Newspaper Page Text
THE OMAHA SUNDAY BEE: FEBRUARY 23, 1913. KUBBER FROMTREE TO TIRES Wa Found Practical for Commer cial Purposes in 1839. SUPPLY IS ENORMOUS ONE Mftat of II Cfthica from the Amnion, Where There Are Unrornaarcd Forrata Hint Cnn ne Mnile Yield nrnr Product. Latest Designs of Auto Construction Seen at the Show Centuries aeo, Ion before the dlcovery of America by Columbus, rubber or caoutchouc" waa known to- the South American Indian. Aa far buck as 1500 nncon, the Spanish explnrer. told of these Indians of the denre forests border ing the banks of the great Amazon who tapped the caoutchouc tres, and ex tracted a milky fluid. lie did not explain Its use. Columbus noticed natives playlnr ball with a curious substance Brown In the primeval forests and prepared ac cording to native ways, . In .HO. Priestly, an Englishman, found that this milky white fluid, when hard ened, could be used In effacing pencil murks, and In the early part of the nine teenth century Hancock dlacovr-cd thnt caoutchouc could be used In the man fature of articles of dress, A few year, later Charles Mackintosh, a Scotchman, rendered two fabrlco wnterproof by uniting them with a solution of rubber In coal naphtha, bence came the name "mack!ntoh" for the waterproof coat. nUcnvery of Vulcanisation, Not until about 1835, however, ten yearn later than the advent of the mackintosh, did Charles Goodyear, an American, dis cover the method of vulcanisation and make rubber fit to take Its place amorur the most Important commercial product of the world. Then In U93 the price of crude rub' ber owing to the demand created, suddenly advanced Born years before it had been foreseen that possibly the supply of South American gum would run out, and through the effects of climate, and cultivated rubber trees wero crown with success. Tho best rubber, however, still grows wild In the forestx on the Amnion, and according to P. A Pelberllnr. president of the Qoodyear Tire Rnd Rubber company, Akron, O.i rhr made an extended trip down the Amazon two year ago, the supply will more than , etiual the demand for some years to come. In 'the meantime rubber planta tions are springing up In many tropical countries. Home of thesa are alrsadv largo producers of high grade gum, ntiri the future of the supply of raw material stems to be assured. Tho number' of tires manufactured an nt'oiiy tor the commercial truck Is in creasing by leaps and bounds, ( Itutiber men are certain tho development of tho ifuck Industry in tho next few year will be fully as spectacular as tliti d'i velopmcnt of tho pleasure typo of auto- mobllo has, been in tho last few years. Pnrn U I'lnent ttunlltr. nubticr-producing trees, shrubs, eta, 'arc round mostly In northern fcoutli America, Central America, Mexico, cen tral Africa and Borneo. The finest rub bcr obtained Is fine Para, gathered In the Amazon regions of South Amerloa, tie lectins a rubber tree, the tittlv cut "V-shaped groqves In tho barfc wU.'i a special knlfo made for this purpose, the cfoovon being cut In .herring-bone fhh l0i diagonally around the tree, with Jn main groovo cut vertically down the Cen ter Ilka tho main vein In ft leaf. Tha latek of tho tree, from which the rubber 14 taken, flows from theso veins r.n& down the center vein Into a little cup tit the bottom of tho main vein, 'When the. cups are filled thoy are Cdth. efed and brought Into tho rubber camp, and thc.ro tho latex to coagulated by means of smoko. This Is done by tho uo of a paddlo which Is alternately dipped Into a bowl of the latex and thin involved lii the smoke from d wood or palm hut fire,' This smoke seems to luva a preservative effect on the rubbr, t well as drying It out' ohd causing It ts harden on the paddle, each auecoiMvu layer of tho latex causing the cits of tile rubber ball or biscuit to tno.vade. When a biscuit of sufficient site has I't'rn thus coagulated It la removed 'rom the paddle and la ready for shipment to various countries where rubber prod lets wo manufactured. Crude rubber aa it 'Is received at th factory la mora, or ls dirty. jano, leaves and twigs sometimes constitute at high aa 40 or 60 per cent of tn weight. Haw th Cracker" Parities. Thesa foreign aubatancta ore removed by washing the gumt orie or two tons being soaked In warm weather and then taken to a .machine called a "cracker," The crtaher conslsta of two large rolls covered with pyramidal projections Whh)h t evolve very close together at different surface speeds. It la a powerful ma chine, and aa the gum la fed between the rolls the projections tear It to pieces. During this process a continual flow of water from perforated pipes plays on the rubber, and aa It goes through these rolls repeatedly the water gradually washes awfty most of the foreign sub stance. After this the gum Is shoveled Into boxes and taken, to what Is known aa a "washer." This also consists Of folts, but the projections are relatively small and tha folia are nearer together. The work of removing the foreign matter la completed here, and tn addition tha gum is "sheeted out." Sheeting la acc6m pllshid by using warm water aa tha washing ftnlihea. The heat is Just enough to make the gum Sticky ao that from fifteen to twenty-flv pounda of rubber, a aheet about eighteen Inchea wide, several feet long and J-14 inch thick results. These sheets aro then dried. Mlxlnif the Inirredlenta. Mixing tha crude rubber with the com pounding Ingredients la the next step. Kach of the constltutents of a 100-pound "batch" la carefully weighed and taken to tho milling room. Here the rubber U warmed and softened before tbe com lound Is added by paaaing It between tha warm rolls of a machine similar In de sign to the washer, but much larger and with highly polished walla. The front roll revolve moro slowly than the back one and J.he gum soon forma an envelope around this, Tha compound la sprinkled on tha gum, a little at a time, and la gradually wotked In by tha constant kneading effect of tha rolla on tha soft ened gum. Finally, tba rolla are opened u little and the stock cut away In slabs about one-half Inch thick. (nee again it Is allowed 'to rcat-thts time forty-tight, hours when It Is ready to be shaped for tha rolls. In tha case of rubber heels, pieces of suitable aica are vat from the milled etocli, but In making to.ld tilts, where tha length la many t.mee tho other dimensions, It Is neces sary to make ue of another machine V s t done by running through what la known aa a tubing machine- This if acmblaa a mtat chopper on a large scale, 3 II ft r S-S 4 - mmmmmmmmmmmmmmaMmmmmH mmmmmm aeaaBBBBBBBaa mmmm mm mmmmmmmmm mm BaaaeaaeM mi mm i M with a dlo opening In place of the small holes. This turns out a continuous length of rubber of proper crcss-ieotlon as long aa tho milled stock Is fed Into the other end. Then follows the welshing of each tire, cementing to the base band, laying In the mold, tailing ti.o moid una placing the whoto In a bolter heater where the heat for curing la supplied by steam. Tho length of time roqulred to "uuie" or "vulcanise" a tire of medium stze is about three hours. Taken from the neuter It la cooled, removed from the mold, trimmed of the rinds nt the line of con tact of the halves of the mold, and tho tire la ready for shipment. Chemistry I'lnje its l-nrt. Tire manufacturers have had to be chemists, Inventors, analysis and keeh ob servers of conditions aa well, as mure craftsmen. Thoy havo had to establish their own precedents, lo solve- problem of construction and service that men havo never laced boforo. It Is a tohg step from tho Amazon Jungle, where native alaah trees and gather the sap, with chat tering monkeys and brilliant parrots an an audlenco to tho sturdy rumbling truck mat is revolutionizing outfit) in ihu cities of the world. MUch study lias gone Into this fuscinnt- Ing, phage of the development of a com meralAl age. Motor trucks aro really lo- cbmotlves. They run without permanent ateel traoka (and aro therefore practical) only bocuuso tho rubber treo grown frt mo tropica, and It blood. conseniM comtoundtd, finally tnaKv.i a cushion for wneei rims thouiianda of mlioa Without rubber tlrca trucks could not auc ceed. . CONVENIENCE IS AIM OF THE NEW PACKARD CARS Convenience In operation Is a character. Isllo of tha three hiotor carriages put out by tha Paokard Motor Car company, Tha features that aro being emphasized are tha left drive, electric self-starter and the centralised control. Tha left drive. In conjunction with tho poaltlve atarter. permits occupants of the front scat to step Into .the- car from tha crub, Tha Packard control board places the alerting, lighting, Ignition' and carbure tor controls on the ateerlng column dl rastly undor tha driver's hand. No at taohmenta, except gauges, gauge lights and priming button remain on tha dash. Electric Oars Are More Practical as Around Town Autos ''ICtectrlo automobiles 'aro destined to be tho logical and ' practical town car for both men and women," saya bales Manager Wordhutl of the Ohio Kluctiio Car company. 'Not only la It moat easily handled :n trafflo, but Its oxpenso of operation Is Very low ak Compared with high-powered cars, requiring expert attention, chauf feur ahd pneumatic tires, to aay nothing of the 'amount of the original Investment and the relative depreciation. Deprecia tion Is much less rapid In the elecllir, because it is far mora simple mechan ically, There la not nearly tha uumuer Of parti to gat out of .order or rcqune replacement. 'Electricity Is the oheapost form of power. Electric garages are acaiteroa throughout the city and our, power com pany Is serving current at a very reason able price." PROPOSED HIGHWAY TO BE OF IMMENSE BENEFIT INDIANAPOLIS, Ind., Vtb. 22.-Tht the Oeean-to-Ocean highway, now being projected, and which lnva uroused auto mobile and accessory manufactures and dealers the country over to a pitch of enthusiasm never before equaled; by any other good roods propaganda, will result In Immense good for all tho people, is the opinion of Henry H, Joy, president of the Packard Motor Car company. This com pany is one of tho heavy contributors to the fund which is now being raised for the purchase of materials and the con struction of the highway. Mr. Joy, tn the courte of a recent Interview, ex pressed himself fully on tho subject. and that this is going to be the place to get their Ideia and place ordera for ma chines before going home. Every man connected with the how la enthuHoatlc Salesmen and monufactur era experts who ore on tha ground SY that the show give promise of being or.? of the best ever held, fully up to thonBf of New York and Chicago and that tli exhibits will be of the same high claaa ai those seen In those cities. AN AUTOMOBILOGUE. There Is olio thing that this year will be different than tn the bast at the coming automobile show this week, Othnr years the opening night has been an oc caston whoa the house, using the ver nacular of the showman, has bean "pa pered." In other words. It has been filled by men and women holding free ticket. The management has done this on the theory that by giving away tickets 't would result In advertising the show But It has been discovered that this nas been a mistake, Aa a result, this year the free Hat has been cut to the mini mum and practically the only people who will not havo to pay will oe exhibitors. The management of the show feels tnu the necessity of getting out a crowd by giving away tickets no longer exists and that tho man who goes In on a compli mentary as a rule Is not a good booster. Last year opening night there were 5,000 free tickets at the Automobile show and thero was such a Jam that many who paid their way went out disgusted and never returned. This year there wl'l ba nothing of tho sort, and If there la a crowd, as undoubtedly there will oe, tho members of that crowd wilt be persons who have paid the regulation admission fee, Thousands of lettera from the countrv and from states other than Nebraaki have been recelycd by Manager Powell during tho laat week and the majority Indicate that the writers aro coming to the show. They ray they want to see the latest and best things in automobiles Vf. D. Nesblt In CollierB. The auto stood beside the road-all mournfully it stood, With wheels a-llmp and sorrow In tha. drooping of Us hood. "O woe Is mat" It gasped and wept, and "Woe Is me I" once more, "injustices of many sorts have cut me to the core. "They take me out to havo a flde-and suddenly, alaal , , . They find that through an oversight I haven't any gas. tvhn ir .t i ho h.nmA? Da thev them selves? That's how the case ahould But, on the other hand, they hoot and howl and curse at mo. "Ahead of me I see a place where glass is on the path A puncture comes, and Instantly there Is a time of wrath Instead of censuring the one whose duty fwas to see. A. They curse the tire man, curse the tire, and double-dash-blank me! "Transmission troubles will occur, unless ere they commence My owner exercises caro and likewise common sense; But What cares he? The clut?h gives out and all that ho can see Is Just another chance to put the guilti ness on mel "My carbureter gets choked up, a cylin der Will miss ... , i n. My owner tears his hair and yells, 'What do you think of this?' He yanks me with a monkey wrench and howls aloud that he Has never seen a bunch of Junk that ever equaled me! "Ho lets me skid; he will not feed me properly with oil!. He overlooks the water and then I be gin to boll .... And does he then condemn himself?" Not much! In raucous key He-uses all his cues words In some brief remarks at mc. 't wish I were a horse or mule, for then i a gei Borne care, i ior an uie r Sut autos have to stand mvIIb tViv on.li bear." Th auto went niraln and said: "Hen rnmrs mv owner he la stuck because of his own fault. The blame will come to me." CML av wv (JYaOaw WvvaA J mi A Car You Can Afford to Run Franklin Six "38" $3600 A Light, Full Size, Touring Gar "Buy a light oar" is the advice t of automobile owners everywhere. Tires and gasoline for a heavy car cost too much. Tire expense is not a burden with the Franklin Six "SB." Light weight and resilient, it goes twice as far on a set of tires as a heavy car. , You do not have to carry spare tires.. This saves expense and weight. You get twice the gasoline mileage of a heavy car. A light car does not require a great big engine Fuel consumption is small. Four-hundred miles to a gallon of oil and no smoke is another advantage. The Entz Electrio starting and lighting system used on Franklin cars is simple and direct. Like other starters the Entz starts the engine. Unlike other starters it prevents stalling. The engine cannot go "dead" in tight places. This means certain control anl simplifies driving 50. .GUY L. SMITH Omaha Space 17 at the Auto show 1 1 11 ' 1 " 1 " " 1 T'H " "Ml 1 ,nl 1 1 4 JL S 3 Follow the Trail :of the "Jack Rabbit 99 1 9 1 3 You can find it easily when you reach tho show. It will lead you to tho exhibit of tho FAMOUS -APPER-SON "JACK RABBIT" MOTOR OARS which commemorate the Twentieth Anniversary of the American Automobile. TWENTY YEARS AGO America's first gasoline motor car was built down in Kokpmo, Indiana, by tho Apperson brothers, Elmer and Edgar, who now personally supervise tho building of all Apperson cars. SEE THIS CAR Then Read the 41 Reasons Apperson "Jafc lUbblt" Tour ing Or for Fire, The e Are 41 Reasons Why You Should Own an Apperson T-hfcd orllaaera oaat eoarately. Biff valuaa. Hollow ci ink shaft poaltlve olltaff ajatam. Viva b tartar alamlnam crank cite. 43 par eent of tba oxaak abaft lecffth la bear- Inr aorfaca. Blldtnff vebt wter pnnp. Kemrcomk raOl&to. Tba coo lot taotor la tba irorll, Tba moit powarfnl motor la tba world for Its Tb motor actually deraleua 38 per ot&t mora power (nan any lormuia wu; It Klva credit to any ptaton dlaplaeement, raierva power and tvrrn of clutch and thev Jointly control nil nit. anta, making It Impoialblo for competltora to tun It for yeara to come. i power or incuon u laaa in A& Trm leaa or nrun cara than In other becauaa thn rnn. atructlon la auch that fewer bearlnga are ra- JL rreta ft oent of net power la AallTarM to me rear wneeia man in any omer oar. other motor with a Ilk proving- Ita remarkable flexibility Ap pars on Brother a and only on other maatt factuer In tha world ueo the contracting band "We will furnish the other twenty-eight on request. Get our 41 Boason folder- also the De Luxe catalogue. THE "JACK RABBITS" ,,4-55M Touring Oar for five $2000 "aS" Touring Oar for five $1600 "4-55" Touring Oar for seven $2250 "4-45" Roadster for two $1600 These prices include regular equipment. ELEOTRIO CRANKING, ELECTRIC LIGHTING if desired. Be'gure and Bee us before you leave. Apperson " Jack Rabbit" Auto Co. 1206 EARN AM ST., OMAHA, NEB.