among Indians, with few exceptions the woman carries the clan, and klnsiiir Is traced only through her, the chlldrer being counted in her clan, and not In tha' of the father. As a man can never marr In his own clan, he must be as a stranger to his wife and to his own children, and when he dies, his brothers and sisters, who constitute his family, are his heirs.1 "So when an Indian sings of his home, his sister, with whom he has a recognised relationship, represents that home, rather than the wife and children, who can never belong to hi in. The Indian's love song Is practically, a song without words, con sisting of unmeaning syllables. "Friendship Is a common theme In Indian songs. There are no songs of labor. The mystery song has a peculiar origin, as It Is supposed to come to the composer in a vision, after days and nights of fasting and supplication. The revelation often comes In the form of some animal, typify ing the supernatural agency friendly to the suppllcator, and In praise of which the song la composed. "Sometimes the revelation Is the same to different persons and In this case the one song becomes common property, cre ating a bond of fellowship and sympathy. In some of these songs there Is an element of the weird truly Impressive. Indeed, In this Indian music I am aure that the ac complished composer of today can find a vait world of new motives." PAIR OF HEAVYWEIGHT BOYS Two Hsukr Texas Kids, Four Nine, Giants In Weight nd Height. and Foreign Missionary Work. In 1R76 the foreign mianlnnarv anr-lotUa nt the world had only ! stations, while last Vrar found i. 734 In full nnerallnn with nvar 15,(.U men and women of this country and Kurope In charge of thsm. . Two of the most remarkable boys In the world live on a farm' near Lannlus, Tex. They are sons of Mr. and Mrs. John H. Ashcroft. The combined age of the two boys Is 13 years and their combined weight 360 pounds. The oldest boy la named William Dewey Ashcroft. He la years old and weighs 256 pounds. He Is still taking on flesh at the rato of about twenty pounds each year. At his present rate of growth he will be a giant In height as well as In weight by the time he has completed his growth. He Is now five feet two inches tall. His waist measure is fifty-three Inches. His body Is well proportioned and he moves around without any noticeable Inconvenience. If his growth continues during the next eleven years at the rate it has since birth he will weigh in the neighborhood of 6.0 pounds by the time he reaches the age of an ordinary full-grfewn man. His health Is good and It Is claimed by physicians who have examined him that His chances for continued growth and development are as good as those of an ordinary boy. When this boy was born. In 1893, he weighed nine and one-half pounds. He took to growing right from the start and when he was only 1 year old he weighed fifty-two pounds. He was as large as an ordinary sire man when only 6 years old. his weight at that time being 137 pounds. He gained sixty-four pounds during the next two years, his weight being 201 pounds on tha day he was 7 years old. The wonderful boy has had many of the ills that usually fall to the lot of children and grown people, but he kept growing all the time. When he was only seven months old ha had an abscess In the throat. Hp suffered a severe attack of pneumonia when only two years old. Ue pulled through that sickness and quickly regained the flesh that he had lost and had taken on a lot more by the time he was attacked with whooping cough, when two and one-half years old. He did not have another fpell of sick ness until he was six years old, when he was attacked with diphtheria. He recov cred from that Illness and still continued to get better and bigger until lie was seven years old, when typhoid fever laid hold on him and kept him confined to his bed for a few weeks. He got over th sickness and was soon as fat as ever. He has not been sick since then and his daily gain In weight continues without Interrup tion. The youngest of the two brothers is named Ernest Z. Ashcroft. He la also a physical phenomenon. He was ttorn De cember 4. 19u3, and weighed ten pounds at his birth. He weighed forty pounds when one year old, and by the time he was three his weight had increased to seventy-six pounds. He weighed 105 pounds when four years old. He is three feet seven inches tall. His waist measure la thlry-slx Inches. This younger boy has had no serious spell of Illness and Is the picture of health. The most remarkable thing about the phenomenal sizes of these two boys Is that their parents are of ordinary sise. Their father Is about six feet tall and weighs 168 pounds, and their mother is flvs feet ten Inches tall and weighs ISO pounds. Mr. and Mr. Ashcroft have five other children, all girls, and none of them shows and signs of unusual physical growth or development. 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