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maha Sunday Bee Magazine Page Copyright 1(13, bjr tha Star Company, Great Drttaln ntRhta ReaerreO. m "WOMEN Will Rule the Air ' s f No. 1 The Skeleton of the Bat., IlIun(ra(lnK the QBadrupedil or "All F"otiru" roaltlon of Firing. The Primitive Tendency of of Woman Ttmnrd That Poaltlon Glrea Her One Ail rnntnge Over Man In Ilun nlng? the Aeroplane. No. 2 The Skeleton of a Knntcnrno. The Gigantic I.eapN of Thla Animal Are Made Poaalhle Largely by Ita Combination of Up right nnd All Foura Attl tude a Poaltlon Into Which Woman S t n k a Naturally When Piloting on Aeroplane. No. 3 The Skeleton of a Snnkr. The llrptllr, Al though It Orliclnally Sprung: from the Same An ceator aa the Iilrd, Una a Compactneaa of Skeletal Strnoture Which Man Bharea In a Leaatr Deirree T hat Abanlutely For bid It from Flylngr. 'No. 4 The Skeleton of a lllrd. in I.lshtnraa of Frame nnd Structure It ' More Cloaely Ilearmlilra the Skeletal Formation of Women, Whoan Spc clflc Gravity, the Sclen .tlata flay, la Leas Than . Mau'a. No. ft The Skeleton of n Man. The Jlonra Aro Heavier and More Com pact Than That of Woman. The Cheat la Larger, Showing the Need for More Air a Matter of Importance In Itartfled Atmoaphtrea, No. 8 The Skeleton of a Woman. The 8 1 1 g a t Differences Between It and That of the Man Glvea Her an Eaormoua Advantage and Pota Her More on a Level rrlth the Creaturea That Fly Naturally, Better Than Men for Flying Because They Are More Primitive, Not So High Strung, Feel Pain Less, See More, HavelSJo Concentration, Sneeze Less Heavily and Are Closer to the QuadrupedsClaims the French Government, Making Its Foremost Woman Aviator a Chevalier to Encourage Others Vlllo. Dutrieu, the Daring French Woman Aviator, Who Has Been Made a Chevalier pf the Legion of Honor hy the French Government. MLLH. HBLENB DUTRIEU, the "Hawk Girl of Franco," has just been made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor as a reward for her skill as an aviator. Mile. Dutrieu Is one of few women to receive this decoration. France has g,lven it to her because the Bu reau of War has become convinced that women make better aviators than men, and so, In Its struggle to perfect Its aeroplane Bervlce, wishes to encourage women to enter that field of action! The great ambition of the French Is to keep far ahead of all other nations In aviation. The belief that the victories of the future will 'belong to those who aro strongest In the air has becomo firmly Ingrained in the national mind. Therefore, France Is spend ing more than any other nation on this branch of service and is making extended and varied researches into the problems and possibilities of aviation. In the course of these experiments, not long ago, a series of tests were made to determine the effects of altitude and speed on tho human body and to test the reactions under the conditions of flvlnit Both men and women were used in the experiments, and when the results were tallied It was found that the woman had far outstripped the men on all Points' Other experiments were made and the ex perts in charge, as a result, have come to the surprising conclusion that woman make n much better aeroplane drivers than do men that In the future she will literally rule thThelr'report of the scientists to the -Var Department, as cabled from Paris, gives eight controlling factors for this supremacy: First Because woman is more primitive than man. , . Second Her nerves are not so delicate, and so she is less nervous. Third she feels pain less than man does. Fourth She needs less oxygen In her br?fth The arc of her sight Is nearly double that of man. . - A . Sixth She has tho faculty of "diffused at tention," which man ordinarily lacks. Seventh That her specific gravity Is less than man's and that the slight differences in her skeletel structure givo her an enor mous advantage in the air over her heavier, more compact mate. Eighth That her sneeze is less violent. Tho perfect aviator, says tho report, am plifying these points, needs not nerve, but comparative nervolcssnoss. The possession of what is called "nerve" implies a psycho logical conflict In which courage is continu ally overcoming fear. The truly courageous man is ho who fears something mightily, but who goos on and fights in spite of his fear. The man who "never knew what fear Is" Is not truly courageous, In tho higher sense, because It does not requlro courage to fight something of which wo nro not afraid. - The "hlghor courage" is positively detri mental to tho aviator, tho experimenters say, because the psychological conflict between "nerve" and fear uses up energy and koops the aviator at a tension which does not al low tho highest efficiency as a flier. Conse quently, the typo that makes the perfect avi ator is the one that is nerveless, who has no conception of fear and faces tho perils of the air courageously because ho does not recog nize that there are any perils. Woman, it was found, has this quality to a surprising degree. She has It because she Is still the primitive sex, has doveloped less than man, not only physlologlqally, but psy chologically. Back In a far distant age man and woman were almost equally nerveless. But man's activities caused him to acquire finer and more delicate nerves. Ho has steadily become more nervous and more sensitive to pain. This incapacitates him for tho con quest of the air, while woman's lack in these respects fits her for it. The comparative Insensibility to pain is important because many an aviator has dropped to death because tho stinging cold of the upper altitudes has caused him, mo mentarily, to lose control of his machine. Again, in driving an aeroplane, the avi ator's position is more nearly quadrupedal than in any other form of locomotion. The aviator almost literally flies on all fours. Ho does this because ho can attain the best balance in this position. Here the same prlmltlveness which gives woman the lead in nervelcssness also comes to her aid. Sho is of structure more nearly the quadruped than-1b man. It is more natural and easier for her to drop on all fours and she can get about more freely In that posture than man A Photograph of the Late Harriet Quimby, the Queen of Amer ican Flying Women and One of the Very Few Women to Lose Their Lives in Aviation. She Is Shown Climbing Into Her Aero plane. airship pilot than the breast of tho Missis sippi is to the steamboat pilot and Mark Twain has told of their complexities. The peripheral sensitiveness of woman enables her to see these signs whero man's concen- can. Dr. Havelock Ellis makes the assertion . trated sight misses them that the realization that woman "is still an atomically a quadruped Is the greatest sur gical triumph of the nineteenth century." In this connection he defended woman's use of the corset, saying that it !s needed to keep organs designed by nature for a horizontal position, In a vertical one. Man having learned what woman haB only Imperfectly learned, to stand upright, needs no corset. This quadrupedal tendency, to gether with the fact that her bones aro lighter and she has less specific gravity than man, aids her In flying, as It does in swim ming. When timidity does not restrain them women are much better Bwlmmers than men. The field of woman's sight is larger than man's. The report states it thus: "The arc of a woman's vision is nearly twice that of man." In other words, while man, trained to concentrate his sight upon one object, sees with only a limited part, tho centre, of the retina of his eye, woman, through centuries of slde-glanclng habits, of looking, so to speak, out of the tall of her eye, hw kept the faculty of sight throughout tho periphery of her re tina. While looking straight ahead she can see what la happening at either side of her and for a short distance behind her. This power she shares with the savage and most of the lower animals the rabbit and she be ing about equal in this respect. The faculty Is enormously valuable In tho air. Graham-White, among others, has Bald that it is of the utmost Importance to the aviator to be able to see every change in the skies above him and the land about him. Trees moving in a breeze far to the left may be a danger signal, which will mean disaster to the airman it not heeded. So of changes in clouds. The country under and the air about are filled with more slcns to the perfect In tho same way what the late great psychologist, William James, called her, "dispersed attention," helps her. Man's ad vancement has developed in him a tremen dous power of concentration. This his primi tive spouse, or sister, lacks. Man concen trates his attention. Woman scatters hers. Man thinks of one thing at a time. Woman tries to think of many things nt the samo moment and succeeds. Tho span of conscious ness Is wider in woman even if it Is .shallower. Consuming less oxygen than man she 1b a shallower breather she Is loss affecod by the thin air of high altitudes. For theao and other reasons cited In tho remarkable statement by tho distinguished New York, physician, Dr. A. Monao Lesser, former chief surgeon of the lied Ctobh In tho United States, and leader of tho Eed CroBS forces in Cuba during the war with Spain, tho French Army Department has ddtermlned to recruit as many women as possible In Us flying corps. A spoclal law will hava to bo passed making them eligible to army service. Tho French aro tho most gallant ot nations. But thoy repudiate the sug gestion that they aro crowning women queenB of the nlr to make up for tho slight put upon them by art, which never carved or painted a woman an gel. Their course Is a sternly practical one, thoy Bay, and Mile. Dutrleu's ele vation to the ranks of a Chevalier la only part of a practical campaign. Dr. Lessor's statement follows: Why HOME-LOVING Woman is the Best Air Woman By Dr. A. Monae Lesser. (Former Chief Surgeon of the Ped Cross of America.) THERE is truth in the contention that woman because of her primitive qualities may yet rule the air. But tho type of woman who will do so is the quiet, stay-at-home woman tho housekeeper, housewife and mother. That it should be she, the woman of the hearth, Instead of the woman ot public ac tion, is capable of Bclontlflc proof. Since the dim ages of the world, when men and women were of equal prlmltlveness, man has developed far, and a penalty ot his mighty concentration has been an acute ten sion of the nervous system and a correspond ing seusltiveneBs to pain. If men were called upon to bear the pain that i'j visited upon women, especially in maternity, they would suffer doubly, and many of them would die. Even lesser pains ordinarily borne by women would send them running about the house screaming. They could not enduro what women bear because women have a greater capacity for suffering. All this is due to their: greater nerve tension, which has come with their greater advanco from prlmltlveness. Tho greater nerve tension haB produced a different kind of nerves. Scattered through the membranes of their bodies are nerves of a finer, more delicate order. Men sneeze more violently than women because in the membrane lining of the noao are a finer grade of nerves, more delicate, moro sensitive to intruding dust or to changes of temperature. The woman who has developed along lines of domesticity has little or no such nervous sensitiveness. Her sensibilities are coarser, because they have never been de veloped to the knlfo-llko edge of man's. It is not, according to some aeronauts Claude Graham White, I bellevo among them not nerve, but lack of nervousness, that makes great aeronauts, Nervousness during an ascent Is fatal. That state which we term "nervelessness," tho absence of finely attuned nerves, is better than courage In an emer gency. Imperturbability Is a safeguard, and the woman of low order ot nervousness 1b im purturbable. ' One type of woman should be barred from the air, and she, unfortunately, la the kind that would rush Into it. That 1b the worn at. who Is the opposite of the primitive the advanced woman. In the last hundred years a minority of women has developed enormously in men tality, and In tho ncuteness of nervous or ganization that accompanies a high order of mentality. This minority of their sex has developed with men, equally with them, and their nerves have attenuated to the fineness I have described. These are sterile women, women who aro childless, and who have de veloped almost abnormally their minds Such as these, laboring under all the disa bilities of men by the fineness of their nervous organism, should never be permit ted to make an ascent. Take a woman from the nursery, from tho Ironing table or from beside tho kitchen range, but not a woman from tho desk or studio, to make the conquest of the alrl In such a woman as I first described the primitive qualities have remained the "peripheral visual attention" which William James cites, the "dispersed attention." the lack of necessity of the violent sneeze. The other sort is too highly developed, too man like, too highly strung for successful aer'V feats, Mr.. Gavin, an EnglUk Worn, an 'Aviator to Whom EncIanJ Will Givo Victoria Crow.