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Whyiaial Vforkenr in theilumrBecomeDepravecl) The Strange Mystery of Jessie McCann; the Murder of General SigeVs Daughter, and Other Mishaps Among Women Mis- sipnariesy Discussed by Prof. Rice, the Psychologist zm rues J Association' THE mystery of the disappearance and death recently of Miss Jessie McCann, a social worker in the New York slums, whose battered body was found on the Coney Island beach, the arrest in a nearby city of a prominent "angel of the slums" for writing anonymous scandalous letters about her fellow social workers, the cold-blooded' murder of one of his parishioners by the man Schmidt last Fall, the murder of Miss Elsie Sigel, a social worker in Chinatown, who had become in volved in love affairs with Chinamen theso and many other similar instances have natural ly suggested the question as to why social and 'charity workers go wrong. Why should men, and especially women, with a high sense of duty and firmly fixed moral standards be drawn down to the level of degradation of those they seek to help? An in teresting analysis of this phenomenon is pre scnted by Prof. Rice, the psychologist Mise Elsie Sigel, the '.'Slum Angel' Who Wtu Mysteriously Murdered in Chinatown. Why Women Charity Workers Go Wrong. - By Prof. DAVID EDGAR RICE, Ph.D., Columbia University. THE wide discrepancy that may exist between pre copt and practise Is never more strikingly Illus trated than when nofflo prominent religious londor or guardian of clvla rights or somo Individual who Is actlvo in political or social reforms falls a victim to the very evils which it is his duty or avowed purposo to correct. Crimo and vice among those who cannot be presumed to know 'bettor aro accopted as matters of course. Dut when the samo faults ocour in persons whoso training, occupation or habits of Hfo Justify tho expectation of better things, our attention is challenged and our curiosity aroused. Tho past eevoral years have produced an unusually large number of examples of these inconsistencies of human conduct. Now it is a Judge of the Federal courts who is ceavlcted of accepting bribes from parties to suits tried berore him, in violation of the law which through his entire life he had been trained to reverence and support. At another time it Is a high police official, who, 60 far from making an honest effort to suppress vice, is found guilty of actually instigating murder in order that his long reoord of grafting may not be brought to light. Now It is the chief executive of a great State whose conspicuous efforts along the lines of political refo'rm aro brought to a sudden and iguo sstelous halt by the charge that he hItaaeK has been gulHy of offenses equally as serious as those which he is endeavoring to suppress. ur, again, it may be the honored and trusted pastor a lasnionamo congregation who first betrays, and A Photograph of an Opium Den in New York's Chinatown, Where Social Workers Try to Redeem Unfortunates of then, to hide his first offense, basely murders one of his nock who In her lnnoconco and simple faith looks to him for spiritual guidance and friendly help. Although these offenses of those who "ought to know better" surprise and shock ns raoro than Blmliar of rensoB committed by individuals in less conspicuous walks of life, experience shows us that they are not exceptional, and that they spring from the same pas sions of tho human soul. Wo know that no vocation or lino of activity Is la. itself a gunrantco of tho absolute Integrity of those who are thus engaged. Tho "human side," by which, to be more accurate, we usually -mean human frailties, is the common possession of every man. Even those who may be Justly classed as great may, as respeots the ordinary virtues of humanity, fall as far below the aver age as thoy are above it because of their special endow stents. Milton, for example, who has endowed our language with the finest and noblest poetry it possesses, and who has given expression to some of the most sub lime thoughts tho world has known, was notorious for hia Tliene6s of speech and for his bitterness and mean ness in disputes with his personal enemies. In view of theso universal characteristics of human nature, therefore, Instances of tho kind cited abovo are Kot difficult of explanation. The expectation of per ianal gain or the overwhelming force of passion tern pararily dominates tho consciousness of the victim to the exclusion of saner and worthier considerations Tao force of good habits may make the conflict harder and thus postpone the hour of surrender to the evil, but tho processes and results are the same as in the case of those with natural tendencies to crime. Thero Is, howevor, another class of cases of very similar character where Individuals whose Intentions aro of the worthiest and whose training is presumably l tho best surrender to impulses of which they them selves must obviously be the victims and for which no reasonable excuse can be offered. We refer to the largo ntunber of social Workers who, while apparently de voting themselves to benevolent work among the crim inal and unfortunate classes, are themselves drawn down to the level of those whom thoy have undertaken to help to better thing. It is Important to note that the victims of this tendency to retrogression are invari ably women, a fact which it will be helpful to have in m'id vhrn we como to seek an explanation of it Attention was forcibly called to this peculiar pbe iomenon a few years ago by the revolting murder of BIsle Sigel, a young girj of prominent family who had volunteered her sorvlces as a missionary for personal work among the Chinese on the East Bide. Investiga tlons Into her death revealed tho fact that she had be come entangled in lovo affairs with several Chinamen to whoso rooms she made a practise of going in her capacity of toacher, and that her murdor was tho result of Jealousy which eho herself had to a groat extent encouraged. The 'widespread criticism of tho plan of missionary work in vogue among the Chinese resulting from this incident disclosed a startling and absolutely incredible state of affairs as to the relations existing between tho missionary workers and their pupils. It waB found that the -work was boing carried on largely by inexperienced girls and young women who had gone Into it as a tem porary diversion, and that these women wore, often the aggressive parties in tho establishment of relationships of the most dangerous kind. The following statement by an experienced director of social work, Miss Helen Olark, affords an Interesting insight into tho character istics of theso women: "The plcturo I havo seen of young, foolish, frivolous minded white women deliberately egging the Chinese Bible students on to dangerous ' flirtations makes mo shudder over the results. The ovlla of this system are more subtle and far-reaching than even its most bitter opponents havo over dreamed. For years the practise of permitting American women to . teach Chinese pupils Individually has accumulated Its results of tragedy and sorrow. Life after life has been blasted and homes wrecked ad libitum, and thoro has been no restraining band. Moro than once our mission has sheltered somo heart-broken woman, the dupe of an Intermarriage or of an alliance that was even worse." "Deliver me," said another prominent mission worker, "from the women that coie hero from fashionable up town districts from IUversldo Drive and Fifth avenue who come here with blbleB in one hand and with tho other stretched out in coquetry to these young China men. If their husbands knew one-quarter of what I could tell them things I have seen these women do, the places thoy havo gone with these would-be Christian convorts the divorce courts would do a lively business for somo ttmo to come. I will tell you plainly that the Chinese do not need conversion bo much as tho white womon of Chinatown need it, and many of the women missionaries need It more than tho circles of Chinese young men whom they fawn upon as they teach from the word of God. The Chinese men do not need -it, and nobody knows this bettor than tho would-bo mission arles. Hypocrites they are, in almost every instance, I would say." That these statements of the situation are not mere empty exaggerations is shown by tho fact, vouched for by the best authority, that a large number of the do graded white women now living In the Chinese sections found tholr way there originally under the Influence of their misdirected missionary zeal or through their equally morbid curiosity to Btudy social conditions In tho slums at first hand. 'While it is manifestly unfair to put all social workers Into the samo class without discrimination, It is never theless true, as pointed out by the women referred to abovo, that the ranks of social workers are recruited largely from tho higher classes of society. This Is so for two rcasouB first, because the young women of the higher classes are, generally speaking, the only ones who can find leisure for this kind of work; and, second, because, lacking definite occupations, thoy aro tho only ones who feel the neod of this sort of outlet tor their natural activities, repressed as they are by the artificial conditions of their life. It is hard for tho ranscullno mind to appreciate, nnd still harder ade quately to describe, tho peculiar form of ennui to which young women of these classes nro subject, and which in many cases constitutes their solo reason for entering social work. Thn whole subjoct, (however, has been treated by a woman, Mrs. Hnnsson. with so keen psychological insight that her statement is worthy of quo tation at considerable lengh: "The young girl of wealth and so cial position Is insulated from life; she sees its deep red, its beating pulse, its sweet surprises and sudden dis closures from afar like a pale phan tasmagoria, or it passes before her In tho distorted reflections of half-for-blddcn, fashionable rending, and she returns every evening to her own In ward void. Sho may live lovo ro mances if sho wishes' to, and later, when married, sho can, if she likes, make up by the number of her lovo affairs for tho lack of variety; but that deep, healthy restoration which the staking of one's whole being upon another in the hour of danger brings thnt moment of bliss when all tho inner fountnlns gush forth and body and soul are so glowing that they no longer perceive external cold theso remain hidden from her. And yet it is these for which she pines. "Externally sho is only permitted .to move in prescribed forms, and ' eho feels with deadly weariness that only prescribed feelings meet and wiL continue to meet her, In the weariness of their disappoint ment many of the most promising young women revolt from marriage, in which thoy expect only a lukewarm affection. Precisely in those circles where no material obstacles exist many of the prettiest and healthiest women remain single. And when, after unenjoyed en joyments, festivities, distinctions, proposals, etc., a con stantly Increasing and mora suffocating depression overspreads them when body and soul gradually lose their resisting powers, then the pretty ones become pious and tho healthy delicate. "They look about them for something which can give their idle days a purpose, tho emptiness of their exist ence a meaning which can restore their weakened vital energies, something which can release them from tho Interminable society of their ego a duty, a sacrifice or a diversion which they can clothe in theso fine names. "Their womanly instincts, so long warped, repressed and cheated, waken in their original strength. The instincts of motherhood, which consist in bearing, en during, waiting, helping, sympathizing, and which have never gained freo outlet and expansion because their owners had lost faith In motherhood In their own cases, are now turned to others. They feel personally and strongly In their own bodies tho tortures of starving mothers, suffering children and unemployed fathers, the whole misery of the poor and the robbed. And they yearn to help, out of a wild desire which is really to help themselves, to find peace, to get relief from pain which they, reflecting on the suffering around them, feel as if In tho body of the child they do not bear." It is, then, in theso powerful natural impulses of tho woman that wo aro to find tho key to her weakness as well as her greatness. With the maternal Instinct atrong within her, tho woman, however normal and sane sho may be, Is in a condition of unstable equilib rium, and It Is largely a matter of chanco In which direction she is likely to incline. It a strong and worthy love comes into her life, the Impulse finds its natural outlet in a happy married life. If, on the other hand, the real soul mate falls to Marriage of a White Woman Slum Missionary to a Chinaman. appear at the psychological moment and these Impulses must be repressed, they grow In strength liko a spring that is gradually compressed until a point is finally reached where the tension is too strong to be con trolled. In earlier times the cloisters afforded a safe retreat for the young woman who had reached this critical stago. To-day the only alternatives seem to be oithor an unworthy and scandalous alliance, which is soon repented of In sorrow, or some form of social service. In the latter case the outcome again Is problematical. Women who aro endowed with a high order of intelli gence and a strong sense of the direct and practical, and who go Into their work under proper restrictions and guidance, 'become a strong and permanent force for social betterment a Jane Addams or a Katherlne Dement Davis. But too often, unfortunately, this saving common sense and wholesome guidance aro lacking, tho broader view Is lost, and, as in the case of the teachers of Chinamen, the Interests become wholly Individual and personal. The woman unwittingly places herself In a compromising position from which there Is no escape except through open acknowledgment of her shame or through a mysterious and sudden disappearance. Love Is a Poison; If ou Can Be Vaccinated for It O .NE noted French physician, Dr. Mourlco do Floury, has discov ered that love is a poison, and another, Jules Cheron, has prepared a eerum for tho cure of It. Dr. do Floury, who is a noted spe cialist on mental and nervous dis eases, in n now" book says that lovo is a form of intoxication to be classed with alcoholism and tho use of mor phine, cocaine and other nerve poisons. Dr. Floury says: ?The state of being in love, wheth er passionately or plntonically but especially plntonically, rest assured of that with its delusion, blindness, blundering and melancholy, is, beyond any doubt, a condition of mental poi soning quite comparable with the other intoxicants called voluntary. . . . It Is a poison, and acts like a poison." Dr. do Fleury's firm opinion Is that sentimental love is decidedly of the name order as the voluntary Intoxi cations described by doctors. And further and this is glad news that love is one of the mildest of these poisons, and that Its noxious aclon is most easily repressed. This is the or der in which ho places their danger: 1. Alcohol. 2. Opium and haschlscb. 3. Morphine, cocaine, ether 4. Tobacco. 5. Love. "To be morbidly in love," saya Dr. Fleury, "means that the 'subject' can not live away from the person be loved, suffers In absence, and is at each parting more in love thanlbefore. more intoxicated than ever." Dr. Fleury took such victims nnd experimented with them. He applied the process of demonstration which is used in the natural sciences. He traced the curve of love fever as tho curvo of typhoid is traced. He made a chart, or temperature 6heet, check ed the subject's nervous condition and bo was able to see exactly how badly the victim was suffering. One patient was hopelessly, madly in love. Ho tried a Journey, but turned back. His will was not bis own. It wquld not act. Dr. Fleury prescribed a treatment of isolation and special tonics for the nervous system .according to their chart variations. The patient hesitated for ten days, and then, after "a frightful scene," he yielded. Dr. Floury sent him to n hydropathic establishment, and be got the patient to sign an agreement not to leave the house without leave. Dr. Fleury also had the co-operation of the woman in the case. "As morphine is given in doses," he says, "so I dosed this man. The first week he went to sec the woman every other day, the second week he saw her twice, the third on her' reception day at 5 o'clock, only in the presence of others. Then, without warning, I stopped his going out and kept him as though in prison, until his cure was complete. "At first it was terrible. He cried, struggled, reproached me furiously, declared he would apply to the police and have me shut up in my turn for violation of liberty. He implored, wept, tried nil sorts of tricks, suffered a thousand torments. "He tried cunning, protested that that he was cured, but I was firm, being convinced that suicide would be the end of the affair if I failed. At the end of five weeks he was again calm and 6et to work. After two months he was completely cured." Dr. Fleury is convinced that these "love intoxications" can be cured as morphino-manla Is cured by separa tion, humanely graduated, by electri cal treatment, and by the scrum of his colleague. Dr. Jules Cheron. CODyrlKht, 1914, by the Star Company, Great Britain Rights Reserved.