Newspaper Page Text
The Omaha Sunday Bee Magazine OUTSIt 77ie Newest Miracle of Medical Science That Page m0SKM taw Diagram Showing How One Dog That nod Been "Bled ITS A Ol&lJilO kJLM Llll ISZLl KJlll White" Was Restored by the Blood of Another Dog w Being Forced Through Its Jugular Vein. One of the Preliminary Experiments That Resulted in the Dis covery of the New Blood Washing By Dr. Leonard K. Hirshberg, M. A. (Johns Hopkins University) THE most remarkable achieve ment of modern surgery Is tho discovery of n method whereby tho blood can be drawn from tho body, washed clean and be returned without the heart missing a slnglo beat. This docs not mean, of course, that the blood is washed In tubs llko a shirt. Cleansing of tho Ufo stream, with Its hosts of red and whito corpuscles, Us scrumnnd its ferments, is a far more complicated natter. Nevertheless tho now method of purifying Is quite as extraordinary aB though tho circula tion wero sent out to bo laundered. The invention by which the wash ing is dono is that of Professor J. J. Abel, ono of tho most brilliant ex perimental surgeons in America, and Drs. L. G. Rountree and B. B. Davis, all three of Johns Hopkins, The cleansing outside the body Is made possible by the action of what 13 known as osmosis. Osmosis is tho tendency to mix of all liquids and gases by passage through a mem brane or porous wall separating them. Lot mo mako this process clear. Suppose you take a vessel and half 1111 it with distilled water. Then suspend in it a bag made from mem brane parchment, tho coverings of tho intestines, a bladder. Fill this membranous bag with sweetened water and leave it immersed in tho pure water for an hour. Now If you carried this bag around for an hour by Itself you would not lose a drop from it. But when at the en'd ot your hour of Im mersion you test your enclosing water you find it also sweet The liquid in tho bag has strained out through tho minuto interstices In the confining membrane and tho enclos ing liquid has strained in, and this process will go on until tho fluid outside the bag is just as sweet as that inside. We call this the osmotic tho pores of 'tho skin throw off waste matters and poison from tho blood. How do these products get into tho pores from tho llttlo An Invention THE torpedo bicycle is a remark able but simple French inven tion that promises to double the speed of the ordinary bicycle. Tls machine is the Invention of M, Eti enne Buniiu-Varilla, who Is a relative of the noted M. Bunnu-Varllln, the French financier who sold the rights to tho old French Panama Canal to tho United States Government The torpedo bicycle Is an ordinary bicycle How the Bicycle Rider Sits Inside Tight, Enclosing Him Method. blood vessels we call tho capillaries? Again by osmosis, Thoy circulate In tho blood stream and strain out under the osmotic pressures into tho sweat glands Just as they strain out in side the body and poison the vital organs if their quantity is too groat to bo removed through the skin or if tho pores are not working prop erly. Now of recent years hydropathy, or the treatment ot certain diseases by frequent and long continued baths, has developed greatly. It has been proven that some forms of in sanity duo to persistent poisons in tho blood can bo mitigated and sometimes cured by soaking the patient for hours In warm water. The secretion through the skin Is stimulated by tho water and the poisons nro carried away directly from the blood through the sweat glands. Tho vapor bath and Its liko for removing an excess of uric acid is an ancient institution. It is true that these methods do not remove tho causes of the poisoning, but by relieving the blood stream ot the poisons they give Naturo a mighty help toward cure. Dr. Abel's system is a highly specialized form of hydropathy in which, by the aid of fifty feet of mica tubing, the circulatory system Is ex tended outside tho body and is brought directly in contact with a cleansing liquid. During its passage through this liquid the blood stream is washed by osmosis freo of Us poisons and goes back into tho body pure. The apparatus itself consists, as has been said, of fifty feet of mica tubing. This is shaped by S turns into thirty-two continuous tubes which in their turn aro immersed in a glass cylinder. Mica is used be cause its texture Is tho nearest thing to 'the texture of tho walls of the arteries and veins. Mica, like the blood vessel walls, is slightly porous and so susceptible to osmotic pres sure. Tho apparatus is so small and delicate that the whole does not take up more than a cubic foot of space. A rubber tube is attached to each That Doubles a Bicycle's Speed with a peculiarly constructed wind shield that removes all air pressure and friction from the body of the rider. Tho wind shield is made of aluminum. This Increases the rider's power enormously. The shield Is constructed somewhat llko a torpedo, but with the broad end in front and the polnted.part be hind. Large celluloid windows en ables the rider to see the road In front of him. the Torpedo. The Side Flap Shuts) in the Egg-Shaped Body. Forces Your Heart to Pump the Life Stream Into Fifty Feet of Cleansing Tubes and Then Pump It Back Into the' Veins of tho two openings. Tho mica tubeB nro filled with a normal salt aolu- tlon a heaping tcaspoonful of salt mixed in a quart of sterilized water. Tho enclosing glass cylinder is filled with the same saline mixture Tho whole apparatus rests In a box where by certain appliances a constant tomporaturo Is maintained for tho liquid. So much for the appliance. Now how is tho blood to be carried through It for washing? Here enters the mlraclo of surgery. Tho nock of tho patient is Opened and tho carotid artery and the Jugular vein on ono side is laid bare. Tho carotid car rlos tho freshly oxygenated arterial bipod away from' tho heart and tho Jugular vein carries tho returning current of depleted, waste-laden blood black to tho heart for fresh oxygena tion by tho lungs. Thero is a carotid artery and a Jugular vein on each side of tho neck. The exposed artery and vein aro frozen at a certain point and cut. To ono of tho sovered ends ot tho caro tid is attached the. rubber tubing that leads into the intake of the mica pipes. Tho exhaust end of tho mica piping is attached to ono end of tho Jugular in tho same fashion. The other parts of tho severed vessels are then tied. Wo then have tho circulatory syi torn Increased by fifty feet of artificial artery. Tho heart pumps tho blood through just as though It were a part of tho body. And here enters the reason for the saline solution that flllls the mica tubes. Manifestly, if thore wero nothing within them when tho heart began to forco the blood through thero would bo withdrawn from the circulation at one time enough blood to fill tho tubes. In the experimental apparatus in use this would bo six hundred cubic inches, or roughly seven and a half pints. Aj tho blood of a man Is normally one-thirteenth his weight, such a quantity with drawn at one time would be apt to cause trouble. Again, if thero was a vacuum within tho tubes tho blood would be drawn Into them from both ends. And If there wero air, the forcing of It into the circulation and into tho heart would at onco prove fatal. But saline solution can be injectod Using this machine the French runner Berthet, who is riot supposed to be in the 6amc class as first class bicycle riders, easily beat the records of tho best riders.- It is stated by tho Frenph authorities that he easily beat tho world's record for one kilo meter, or 3,280 feet, by eight seconds. The record for this distance is said to be fifty-five seconds. If tho new machine can make such an enormous reduction as eight seconds in fifty five when used by a comparatively slow rider, it is expected that a rider like Walthour would be able to cut tho record nearly In half. Berthet made another remarkable record with the torpedo bicycle. Rid ing very easily ho covered a distance of five kilometers, or about three and three-quarter miles, in five i minutes and forty-seven seconds at the Palace of Sports in Paris, beating the world's record by one minute and four sec onds. It Is suggested that this machine vlll make a very plcusant and eco nomical substitute for the motorcycle. It enables a rider to travel as fast as anybody can wish to go and nt tho sumo time protect himself from the wind und dust The construction of the torpedo-liko windshield is based upon very care fully studied scientific principles. A superficial observer might think that a shield pointed In front and broader behind would cut through the nlr faster, but as a mutter of tact this would hinder the progress of tho machine by creating air fric tion at the rear. The filing down of the aluminum envelope to n point has n most important effect in reducing air resistance. The same principle has been followed to some extent In con structing boats, and even passenger cars. Copyright, 10H, with All into tho circulatory system -without any harm. Indeed Dr. Alexis Carrel, of tho Rockofollor Instltuto, has kept animals allvo for days upon such "artificial blood." Tho serum of tho blood is practically of tho same com position as sea water. Cases ot hemorrhage in which tho pationt has almost been "bled white" havo boon held fast to llfo and sot toward re covery by tho Injection of saline solu tion. So it is, fhon, that when tho sallno solution in the tubes is forced through tho Jugular veins and seven and a half pints of it at once go coursing through tho body, thero aro no ovil results. Tho heart goes on pumping it just as though It wore the normal Ufo stream. In tho meantime tho real blood has entered the tubing and is rac ing along between tho mica walls. As tho normal serum in which the red and whito corpuscles movo Is ot tho same density, tho same composl- Greatly Magnified Section of a Blood Vessel Showing tho Little Interstices Through Which Poisons in the Circulation "Leak" Out. tlon and temperature of tho bathing salt solution that washes tho out side of the tubes and ot therefore the same osmotlo pressure, It does not leak out into the surrounding medium. But tho foreign substances, the poisons, which are of a different osmotlo prossuro, do filter through tho mica walls out into the glass cy linder and tho blood, purified, is pumped back into tho body. How often, you will ask, must tho blood be passed through tho ap paratus beforo It Is cleaned? And how long Is this great quantity ot tho life stream actually outside tho body? Tho answer to the first question depends upon tho kind and quantity of the poison within it. It may be necessary to wash it only once, or it may bo necessary to wash it many times. In answer to the sec ond question it takos the blood twenty-two seconds to make a com plete revolution through tho body, Naturallly It goes through tho tubes at the same rate. It passes through twenty inches ot tho pipes every second. This would not long enough under any circumstances to weaken, by tho Star Company. Great Britain fflntwiiir Diagram of Dr. Surgeons Examining the Blood , Vessels of a Dog Whoso Life Stream Has Just Been Washed by the Abel Method. , , . ... rr..M Enlnrgcd Section or Mica tubing Showing How tho Blood Vessels T Diinllpated in tho Blood Washing' Machine. ' w . A Mica Tubo Immersed in Saline Solution Within a Glass Cylinder Showing How the Poisons In the Blood Arc Washed Out of It Through the Tiny Holes. and thoro is, it must be romembored, the artificial blood which is taking its placo. The blood may bo allowed to loavo the body as many times as It Is necessary to remove every trace of the poison. This Is determined by examination ot the bathing solution and examination ot the blood. The nights nfcrvea Abel's Blood Washing Appara tus Illustrating Its Method of Operation. Tho Fifty Feet of Mien Tubing, shpwn by the Dark Pipes, Are Contained in a Glass Cylinder Filled with Salt Water of tho Same Temperature and Density ns the Blood. Tho Mica Tubes Arc Filled with a Similar Fluid. The Cnrotid Artery Is. Cut and the Rubber Tube (A) Is Connected with One Severed End. Rubber Tubo (B) Is Connected with the Severed End of the Jugular Vein. Tho Heart Pumps the Blood Through the Rubber Tubo (A) Into the Mica Pipes, Through Them and Out In to hA Itulitipr Tube fin Which Carries the Life Stream Back Into the Jugular and So Into the . Body Again. During the Progress Through tho Mica Tubes, Whose Walla Rcsembl Those of tho Arteries in Their Porosity, tho Saline Solution In the Glass Cylinder Bathes It, Removing by Osmotic Pressure the Poisons Within It That Produce Dlseee. apparatus Is so arranged that tho cleansing liquid can bo constantly freshly replaced. Tho liquid can also bo altorcd by chemicals to suit tho action required upon the blood. After tho -washing is complotod tho ends ot tho artery and tho vein aro fastened togother by the dollcato but now uniformly sato method In use, and tho pationt feels nono tho worse for the operation and all tho better for tho clean blood. Dr. Abel mado a successful demon stration ot his Invention beforo the Federation ot American Societies for Experimental Biology at Phlla- dolphla. The subject was a dog. Tho 01)Paratus has not yet been used upon a human being, but beforo this article aDDcars it is probable that a , - ... i V i iiuinuor oi cases win nuvo uucu treated, Tho practical value ot tho method is enormous. In his demonstration upon tho dog, Dr. Abol said that tho process lu that particular case robbed the animal of tho sugar urea and all tho dlffusablo elements In the blood. By varying tho chcmlcalB with which tho flowing stream was treatod outside tho body, he de clared, almost any poison or material could be removed from it. Wo grow and are nourished by tho diffusion of things in tho blood that pass then Into tho kidneys, brain, heart lungs, muscles and other tlssuos and organs. Wo aro poisoned by other things In tho same way. Thoroforo, if tho blood can be washed of tho harmful and destructive things, and all tho beneficial and holpful things be left lu what an advance! Tho vurlous forms of urle ucld that causes rheumatic fever, joint diseases, niul so1 on, cun bo removed. So, too, of a swurm of other blood, kidney, honrt, lymph, nerve and otlior tissue poisons. A bnrrler to the treatment ot many diseases haa been tho fact that the substances which it was known -fis. would neutralize tho poisons or tho microbes causing tho maladies can not bo taken Into tho body because of their deleterious effect upon cer tain, vital organs. Tho euro, to ubo an old expression, is worso than tho disease. ' But by bringing tho blood stream outside tho body into contact with such neutralizing compounds, thero Is no noccsslty of Introducing thorn into the body. Mercurial poisoning, arsenic, strychnine, snako-vonom any kind of poisoning can bo rapidly washed away beforo It has a chanco to causo tho death of tissues. It Is even predicted that mlcroblo diseases, now difficult or tedious to treat, can bo easily reached by charging tho solution washing tho mica tubes with chemicals that de stroy such bacilli. Although some doctors who wit nessed tho Philadelphia demonstra tion wero inclinod to believe that the method would be of great value in treating rases of diabetes. I am extremely doubtful upon this point. There is of course an enormous amount of sugar in the blood in this disease. Tho distress and death are not, however, caused by sugar. They are caused by tho fact that sugar is not burned up in the body und fhunged .into substances neces sary for nutrition. A deuth from diabetes Is really a death from sugar stravation emi though the blood rarrles an abnormal quantity ot It Washing tho sugar out of the blood would, not euro diabetes any more than destroying food a man could not oat would satUfy his hunger. But if the poison in tho blood which prevents it from transform lng the sugar Into food could be. neutralized or removed, then oC course, the patient wouid bo bene fited. Marvelous' ao the now process is, thero seems llttlo reason why It should not bo successful.