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The Omaha Sunday Bee Magazine Pag r e Copyright, 1013, by the Btar Company. Great Britain Rights Reserved, s Not round Why YOU SHOULD LIVE 200 YEARS By EUGENE CHRISTIAN, F.S.D. NEARLY all specimens of animal life on this globo, except nan. live, under normal conditions, about eight' times tho period of their maturity, or that timo it takes them to attain full growth. A horse, dog or cow, that will obtain its growth in four years, will live about thirty-two years. This rule applies especially to all anthropoldal ana quadruped specimens. Man matures, or gets his growth, at about twonty four years cf age. Measured, therefore, by tho scale of all other animals, he ought to live eight tines twenty four years of ago. Measured, thereforo, by tho scale governing the llfo of all ether animals, ha ought to live eight tlraeB twenty-four, or about two hundred ycarB; but reckoning from tho ago of six, man dies at a frac tion over forty, which, on this reckoning, is about one fifth his natural period of longevity, while, if wo take into our calculations children under six, Including the Infant class, it brings man's period of longevity in all civilized countries down to about thlrty-soven years. Man-drinks tho same water and lives under the same sunshine as his brother animals. He differs from them mainly in his food, quantity of fresh air and exercise, which are the three fundamental laws governing all forms of life. It 1b fair to assume that man is no excep tion to the general rule governing all other animals, - Why Live OSTRICH FEATHERS Are Never Pulled Man the Only Animal That Do.es Not live Eight Times Its PERIOD OF MATURITY and that if ho did not commit some vory gravo error in maintaining llfo he would Hvo his normal period of years, as probably did his very ancient ancestors. Man has vastly increasod tho productivity of labor by Invention, and the productivity of the soil by tho science of agriculture. Ho has almost conquorcd the air and carried tho transportation of intelligence (talk ing through tho air) to its seeming limit; but ho has forgotten himself; in fact, Just to tho extent he has progressed in all of tho other sciences he has retro gresses In the science of preserving his own health and lite. Man is entitled by tnhorltance to Hvo two hundred years. Science, therefore, can boast only when it haa carried him beyond this period. Tho difference between youth and age Is, In fact, only a chemical difference. Tho dlfforenco botween tho Btlff and flexible cartilage, the hard and soft artory, tho nor mal and irritated nerve, tho rich hemoglobin (red) and thin blood, tho black and white hair, are only chemical differences. Thoy represent deposits thing, taken into tho body In which somo way and for somo reason tho body Is unable to cast out. If man had studied man, his construction nnd maintenance, and made of It a true science if he had given as much thought to tho human body and its preservation as ho has to other branches of science, thoso chomlcal differences would have been known, their causes removed, and man would to-day bo In possession of his birthright, which is a normal llfo period of two hundred years; or If ho had carried tho science of physiological chomlstry and food shomistry to tho same degree of development that ho has many other branches cf science, no doubt ho would bo able to prolong his life far beyond tho normal period. Tho threo fundamental laws governing all forms of life are nutrition (food), motion (exercise) and oxida tion (common air). Tho moBt important of these is food. Fresh air ia 1913 i 2. L Z. 2. Baby boriLthisyear t is Full gram in 19.37 life WEI He should live eight times flslond as if-. it takes to grow up x iif -192; or until 2105 7K JS12J504 easy to got, nnd broathlnn 1b automatic, and If tho body is proporly fod oxorclso will also be automntlo; but feeding tho human animal is guosswork, dono at hap hazard. 3Io is guided purely by his tasto. Ilia tnsto is warped and perverted. Ho haa forced into his body a thousand things that it did not need and could not use, that has changed hungor Into nppotlto, that has poisoned his blood and produced exhilaration, dethroned his reason and enthroned pernicious habits. Ho has eaten othor animals, quadrupeds, bipeds, Insects, and all sorts of cold crooplng things. In other words, ho has waited until thoso animals havo collected a fow food elements from very questionable sources and built up tholr bodies, and then ho lias attempted to prosorvo his own llfo bo stenling his nutrition from othoi animals. He has socurod food second hand, after It had been col lected by and passed into tho body of nnothor animal Tho human body is composed of fifteen woll-doflnod chemical clomcnts. That person enjoys tho best health, tho kooncst men tality and powers of perception, tho highest mental, physical and emotional organism who can Bolect and feed upon such articles as will supply all thoso con stituent parts of tho body most noarly In tho right or natural proportions. All of tho body dements can bo found in tho vege table world in their purest form. It requires, there fore, but little knowledgo to onablo man to solect food from such articles as will supply all thoso olomonts In approximately tho right proportions; but to this Im portant matter ho gives practically no thought. Every housowifo, especially ovory mothor, should un derstand something about tho chomlBtry of tho body and Its needs, and also understand about food chora-' Istry, which tolls how to supply thoso noodB. No intelligent mother would give her child or hus band modlcino compounded by a druggist that knew nothing about tho chomlstry and action of drugs; yot most mothers aro putting a proscription of food upon tholr tables threo times a day without any knowledge whatever of tho chemistry of foods or tho demands of tho family. It Is touch easlor to accept things as thoy aro than to analyzo thorn and show tholr .faults. Thus the groat mass of pooplo movo on, eating what Is sot before them or what Is listod on bills of faro, without knowlodgo of concern. Dr. J. H. Mason Knox, an eminent authority on chil dren's dlscnsos, said in a public locturo in Washing ton not long ago that 300,000 chlldron undor two years of ago die ovory yoar in tho Unitod States of curablo diseases. Dr. Knox further assorted that the numbor of deaths among chlldron from crolcss feeding Is twice that from tuberculosis and about one-third tho number from all so-callod virulent diseases combined. Practically ovory 0110 of thoso Uvea could bo oavod by correct focdlng. Coal and the X-Ray IT Is now bolloved that tho mystory of tho formation .and constitution of coal, which has long puzzled students, will bo solvod by moans of tho X-ray. According to n French scientific Journalr thoro aro two or threo kinds of osh in coals: First, tho foreign matter carried by tho wind or tho rain Into tho forest that gavo rlso to tho coal. Noxt thoro is tho mlnoral matter that formB part of living plants. Finally, there is gonorally moro or Iobb mlnoral mattor duo to the for mation of now compounds by tho docomposition'of tho first two kinds of nsh. Tho examination of coal with tho X-rays will proDably lead to a posslblo distinction botweon these threo forms of ash, and will thus con tribute to throw light on tho formation of veins. AVERY small proportion of our ostrich feathers como from the wild birds now adays. Twenty years ago there wero but fow ostrich farms and tho great majority of ostrich feathorB camo faom wild birds which were killed by the feather hunters In South Africa. Of course, aftor tbe ostriches wero killed tho faathers were pulled out, but now that tho ostrich farms thrive and the birds are stripped of their plumo feathers and turned loose to grow more, greater caro has to bo takon. Tho whlto ostrich feathers are not fully developed. There aro also black and drab feathers on tho samo bird, but when tho whlto feathers are fully .developed they lose a great deal of their whiteness, and In tho olden days had to be bleached. Now the ostriches are blindfolded with a hood on tho farms and led Into a sort of crate like coop, whero tho black and drab feathers aro carefully pullod out; but tho whlto feathers are never pulled out, as this would so damage the groat sockets In which the large quills grow that no more would bo forthcoming, so the quills of the white feath ers aro carefully cut off and tho quills allowed to remain for several months, when thoy come out naturally and tho new feathers start. Thereforo, practically every genuine un bloached white ostrich feather does not havo a complete quill when it is shipped in the rough. The people who prepare those feath- era for the markets, however, remedy thisi easily by adding the end of other quills in so ' clever a manner that it 1b scarcely dis cernible. Fifty years ago there were only eighty-two tame ostriches known in all South Africa, And in that year only sixteen pounds of feathers were exported, and they came for tho most part from wild birds brought down by the hunters. Last year thcro were about 800,000 domesticated ostriches in South Africa, nearly 900,000 pounds of feathers were oxported at a value of moro than a million and a quarter dollars. Find Out If Your Tea Is Pure YOU MIGHT TRY- B FOR NAILING HARDWOOD. EFORE attempting to drive a nail through hard wood or whore It might spilt the wood push it through a thin cako of soap. You will then find that it will go through quite easily. T FROSTING WINDOW GLASS. O frost a bathroom window mako a very strong solution of Epsom salt and vinegar. Apply it with a brush, and afterward go over it with some white varnish. IMPROVING SHINY CLOTH. TO improvs shiny serge or cloth lay it flat oil tho table and pass a ploco of fine sandpaper very gently over tho shiny part. Tho sand paper will roughen up tho nap again, but bo careful not to rub too hard, as it may wear a holo in your material. I CLEANING IVORY. !f cleaning ivory knlfo handles rub them well with half a lemon dipped in salt. This will mako them beautifully white. After this treatment they should bo -well washed in cold water and thoroughly drlod. MISS ALBERTA READ, of tho Bureau of Chemistry, in Washington, 1b a woman whose health should bo drunk at every tea table In America. As Uncle Sam's official tea tester, It is her duty to guaru mo country against the importation and tho selling of adulterated tea. One of Miss Read's recent achievements Is the discovery of two simple -ways of detect ing the presence of adulterants. One of these wayB is to place a sample of tea on a piece of black paper. With tho aid of a microscope ono can ton readily toll whothor the tea con tains talc, which is often sprinkled on the leaves by unscrupulous dealers to give them a hard, shiny appearance. In a similar way the adulterant which Is frequently used to give weight to tea can be detected by placing a sample on a piece of whlto paper under the microscope. PEPPER FOR MICE. GAYENNE pepper is excellent ub a meanB of ridding a cupboard of mice. The floor should bo gone over carefully and each holo Btoppod up with a ploco of rag dipped in water and then in Cay enno pepper. FOR OIL PAINTINGS. A WASHED rind peeled potato, cut In half, can bo used to clean oil paintings. Tho surface should then bo wiped with a damp cloth, rubbed with dry cotton wool, and finally polished with a silk handkerchlof. IF YOUR SHOE PINCHES IF a shoo plncheB in one place put a drop of sweet oil on the stocking Just whero the plnoh comes, and also apply a drop to tho outsldo of the boot at the same place. Tho oil softens tho leather, and helps it to stretch. Where LITTLE SCHOLARS Are Started on Their LIFE WORK PRACTICALLY no attempt is mado in tho public schools in this country to sort out tho boys and girls and start thorn in whatever occupation Booms best fitted for them. That remains for later train ing, of for tho great god "Chance," which ls responsible for so many thousands of occu pations that young pooplo enter Into. But in Switzerland, tho greatest of care Is takon to noto Just what a youngster seems best fitted for, Just what he likes best and oIbo what ho is best adaptod for. Tho old rulo that a man will gonorally succeed In any sort of business or work that he actually HkoB holds good in Switzerland, whero the teachors will put somo boys Into wood carv ing and not wasto too much of their timo with a higher education, while othor boys will bo educated along mcchanlcufl, or theological, or scientific linos, as thoy seem best adapted for. Tho school teachors In Switzerland nro moro than 90 por cent men, and thoy do not flit about from city to city and school to school as thoy soom to do In a certain meas ure in this country When a man bocomca a school teacher in Switzerland ho Is gonorally a teacher for life. Tho pay of theao school teachors docs not soom large, but when everything is consid ered it will be seen that ho Is probably doing better than tho average school teacher in this country, which Is not saying so very much, considering the small pay touchers roceivo hero, A Swiss school tcachor gctB $500, on an average for his year's salary. Somo got as high as $700, or oven 1800, but such salaries are raro and gonorally In wealthy communi ties or large citicB that Is, largo citios for that little country up among the Alps. But it should bo remembered 4.hat this in not all a Swiss school tcachor gots, ho 1b always furnished with a good comfortable house to Hvo In and all tho fuel ho needs, which, In that cold ocuntry, moans a great deal. In addition to this, ho has a goad-slzod garden plot, whero ho can grow muoh of hlB food. And thon tho sohool teacher in a Swiss vll lago Is an Important porsonago, ono who ranks along with tho Mayor, and. tho clorgy man, and tho doctor. Ho la tho intellectual part of tho community, and very frequently ho picks up ylOO oxtra each yoar serving aa secretary of various associations, creamory companies, loan associations, carving-soiling concerns and tho like. At tho same timo he Is probably tho leader of tho village choir, bandmaster, head of tho cometery associa tion nnd nctlVo in many such branchos. Such a school teacher gots his homo and soon Bottles down for life, raising a family and living honored and beloved all his days, frequently toaching four generations of chlldron in his llfo time. Ono teacher taught his school without a break for slxty-flvo years, ono had hold tho position for twenty years, and his father had taught that samo school beforo him for thirty-nvo years. Such a teacher gets to know tho children and their parents and their grandparontB, and finally such a teacher Ib pretty well qualified to help direct his students in tho walks of life they seem best fitted for. The Swiss children ar oxcollent scholars, and it is raro Indeed the? are not rapidly promoted. Aftor four yoara of elemontary training tho children proceed Into schools that aro carefully divided tor the various types of children. Some get a technical training, some few aro prepared for the university and somo for various formB of business life, both the boys and tho girls. Why You Should Always SAVE PUMPKIN and SQUASH SEEDS MILLIONB of rats and mice Infest our cities and towns, as well as every rural section, and It has been a prob lem how to rid the country of tho expensive post All 'sorts of traps have been invented, and many schemes devised, and the pests havo been caught and killed in vast numbers, but the right way does not seem to havo gone into general use. There iB something In a pumpkin or squash seed that will attract tho rats and mice more than any other known substance, and the solution to the problem of eradicating tho great pest Is to use tho seed from squashes and pumpkinB for bait for all kinds of' traps devised for catching both rats and mice. The little animals will go anywhere for one of these seeds. Tbey are naturally suspicious of traps, and are often smart enough to keep out of even the most simple traps, but when traps are baited with pumpkin or squash seeds thoy will risk anything and onter or In vestigate any form of a trap. If properly used, overy seed Is worth its weight In gold. They will draw the entire rat and mouse population to ono point, and they will not leave without an attempt to secure their desired sweets, and, if- properly man aged, the entire lot can bo captured. Do away with all forms of poison and try this remedy. Why BRIGHT CHILDREN Are Often THOUGHT to be DULL ...... . 1 - I - . M , 4 - I .1 II .1 . lit Tut; ut; are a greai many origin ouuuui vuuucu. who aro unfortunate enough to bo classed byj their teachers as rathor dull and stupid when, in reality thoy nro qulto as bright as any othor young ster, and this is due to tho fact that they aro slightly deaf. Their deafness Is so slight that tho teachor does not discover it, and cannot be expected to discover it undor normal conditions; oven their faces do not show that thoy are deaf, as is tho case with those whose deafness is qulto pronounced. But these slightly deaf children do not catch all that Is said, thoy do not qulto get tho benefit of all that is read or spoken In tbe class, and so they do not learn these things. Then when the time comes, they cannot repeat tho losson and thoy are held to bo dull, At the sixth congress of the American School Hy giene Association Dr. Helen Macmurchy, of Toronto, read a most interesting and instructive paper upon this subject, In which she pointed out all these things and doclared that it was froquontly possible to recog nize such slightly deaf chlldron by extremely careful examination. There is no doub. but that chlldron who nro slight ly deaf, but whoso condition is not such that their teachors recognize it, aro greatly handicapped by tho failure of others to know this and take tho proper steps. Tho child In this condition has no means of knowing that his hearing is not normal. In a perfectly quiet room, says Dr. Macmurchy, the averago normal hearing dlstnnce for a whisper ia twenty-flvo feet A child that can hear a whisper at ftvo yards will not Iobo much education because of this, but they may lose a little, especially it seated at tho back of a big school room, and no child should lose any opportunity to learn Chlldron who can hear a whisper at a distance of only from throe to flvo yards "should always be given soats In tho front row In the school, and thoso who can bear a whisper at only from one to three yards need special help and training and should bo placed in small classes with a teacher who purposely speaks distinctly and slowly and with a careful lip movement, as thoy neod to study the Up movemont as well as the normal studies. Those are slmplo and practical tests or hearing and should be mudo by overy teacher, also by all parents when It Is known JiiBt how far away a child can hear a whisper; then it is known Just what sort of training should bo given the child, whether ho is normal, or whether ho should sit down front, or oven go Into a special class and take up Up reading along with other studies. Children who aro deaf from birth should be taught Up reading at as early an ago as posslblo, which will help to overcome to a groat extent his handicap of being a mute. Dr. Macmurchy summarizes the educa tion of tho deaf child' as follows: (1) Teach the deaf child to speak. (2) Recognize the deaf child and se cure his education. (3) Provide spocial teachers and special classes for the deaf child. (4) In large cities night Glasses for adults who are in danger of becom ing deaf should be established in lip reading. 1 j' Making BABIES SLEEP Under Running WATER ifT has often been ciaimea tnat tne sound 01 running water had the effect of lulling anyone to sleep, but in one part of the country tho mothers go much further than this and make their babies sleep by letting a small stream of water flow directly on their little heads. Such a means seems almost Incredible, and one would think colds and other ailments would result that would kill the babies, but apparently this novel liquid lullaby has no harmful effects upon tbe native infants, and they lie sleeping for hours with a stream cf water flowing dlreotly upon the tops of their heads. Phis is done by the natlvo mothers in tbe vicinity of Simla, in Jndia.' There the women do a great deal of field work and must leave their babies alono- Few of those women can afford caretakers, and they resort to what they consider the next best thing, An example of this, was noted a while ago when ft new road waa being built, and many mothers were em ployed in some of the work. There were little grooves or resting places along the line of the road that was undor construction, and hero were seen numbers of babies. Each resting place was selected because of a spring near at hand. The water from the spring was carefully directed to tho place where the babies wero lying. Tho babies were placed with their heads on a pillow of earth, and a stream of water directed to flow fairly against the top of the Infant's head, and a trough waa made for this water to run off la. ' Anywhere from three to ten babies were thus lulled to sleep, depending upon the size of tho spring and the quantity of water in the overflow. Each stream was about the size of one's finger, and made to run through a little wooden spout, to give forcr to the stream. According to English officers, who reported this re markable method of caring for babies, it was quite suc cessful. Never wore such quiet and well behaved babies found as thoso under tho spouts of water. Tho native mothers laughed at the suggestion that such 4 thing. would hurt their babies, and declared that, on the other hand, it tended to mako them strong. Ia fact, some of the mothers declared that a child not brought up in this manner would be weak mentally as well as physically, as they belioved the water pouring on the little beads oxtuaUy strengthened their brains. How We Got the Little Word "IF" THE little word "If" is one of the most Important words In tho English lan guage, and one about which there has been many a dispute as to the origin. "If" is pretty well understood as meaning "on condition that," "when posslblo," but who invented it, and what was the original meaning of this little word? More than a century ago an English scholar suggested that the word "If" was derlvod from the old Anglo-Saxon word Gavan, and that, tho imperatlvo being "Gif," it was easily changed into "If," thus suggesting the original meaning to havo been "Give that," or "grantod that," or, as we say, "If." For many years this derivation was gen erally accepted, but as scholars began to study tho old Anglo-Saxon and tbe kindred languages, it appeared that this derivation Ignored the other languages altogether, and. yet the Idea existed and was expressed in the similar tongues. Tho latest research' points to a derivation entirely different from that old-fashioned ono which satisfied our forefathers. In Old Saxon the word is found spelled "Of," and It Is orly when wo study the Old High German that wo see tho real origin of our word. There Is the word "Iba," condition or stipulation, and the dative case of this word is "Ibu" or "Ipu," meaning "onl condition," the precise meaning of our word' "If" and evidently the correct ancestor ofJ this common little word bo often on our lip.